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THE PHILIPPINE 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

ALVIN J. COX, M. A., Ph. D. 

GENERAL EDITOR 

Section D 

GENERAL BIOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, 
AND ANTHROPOLOGY 

EDITED WITH THE COOPERATION OP 

R. C. MCGREGOR, A. B.; R. P. COWLES, Ph. D.; C. F. BAKER A. M 

S. F. LIGHT, M. A.; C. S. BANKS, M. S.; L. D. WHARTON, M. A 

W. SCHULTZE; H. 0. BEYER, M. A.; H. E. KUPFER, A. B. 

VOLUME XII 
1917 

With 19 Plates and 16 Text Figures 





150932 



MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1917 



CONTENTS 

No. 1, January, 1917 

Page. 

Robinson, Elizabeth. Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 1 

Six plates. 

No. 2, March, 1917 

Muir, Frederick. The Derbidae of the Philippine Islands 49 

One plate and i text figures. 

No. 3, May, 1917 

Bezzi, M. Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 107 

One plate. 

Crawford, D. L. Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidse 163 

One plate. 

Seale, Alvin. The mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and 

Girard), in the Philippine Islands 177 

One text figure. 

No. 4, July, 1917 

Seale, Alvin. Sea products of Mindanao and Sulu, III: Sponges, 
tortoise shell, corals, and trepang 191 

Pour plates. 

Baker, C. F. A Philippine Aphrastobracon 213 

Muir, Frederick. A new genus of Derbidae from Borneo 217 

One text figure. 

Oshima, Masamitsu. Notes on a collection of termites from Luzon, 
obtained by R. C. McGregor : 221 

One text figure. 

Wileman, A. E. Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera and their larvae: 

Part IV 229 

Two colored plates. 

Schultze, W. Fourth contribution to the Coleoptera fauna of the 
Philippines 249 

One plate. 

Reviews 261 

No. 5, September, 1917 
Taylor, Edward H. Brachymeles, a genus of Philippine lizards.... 267 

One plate and 7 text figures. 

Baker, C. F. Ichneumonoid parasites of the Philippines, I. Rho- 

gadinse (Braconida?) , 1 281 

Grouvelle, A. Nitidulidae (Coleopteres) des iles Philippines recol- 
tes par C. F. Baker, II 329 

Cockerell, T. D. A. The carpenter bees of the Philippine Islands.... 345 

Muir, Frederick. A new Philippine genus of Delphacidse 351 

iii 



I 

j v Contents 

No. 6, November, 1917 e 

Taylor, Edward H. Snakes and lizards known from Negros, with 
descriptions of new species and new subspecies - 853 

Two plates and 2 text figures. 

BAKER, C. F. Ichneumonoid parasites of the Philippines, II. 

Rhogadinae (Braconidse) , II: The genus Rhogas 383 

„ . 423 

Review 



Vol. XII, Sec. D, No. 1 



January, 1917 



THE PHILIPPINE 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



ALVIN J. COX, M. A., Ph. D. 

GENERAL EDITOR 



Section D 

GENERAL BIOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, 
AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



EDITED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 

R. C. MCGREGOR, A. B.; R. P. COWLES, Ph. D.; C. F. BAKER, A. M. 

S. F. LIGHT, M. A.; C. S. BANKS, M. S.; L. D. WHARTON, M. A. 

W. SCHULTZE; H. O. BEYER, M. A.; H. E. KUPFER, A. B. 







MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1917 



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THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
and Anthropology 

Vol. XII JANUARY, 1917 No. 1 

COCCIDjE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS * 
By Elizabeth Robinson 

six PLATES 

This paper is intended to bring together all obtainable in- 
formation concerning the known species and available specimens 
of Philippine Coccidae. For the advantage of the general ento- 
mologist and the specialist in Coccidse it was believed advisable 
to undertake a synoptic treatment of this family of Hemiptera. 
From the collections of Prof. C. F. Baker, which were sent 
to Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, many species have been determined. 
It is evident that the available specimens represent only a few 
of the great number of Coccidae to be found in the Philippine 
Islands. With few exceptions those studied have come from 
Luzon Island. - 

I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to those 
who have aided me — especially to Professor Cockerell, under 
whose direction the entire study has been made, and to Professor 
Baker for specimens and for a list of food plants and biblio- 
graphies of Philippine Coccidae. 

COCCIDiE 

Synoptic table of the subfamilies? 

a 1 . Adult female with legs (in known Philippine species). 

b 1 . Anal ring of female hairless ; legs present in all stages ; ovisac cottony 
or waxy; mouth parts present in adult female. Eyes of male 
compound Monophlebinae. 

1 This paper was written as the author's major thesis, presented at the 
Colorado Agricultural College for the degree of master of arts. 

" The Tachardiinse, or lac insects, will probably be found to occur in the 
Philippines. Tachardia aurantiaca Ckll. occurs in Java on Citrus, Fla- 
courtia, and Albizzia. — COCKERELL. 
146187 



' 



2 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

b 2 . Anal ring with hairs. 

c\ Female with posterior extremity cleft; anal orifice closed above by 
a pair of triangular plates; secretion of female appearing cottony, 

waxy, glassy, or horny _ Lecaniinae. 

c 2 . Female with no posterior cleft; no triangular anal plates; female 

usually with a mealy secretion Dactylopiinas. 

a 2 . Adult female without legs; scale covering adult composed partly of 
exuviae; abdomen terminating in a compound segment or plate; anal 
ring hairless Diaspinae. 

MONOPHLEBIN/E 
Synoptic table of the genera. 

a 1 . Adult female with a long posterior ovisac; male without lateral fleshy 

caudal processes Icerya. 

a 2 . Adult female without a posterior ovisac; male with lateral fleshy caudal 
processes. 
b 1 . Female antenna? 9-jointed; male with ten caudal appendages.. Drosicha. 

b 2 . Female antennas 6- or 7-jointed; male unknown Monophlebulus. 

6 3 . Female antenna? 11-jointed; male with six to eight caudal ap> 
pendages Llaveia. 

Genus ICERYA Signoret 

Type, Dorthesia seychellarum Westwood. 

Female soft with long, usually ribbed ovisac, varying in color ; 
antennas 11-jointed; skin with long scattered hairs and rounded 
spinnerets. Male without lateral fleshy caudal processes. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Antenna? of female with ten joints (Plate I, fig. 1) ; filaments numerous, 

ovisac not entirely covering the insect (Plate I, fig. 3) jacobsoni. 

a~. Antenna? of female with eleven joints (Plate I, figs. 4, 5) ; secretion 
densely covering the body. 

b 1 . All the secretion white, filaments not numerous Candida. 

b". Part of the secretion a bright yellow, body with many long fila- 
ments seychellarum. 

Icerya jacobsoni Green. 

Icerya jacobsoni Green, Tijidsch. voor Ent. (1912), 55, 316. 

Adult female flat, oval, reddish orange, the color obscured 
by the white mealy secretion excepting in two lateral stripes 
where the color is exposed ; margin with a series of 20 radiating, 
long, curved, white, waxy processes (Plate I, fig. 3) ; denuded 
insect 5 to 7 millimeters long. Antennae 10-jointed, the four 
basal joints cylindrical, the next five subglobular, the terminal 
elongate-oval (Plate I, fig. 1). Legs well developed, moderately 
stout, tibia slightly shorter than femur and trochanter together, 
tarsus less than half as long as tibia, claw pointed, digitules 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 3 

hairlike. Derm with numerous hairs and ceriferous glands 
(Plate I, fig. 2), varying in size and form on various parts 
of the body. Larvae with more of the mealy secretion ; antennae 
6-jointed. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (C. F. Baker), on Leucosyke 
capitellata. 

Icerya Candida Cockerell. 

Icerya Candida Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 128. 

Adult female with ovisac not grooved, pure white, dense, 
a few glassy filaments, about 7 millimeters long. Antennae 
dark red-brown, 11-jointed, joint four the shortest, eleven 
longest and slender, two and three subequal and longer than any 
between three and eleven (Plate I, fig. 4). Legs ordinary, 
dark reddish, anterior femora stout. Young with caudal bris- 
tles longer than the body; antennal club stout with very long 
bristles. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (C. H. T. Townsend), on a cultivated tree. 

Icerya seychellarum (Westwood). 

Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 27; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 
128; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 

428. 

Adult female about 5 millimeters long, with ovisac smooth, 
entirely yellow or with edges spotted and anterior portion 
colored with yellow, filaments numerous. Antennae dark brown, 
11-jointed, joints four to nine very similar and beadlike, eleven 
the longest, of the others two and three the longest, all of the 
joints with numerous hairs (Plate I, fig. 5). Legs heavy, dark 
brown. Entire body with dense hairs. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Toivnsend), on Rosa; Laguna, 
Los Banos (Baker), on Citrus decumana, Diospyros kaki, and 
Ficus minahassae; Manila (Baker), on Psidium guajava. 

Genus DR0SICHA Walker 

Type, Drosicha contrahens Walker. 
Female soft, somewhat elongated, more or less hairy with 
cottony or powdery secretion; antennae 9- jointed; no posterior 
ovisac. Male with ten abdominal processes. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Only the male described palavanica. 

a 1 . Only the female described lichenoides. 



4 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Drosicha palavanica Cockerell. 

Drosicha palavanica COCKERELL, Journ. Econ. Ent. (1916), 9, 235. 

Length of male about 3.5 millimeters, exclusive of abdominal 
processes; wings nearly 5 millimeters long, black, with the 
usual venation and two hyaline lines; costal field dark sepia; 
head and thorax dark red, front and mesothorax black ; antennae 
black, with long black hairs, third joint with three nodes; legs 
black; abdomen almost as broad as long, red, strongly suffused 
with blackish dorsally, with ten red fleshy processes, succes- 
sively longer caudad, each with long black hairs at end ; the last 
processes are scarcely over 1 millimeter long. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa. 

Drosicha lichenoides Cockerell. 

Drosicha lichenoides Cockerell, Journ. Econ. Ent. (1913), 6, 142. 

Female about 12 millimeters long, 8.5 broad, 5 high, light 
reddish, strongly emarginate anteriorly, smooth above with seg- 
mentation distinct ; legs and antennas dark brown, antennae about 
as long as anterior femur plus trochanter, 9-jointed, measured in 
microns: (1) 240, (2) 240, (3) 336, (4) to (8) each 320, (9) 
590; femora stout, claws strongly curved; lateral margins of 
insect with very short dense hairs, but with occasional long 
slender hairs. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Ficus nota. This 
species also occurs on various other trees. 

Genus MONOPHLEBULUS Cockerell 

Type, Monophlebulus fuscus Maskell. 

Characters similar to those of Drosicha; female antennae 6- 
or 7- jointed. 

Monophlebulus townsendi Cockerell. 

Monophlebulus townsendi Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 
(1905), 10, 127. 

Female gray, flat, 9 millimeters long, 7.5 broad, about 3 high ; 
the true color is dark reddish, the gray being due to the mealy 
secretion. Anal orifice small and round, hairless. Legs and 
antennae black ; legs very stout ; antennae about as long as femur 
and trochanter of middle leg, of six joints, three to six about 
equal, two short and stouter, one broader than long, the joints 
with coarse pale yellowish bristles. Middle of abdominal region 
concave beneath, sides densely covered with white cottony tomen- 
tum; cephalic margin emarginate, with long, coarse black 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 5 

bristles. Mouth parts visible in the form of a dark projecting 
cone. (From the original description.) 
Luzon, Batangas (Townsend). 

Genus LLAVEIA Signoret 

Type, Coccus axin Llave. 

Characters similar to those of Drosicha; female antennae 
11-jointed; male with fleshy processes arranged along the sides 
of the abdomen. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a % . Male with base of wing and costal area bright red; abdomen with six 

processes sanguinea. 

a a . Areas of wing not red. 

b 1 . Abdomen of male with six processes; a large species benguetensis. 

b 1 . Abdomen with eight processes : luzonica. 

Llaveia sanguinea Cockerell. 

Llaveia sanguinea Cockerell, Can. Ent. (1915), 47, 344. 

Male about 5 millimeters long, length of wings, about 7; an- 
tenna? rather thick, middle joints with three whorls of long red- 
dish hairs; legs red, hairy; eyes dark red, very prominent on 
stout stalks; anterior part of thorax dull black, forming a lobe 
extending over the head, posterior to this the thorax is shining 
black with a broad, transverse reddish ochreous band, abdomen 
broad, red, with six long fleshy processes; penis long with a 
large raspberry-pink knob ; wings ample, extreme base and cos- 
tal region bright red. (From the original description.) 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa {Baker). 

Llaveia benguetensis Cockerell. 

Llaveia benguetensis Cockerell, Journ. Econ. Ent. (1916), 9, 235. 

"Male. — Length 4.5 millimeters, exclusive of abdominal proc- 
esses; wings about 7 millimeters' long, black, with usual vena- 
tion and two hyaline lines ; costal field dark reddish brown ; head 
and thorax black, the mesothorax shining, region just below 
wings dark red and dull ; mesosternum enlarged, convex, polished 
black ; eyes very prominent, constricted at base, placed at lower 
anterior corners of head; antennas black with very long black 
hairs ; third joint with three nodes ; legs black ; abdomen broad, 
dark red, with the dorsal region strongly suffused with black, 
apex deeply emarginate; six long fleshy abdominal processes, 
the first pair shorter than the others, which are subequal, and 
a little longer than the diameter of the abdomen." 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio {Baker 53^1). 



6 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Llaveia luzonica Cockerell. 

Llaveia luzonica Cockerell, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1914), 33, 334. 

Male about 6 millimeters long, wings about 6.5 long; anten- 
nae reddish black, in the middle of the antennae are three nod- 
ules to a joint, each bearing a whorl of long black bristles ; head 
mostly yellowish flesh-color, dark above bases of antennae, occi- 
pital margin dusky; thorax pale carneous, dorsal region shining 
black, scutellum pale yellowish carneous, mesothorax black; 
abdomen broad, pink, with eight hairy plumbeous tails not equal 
in length to the diameter of the abdomen ; legs dark castaneous ; 
wings ample, black, with two light lines; lobes or lappets at 
the sides of the thorax anteriorly, extending from the occipital 
region to a short distance before the wings. (From the original 
description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling and Los Bafios (Baker). 

DACTYLOPIIN^E 

Genus PSEUDOCOCCUS Westwood 
Type, Dactylopius longispinus Targioni Tozzetti. 

Female with a mealy secretion; skin with spines and glands; 
legs and antennae well developed in the adult. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Female yellow after being boiled in KOH; tibia of hind leg three times 

as long as tarsus (Plate I, fig. 7) virgatus. 

ar. Not so; legs stout and short (Plate I, fig. 9). 

b l . Body crimson when boiled in KOH; pigment present especially in 

embryonic young tayabanus. 

b\ Body purple after being boiled in KOH lilacinus. 

b 3 . Body green when boiled in KOH fllamentosus. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Cockerell). 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Cockerell) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 111; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 130; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 
34, 428. 

Female covered by a cottony secretion with many glassy 
filaments; this occurs in matted areas, making it difficult to 
determine the amount on one individual. Female distinctly 
segmented, 4 to 5 millimeters long, broadly elongated. Legs 
twice as long as antennae, hind tibia three times as long as 
tarsus, claw slender, simple (Plate I, fig. 7). Antennae 8-jointed, 
joints two, three, and eight the longest, the other four subequal 
(Plate I, fig. 6). Anal ring with six long, slender hairs; twc 



xn, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 7 

rounded caudal areas laterad of anal ring each with two stout 
spines and one long spine. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Anona squamosa, 
Arachis hypogaea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Codiaeum varie- 
gatum, Coffea arabica, Graptophyllum, Solanum, Spondias, and 
Xanthosoma sagittifolium. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Cockerell) variety. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Cockerell) variety Cockerell, Proc. Daven- 
port Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 130. 

Secretion of female full of glassy filaments. Antennas 8- 
jointed, measured in microns: (1) 50, (2) 63-65, (3) 70-72, 
(4) 37-42, (5) 40-45, (6) 45-47, (7) 45-47, (8) 100. This 
insect differs from typical P. virgatus in the characters of the 
antennae, and while the antennas resemble those of P. kraunhias 
Kuwana, the secretion is different. (From the original de- 
scription. ) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend) , on Codiaeum varie- 
gatum. 

Pseudococcus tayabanus Cockerell. 

Pseudococcus tayabanus Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 
(1905), 10, 129. 

Female covered with mealy secretion, distinctly segmented, 
when dry looking like minute specimens of commercial cochineal ; 
oval when mounted; after boiling, the body shows much dull 
crimson pigment. Eyes well developed. Anal ring with six 
hairs placed in a wide square incision. Lateral margins of 
segments projecting, the points bearing spines; skin covered 
with round glands. Labium long and narrow. Legs stout, 
length in microns : Tibia, 125 ; tarsus, 75 ; claw simple and stout. 
Antennae 8-jointed, measured in microns: (1) 50, (2) 50-62, 
(3) 50-52, (4) 25-27, (5) 33-40, (6) 40-45, (7) 37-40, (8) 
87. Larva with longitudinal rows of bristles; six stout hairs 
on anal ring; claw long and simple; antennae 6- jointed. (From 
the original description.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Totvnsend), on Theobroma cacao. 

Pseudococcus lilacinus Cockerell. 

Pseudococcus lilacinus Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 128. 

Female densely covered with white meal, globose. When 
mounted, subglobular ; after boiling, the body appears lilac. Legs 
fairly stout, length in microns : Hind leg, femur and trochanter, 
245; tibia, 150; tarsus, 70; claw stout and simple. Antennae 



8 The Philippine Journal of Science imt 

8-jointed, length in microns: (1) 25-55, (2) 32-52, (3) 37-50, 
(4) 20-45, (5) 25-42, (6) 27-30, (7) 30, (8) 80. "In one 
instance, joint three measured 73, evidently being combined with 
four." (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Citrus nobilis. 

Pseudococcus filamentosus (Cockerell). 

Pseudococcus filamentosus (Cockerell) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of 
the World (1903), 101; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 106. 

Female subglobose, covered with dense white secretion. 
Mounted female 3.5 to 4 millimeters long, broad oval, green 
when boiled in KOH. Anal ring with six hairs. Skin with 
numerous, small, round glands. Legs stout, claw simple (Plate 
I, fig. 9). Antennae 7-jointed, joint seven the longest, the 
others subequal, but five and six the shortest (Plate I, fig. 8). 

Mindanao, Tanghulan (Baker) , on Coffea arabica. 

LECANIIN^E 

Synoptic table of the genera. 

a\ Adult female triangular; cottony ovisac slightly developed, forming a 
fringe around the caudal margin (Plate II, fig. 1).... Protopulvinaria. 
a 3 . Female oval or suboval in Philippine species. 

b\ Female with a posterior ovisac; body more or less chitinous. 

Pulvinaria. 
6 s . Female without ovisac. 

c\ Covering of female consisting of wax, often thick Ceroplastes. 

c*. Female naked or covered by a film of secretion. 

d 1 . Female with marginal fan-shaped scales (Plate II, fig. 13). 

Paralecanium. 
d 2 . Not so. 

e\ Ventral surface in abdominal region with groups of pores 

arranged in a semicircle (Plate II, fig. 14).... Platylecanium. 

e a . Not so. 

f 1 . Skin with polygonal areas containing pits ; hard when mature ; 

high convex or hemispherical (Plate II, fig's. 18 and 19). 

Saissetia. 

f. Skin without polygonal areas containing pits; soft when 

mature; never high convex Coccus. 

Genus PROTOPULVINARIA Cockerell 

Type, Protopulvinaria convexa Hempel. 

"Differs from Lecanium (Coccus) in the presence of a narrow 
fringe of cottony (cottonlike) secretion surrounding the female 
after oviposition. This fringe is not of the same nature as the 
ovisac of Pulvinaria, as it does not actually cover the eggs, which 
are all concealed beneath the body of the insect." (Green.) 



xn, d, i Robinson,: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 9 

Protopulvinaria longivalvata bakeri Cockerell. 

Protopulvinaria longivalvata bakeri Cockerell, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1914), 33, 332. 

Female scale 2.25 millimeters long, 1.75 millimeters broad, 
light ferruginous (Plate II, fig. 1) ; marginal spines few, rather 
stout, bent, small, and short; stigmatic spines in threes, one 
long, the others very short; anal plates greatly elongated, near 
the center of the body; legs ordinary; antennae 8-jointed. The 
following measurements are in microns: Anterior leg, femur 
and trochanter, 130; tibia, 80; tarsus without claw, 45; an- 
tennas (1) 28, (2) 48, (3) 33, (4) 28, (5) 23, (6) 18, (7) 
23, (8) 48 (Plate II, fig. 3) . Almost without cottony secretion. 
Male scale (Plate II, fig. 2). Typical P. longivalvata Green 
comes from Ceylon. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Voacanga globosa. 

Genus PULVINARIA Targioni Tozzetti 

Type, Coccus vitis Linnaeus. 

Female insect flat, oval or suboval, secreting an elongated 
ovisac which does not cover the insect, ovisac adherent to the 
plant; body becomes hard, without dorsal patches of secretion. 
Male scale elongate, waxy. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Female small, about 1,865 microns long tyleri. 

a". Female larger. 

b 1 . Female antenna? of eight joints (Plate II, figs. 4 to 6). 

c 1 . Marginal spines long and stout, more or less branched.... polygonata. 

c 2 . Marginal spines numerous, blunt thespesiae. 

c 3 . Marginal spines fewer, pointed _ psidii. 

6 2 . Antennae of less than eight joints psidii var. philippina. 

Pulvinaria tyleri Cockerell. 

Pulvinaria tyleri Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905, 10, 
132. 

Female smallish, light brown, with a loose, shapeless, fluffy 
white ovisac; mounted female about 1,865 microns long; stig- 
matic spines in threes, the long one stout and about 60 microns 
long, the short ones about 15; marginal spines stout, not close 
together, simple or slightly bifid at the ends; legs ordinary, 
measurements of anterior leg in microns : Femur and trochanter, 
220; tibia, 168; tarsus without claw, 92. Antennae 8-jointed, 
measurements in microns: (1) 40, (2) 62, (3) 70, (4) 40, (5) 
40, (6) 27, (7) 22, (8) 50. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Batangas (Townsend) , on Antigonon leptopus. 



10 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell. 

Pulvinaria polygonata COCKERELL, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 131. 

Female light brown, ovisac white, broad and fluffy, irregular 
in form; mounted female about 3 millimeters long and 2 milli- 
meters broad; skin with irregular polygonal structures like 
some species of Saissetia; mouth parts small; marginal spines 
long, stout, more or less branched at the ends but not greatly 
broadened, stigmatal spines ordinary ; anal plates together form- 
ing almost a square. Anterior leg measured in microns : Femur 
and trochanter, 215; tibia, 150; tarsus without claw, 75; claws 
hooked, their digitules fully twice their length. Antennae 
measured in microns: (1) 50, (2) 52, (3) 75, (4) 57, (5) 50, 
(6) 30, (7) 30, (8) 50. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend), on a cultivated tree. 

Pulvinaria thespesiae Green. 

Pulvinaria thespesise Green, Coccidse of Ceylon (1909), pt. 4, 259; 
Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 427. 

Female brownish yellow, when alive pale green, ovisac white, 
broad, fluffy, but not abundant; mounted female 3.5 to 4 milli- 
meters long ; mouth parts ordinary ; anal plates heavy, elongated, 
triangular, six anal hairs reaching to posterior tips of plates; 
legs slightly longer than antennae, claw denticulate. Antennae 
8-jointed, third joint the longest, second, third, fifth, and eighth 
subequal (Plate II, fig. 6) ; numerous truncate marginal spines 
with three smaller and one larger alternating; stigmatic area 
with six stout pointed spines (Plate II, fig. 7). 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Bake?'), on Codiaeum variegatum. 

Pulvinaria psidii Maskell. 

Pulvinaria psidii Maskell, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 137; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
(1915), 35, 427. 

Female yellow, ovisac white, fluffy, irregular in form, often 
matted; mounted female about 2.5 to 3 millimeters long; anal 
plates triangular, anal ring with hairs reaching to posterior 
tips of anal plates; mouth parts ordinary; legs about twice as 
long as antennae, femur usually broad; antennae 8-jointed, three 
longest, two, three, five, and eight almost subequal (Plate II, 
fig. 4) ; a few pointed marginal spines ; stigmatic area with 
spines in threes, median stout and three times as long as the 
other two (Plate II, fig. 5). 

LUZON, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Antidesma bunius, 
Eugenia jambos, Ficus, and Psidium guajava. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands H 

Pulvinaria psidii philippina Cockerell. 

Pulvinaria psidii philippina Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 
(1905), 10, 132. 

Female scales and ovisacs matted together. Marginal hairs 
broad and flattened at ends, the margins of the flattened parts 
slightly fimbriated; tibia very long; antennae 6- jointed, third 
joint twice as long as either two or three, joints two and five 
each with a very long bristle. "The long tibia, long third 
antennal joint, marginal hairs, long bristles on joints two and 
five of the antennae, etc., all show this insect to be close to 
P. ficus Hempel and P. psidii Mask. The 6- jointed antennae are 
distinctive, but may not be constant." (From the original 
description.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucena (Townsend), on Ficus. 

Genus CEROPLASTES Gray 
Type, Ceroplastes janeirensis Gray. 
"Covering of female consisting of wax, often thick; no mar- 
ginal fringe or radiating processes; a more or less developed 
caudal horn, visible on removing the wax." Secretion of male 
waxy. (From Cockerell.) 

Ceroplastes gigas Cockerell. 

Ceroplastes gigas Cockerell, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1914), 33, 
331. 

Scale on branch of tree ; wax white and smooth. Female scale 
17.5 millimeters long, 14.5 millimeters broad, about 12 milli- 
meters high; wax not divided into plates; a deep median dorsal 
pit; at sides are two angular projections clasping the branch; 
wax about 5 millimeters thick. Adult female oval, about 7 milli- 
meters long, chestnut red; antennae and legs light ferruginous. 
Antennae long and slender. Cephalic margin of female broadly 
rounded (Plate II, fig. 9), caudal margin trilobed (Plate II, 
fig. 8). (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker), on an unknown 
shrub. 

Genus PARALECANIUM Cockerell 

Type, Lecanium frenehii Maskell. 
Female flat or slightly convex, legs and antennae slender, 
margin of body with fan-shaped scales. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Adult female red-brown; antennae 7-jointed; legs well developed (Plate 
II, fig. 10) , . luzonicum. 

a\ Adult female pale yellowish; antennae 3-jointed; no legs (Plate II, fig. 
11) cocophyllae. 



12 The Philippine Journal of Science ien 

Paralecanium luzonicum Cockerell. 

Paralecanium luzonicum Cockerell, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1914), 

33, 333; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 

34, 428. 

Female scale broad-oval, 4.5 millimeters long, red-brown; 
dorsal surface in folds and reticulations; ends of anal plates 
very sharp ; stigmatic spines in threes, very stout, blunt, margin 
of stigmatic notch thickened ; legs with tarsus longer than tibia. 
Anterior leg: Femur and trochanter, 130 microns; tibia, 68; 
tarsus, 75. Middle leg: Tibia, 73; tarsus, 105; claw digitules 
stout; antennae 7- jointed, but with joints four to six more or 
less fused, measured in microns : (1) 23-25, (2) 23, (3) 63-70, 

(4) 30, (5) 25, (6) 30, (7) 33-38 (Plate II, fig. 10). Marginal 
plates transversely broad-oval, overlapping, margins entire. 

(From the original description.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Plectronia viridis; 
Mount Maquiling (Baker), on Tetrastigma. 

Paralecanium cocophyllae Banks. 

Paralecanium cocophyllse Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 235. 

Adult female broad oval, 4 to 5 millimeters long, 3.5 to 4 
millimeters broad; pale transparent yellow; dorsal surface 
minutely punctate and covered with a thin waxy substance in 
addition to waxy lamina?; regularly arranged suboval pores 
over entire dorsum. Stigmatic areas with three long, stout, 
blunt, curved spines not reaching the outer margin, margin 
with slightly overlapping scales (Plate II, fig. 13). Antennas 
indistinctly 3-jointed (Plate II, figs. 11 and 12). Anal plates 
triangular, pointed. Minute spinnerets in four ill-defined groups 
on each side. Male scale 2.27 millimeters long, 1.20 millimeters 
broad; elongate oval; more convex than female. (From the 
original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (C. S. Banks), on Cocos nucifera; Laguna, 
Mount Maquiling (Baker), on Dillenia philippinensis. 

Genus PLATYLECANIUM Cockerell and Robinson 

Type, Neolecanium cribrigerum C. and R. 

Female flat, broad oval, without waxy covering; antennae 
small or rudimentary ; legs absent ; ventral surface of abdominal 
region with groups of pores arranged in a semicircle in the 
center of which is the anal aperture; marginal bristles small 
and simple. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 13 

Platylecanium cribrigerum (Cockerell and Robinson). 

Neolecanium cribrigerum Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 110. 
Platylecanium cribrigerum Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 427. 

Female flat, broad oval, about 4.25 millimeters long, 3.55 
millimeters broad, no waxy or glassy covering, rich red-brown. 
Derm translucent brownish after boiling; posterior region with 
large, scattered, glandular processes, each shaped like an ink 
bottle and emitting a very short bristle (Plate II, fig. 17) ; 
in the abdominal region are six large patches, which are more 
strongly chitinized than the surrounding tissue and perforated 
with a number of small round gland orifices (Plate II, fig. 14), 
these patches are three on each side arranged in a semicircle 
in the middle of which are the anal plates (Plate II, fig. 15). 
Mouth very small. Antennas rudimentary, without joints (Plate 
II, fig. 16) . No legs. Margin with a few, very minute, simple 
bristles. Anal plates triangular, rounded at the ends, anal 
ring appearing moniliform. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Piper loheri. 

Genus SAISSETIA Deplanches 

Type, Lecanium hemisphmricum Targioni Tozzetti. 

Adult female high convex or hemispherical, hard when mature ; 
skin with cell-like markings; legs and antennae developed. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Female usually black; distinctly carinate; the ridges H-shaped olese. 

a". Not so; adults without carinae. 

b 1 . Female approaching black; irregular polygonal derm areas (Plate 

II, fig. 19) nigra. 

b 2 . Female brown; smaller; very convex; oval gland orifices (Plate II, 
fig. 18) hemisphserica. 

Saissetia oleae (Bernard). 

Saissetia olex (Bernard) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 205; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 130. 

Adult female short ovate, high convex, carinas forming a 
letter H, brownish black, shiny, rugose, 2.5 to 4 millimeters long, 
1.5 to 3 millimeters wide, 1.5 to 2.5 millimeters high. Derm 
cells elongate, each inclosed in an irregular polygonal tessella- 
tion; antennas of eight joints, three longest, six and seven 
shortest ; legs little longer than antennas ; numerous small tubular 
spinnerets ; three stigmatic spines, central one longest ; marginal 
spines "simple or flattened at apex. 



14 The Philippine Journal- of Science 1m 

Male scale elongate, glassy, divided into nine plates. The male 
is rarely seen. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Gardenia or 
Jasminum. 

Saissetia nigTa (Nietner). 

Saissetia nigra (Nietner) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 204; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 
130; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 
34, 427. 

Female long oval to broad ovate, low convex, shining black, 
3 to 4 millimeters long; marginal hairs small, simple, and those 
within the margin more or less divided; polygonal derm cells 
(Plate II, fig. 19) ; antennas of seven joints, four the longest; 
legs slender, claws with long digitules. 

"Male puparium transparent glassy; divided into nine plates, 
of which two are central and seven marginal." (Green.) Male 
with dark markings on thorax above. 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend) , on Manihot utilissima; Laguna, 
Los Banos (Baker) , on Eriodendron anfractuosum and Withania 
origanifolia. 

Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targioni Tozzetti). 

Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targioni Tozzetti) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae 
of the World (1903), 202. 

Saissetia hemispherica (Targioni Tozzetti) Cockerell, Proc. Daven- 
port Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 130; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 427. 

Female insect hemispherical, ovate, highly convex, smooth 
and shining, light to red-brown, carinas forming a letter H not 
retained in the adult, 2.25 to 4-25 millimeters long, 1 to 2.75 
millimeters wide, 1.5 to 2 millimeters high. Dermis with 
numerous ovate, clear derm cells (Plate II, fig. 18) ; antennae 
of eight joints, two, three, four, five, eight longest, six and 
seven equal in length; legs stout and longer than antennas, 
claws with digitules ; the marginal hairs flattened at apices and 
variously serrated, some simple; stigmatic spines all strong and 
blunt, central one longest; numerous tubular spinnerets. 

Male scale narrow and elongated, carinate, divided into nine 
plates, 1.25 millimeters long. Male reddish, without dark mark- 
ings on thorax above. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Cycas circinalis 
and other cultivated plants; Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on 
Anona muricata and Calanthe. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 15 

Genus COCCUS Linnaeus 

Type, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus. 
Adult female never high convex or hemispherical, more or 
less soft ; oval ; light in color ; legs and antennae well developed. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Female antenna? 6- or 7-jointed (Plate I, fig. 11). 

ft 1 . Female scale red-brown, quite flat, broad oval diversipes. 

6 2 . Female scale pale green; moderately convex, oval, often asymmetrical. 

viridis. 
a". Female antenna? 8-jointed (Plate I, fig. 10) elongatus. 

Coccus elongatus (Signoret). 

Coccus (?) elongatus (Signoret) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 

(1903), 168. 
Coccus longulus (Douglas) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 

(1903), 171; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 

130. 
Coccus elongatus Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus Nat. Hist. 

(1915), 34, 428. 

Female pale yellow, slightly convex, very elongated, trans- 
versely arched, slightly ridged when dry, 4 to 5 millimeters 
long, 2 to 2.5 millimeters broad; surface marked by oval derm 
cells like S. hemisphterica; anal plates broadly triangular; legs 
ordinary, slightly longer than antennae ; antennae 8-jointed, three 
the longest, two, four, five, and eight subequal (Plate I, fig. 
10) ; marginal hairs slender and pointed. 

According to Sanders, C. elongatus and C. longulus cannot 
be separated. A slight variation may be found in the antennae ; 
otherwise the species seem to be the same. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Codiaewm varie- 
gatum; Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Anona squamosa. 

Coccus diversipes Cockerell. 

Coccus diversipes Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 
130. 

Female scale flat, broad-oval, anterior end narrowest, about 
2.5 millimeters long, 2 millimeters broad; light reddish brown; 
surface marked with many large polygonal areas within which 
are one or more small areas of the same general form; regions 
between these with numerous gland spots which appear black; 
anal plates long and narrow; anterior legs ordinary, middle 
and hind legs very slender and elongated with large coxae; 
antennae 6-jointed, measured in microns: (1) 30, (2) 37, (3) 
97, (4) 27-30, (5) 25-27, (6) 55 (Plate II, fig. 21) ; marginal 



16 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

hairs strongly fimbriate or branched. Apparently joints three 
and four are more or less united in some specimens, since 
7-jointed specimens have been found in the type material. 
(From the original description.) 
Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Asplenium nidus. 

Coccus viridis (Green). 

Coccus viridis (Green) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World (1903), 
174; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 
34, 428. 

Adult female bright pale green, oval, often asymmetrical, 
moderately convex, skin soft, 2.5 to 3.25 millimeters long, 1.5 
to 2 millimeters broad; stigmatic clefts small and incon- 
spicuous, three stigmatic spines stout and pointed, median twice 
as long as the other two; margin with short curved hairs 
divided at the ends; antennas 7-jointed (Plate I, fig. 12) ; legs 
moderately stout, claw stout and curved ; plates of anal opening 
triangular, concave, anal ring with eight hairs. Female ovovi- 
viparous. "Male unknown in any state." (Green.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Antidesma bunius, 
Citrus decumana, Citrus nobilis, Gardenia florida, and Strychnos 
nuxvomica. 

DIASPIN^E 

Synoptic table of the genera. 

a 1 . Caudal margin of female with a single, entire, median lobe (Plate III, 

fig. 1) Odonaspis. 

or. Caudal margin with at least two median lobes (Plate IV, fig. 6). 
b 1 . Median lobes of caudal margin divergent and serrate on the inner 
edges (Plate III, figs. 3, 5, and 18). 
c 1 . Adult female inclosed in the enlarged second secretion; one exuvia 
at narrow end, little of true scale present (Plate III, fig. 4). 

JTiorinia. 

c\ Not so, more than one exuvia at narrow end (Plate III, figs. 9, 12, 

and 14). 

d 1 . Exuviae of scale within the margin, scale always circular; second 

stage female with the scale shaped as in Phenacaspis (Plate 

III, figs. 9, 10, and 12) Aulacaspis.* 

dr. Exuvia? marginal, outline of scale subcircular, pyriform, or 

elongated (Plate III, figs. 12 and 14) Phenacaspis.* 

b'. Not so. 
e\ Female with slender, elongated, chitinous processes extending inward 

from bases of lobes (Plate IV, figs. 1 and 3) Chrysomphalus. 

e 2 . Chitinous processes short or absent, or if longer, clubbed. 
f. Entire margin of adult female deeply incised, with lobes between 

the incisions (Plate IV, fig. 7)... Schizaspis. 

/". Entire margin without such incisions. 

g x . Two rows of isolated pores near caudal margin of female (Plate 
IV, fig. 9) Parlatoria. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 17 

g 2 . Not so. 

h\ Female with a deep constriction between thorax and abdomen 

(Plate IV, fig. 13) Selenaspidus. 

h 2 . Not so. 
i 1 . Female scale circular or nearly so (Plate V, figs. 4 and 9). 
f. Female scale with exuviae at or near the center; caudal 
margin often with a single pair of lobes (Plate V, 

figs. 1, 4, and 7) Aspidiotus. 

f. Female scale with exuviae sublateral or lateral; caudal 
margin with three or four pairs of lobes, caudal area 
often with a reticulated portion (Plate IV, fig. 9). 

Pseudaonidia.* 
%'. Female scale always elongate (Plate V, fig. 12; Plate VI, 
fig. 8). 
k 1 . Median lobes separated, usually with spines between; 
female scale mytiliform (Plate V, figs. 13 and 14). 

Lepidosaphes. 

k 2 . Median lobes usually close together (Plate VI, figs. 7 

and 14). 

P. Male scale white, differing from that of female; median 

lobes darker than others, margins dentate or crenu- 

late (Plate VI, figs. 6, 9, and 10).... Hemichionaspis.* 

I 2 Male and female scales usually brown; median lobes 

no darker than others, notched (Plate VI, figs. 11, 

13, and 14) Pinnaspis.* 

* The particular characters of 1'henacaspis and Aulacaspis seem to establish few differences 
between the two genera; the scales of the species of Phenacaspis are difficult to distinguish 
from those of Aulacaspis; there are few differences in the characters of the females. 

The distinctions between Aspidiotus and Pseudaonidia are inadequate for an accurate 
determination. One acquainted with the species of each genus can recognize the differences, 
but the contrasting characters are not definite. 

A difference .based upon the caudal margins might suffice to separate Hemichionaspis and 
Pinnaspis; the scales' of the two genera are confusing. Lindinger places Hemichionaspis as 
a synonym of Pinnaspis. 

Genus ODONASPIS Leonardi . 

Type, Aspidiotus secreta Cockerell. 

Female scale circular, often elongated. Adult female with 
a single or no lobe on the caudal margin; circumgenital glands 
grouped in various ways ; anal orifice often far from the end. 

Odonaspis schizostachyi Cockerell and Robinson. 

Odonaspis schizostachyi Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1914), 33, 327. 

Female scale circular, little over 1 millimeter in diameter, 
dull white, first skin pale yellow. Adult female round; caudal 
margin with a large median lobe free from indentations, second 
and third lobes each bilobed, third much lower than second, 
both without indentations; two spinelike plates laterad of 

146187 2 



18 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

median and second lobes; the base of the second lobe is pro- 
longed cephalad into a fingerlike process continuous with a 
striated band terminating at the anal plate (Plate III, fig. 1). 
The lateral margins indented, marking five sutures along which 
are single rows of minute quadrate scales with serrate apical 
margins (Plate III, fig. 2). Circumgenital glands in two 
groups, each of about 150 orifices. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Schizostachyum 
acutiflorum. The colonies of this scale are usually completely 
covered by the thick, felted, brown masses of a fungus, Septo- 
basidium bakeri Patouillard. 

Genus FIORINIA Targioni Tozzetti 

Type, Diaspis fiorinise Targioni Tozzetti. 

Female scale with second exuvia covering the female; scale 
narrow at anterior end, widens and the sides are parallel, first 
skin at cephalic end. Scale of male similar to that of female, 
smaller. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Median lobes of caudal margin prominent, second and third pairs 
smaller; posterior lateral circumgenital glands connected by a line 
of glands (Plate III, fig. 3) - fiorinise. 

a'. Median lobes prominent, without distinct additional lobes, margin with 
triangular projections; circumgenital glands in five distinct groups; 
second stage female with caudal margin similar to that of F. fiorinise 
(Plate III, figs. 5 and 6) _ phantasma. 

Fiorinia fiorinise (Targioni Tozzetti). 

Fiorinia fiorinise (Targioni Tozzetti) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 246; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 426. 

Female scale elongated, 1 millimeter long, 0.25 millimeter 
wide, sides slightly curved ; second skin inclosing adult, yellowish 
brown, exuvia at anterior end pale yellow (Plate III, fig. 4). 
Adult female with abdominal segments contracted during gesta- 
tion (Plate III, fig. 7) ; median lobes of caudal margin widely 
divergent, regularly and finely serrate on inner margins, second 
and third pairs each of two lobules, margins rounded and entire 
(Plate III, fig. 3). Circumgenital glands in five groups, median 
and anterior laterals confluent, made up of 25 to 30 orifices, 
posterior laterals of 12 to 17 orifices. 

Adult male unknown. (Newstead.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Celtis philippinensis. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 19 

Fiorinia phantasma Cockerell and Robinson. 

Fiorinia phantasma Cockerell and ROBINSON, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 108. 

Female scale elongate, about 1.25 millimeters long, pale 
grayish ochreous; first skin elongate-oval, extending beyond 
anterior end. Adult female with abdominal segments contracted 
during gestation; median lobes widely divergent, inner margin 
with four to six teeth; no distinct additional lobes, but the 
margin with triangular projections; two spines later ad of 
median lobes (Plate III, fig. 5). Circumgenital glands: 
Posterior laterals of 10 to 13 orifices; anterior laterals, 10; 
median, 5. Second stage female not unlike F. fiorinise (Plate 
III, fig. 6). 

Male scale white, sides parallel, broad, with pale yellowish 
first skin. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker), on Machilus (by 
mistake recorded as Neolitsea). 

Genus AULACASPIS Cockerell 
Type, Aspidiotus rosse Bouche. 

Scale of female pyriform or subcircular, exuvise terminal at 
the margin or slightly within it. Median lobes of caudal area 
divergent and serrulate. Male scale white, carinate. 

Aulacaspis rosse (Bouche) . 

Aulacaspis ros& (Bouche) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 236; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 134. 

Female scale subcircular, convex, 2 to 2.5 millimeters in 
diameter, opaque white, exuvise lateral to subcentral, yellow 
to brown (Plate III, fig. 9). Adult female broadly pyriform, 
anterior segments pronounced; median lobes of caudal margin 
long, widely divergent, inner margins finely dentate, apex rounded, 
two short spines between the median lobes, two similar spines 
on the surface of each; a spinelike plate and pointed glandular 
process laterad of median lobes; second pair of lobes of two 
short and rounded lobules with margins entire, followed by a 
spinelike plate; third pair of lobes similar to the second (Plate 
III, fig. 8). Circumgenital glands: Median, 11 to 33 orifices; 
anterior laterals, 17 to 40; posterior laterals, 14 to 40. Three 
rows of dorsal, tubular spinnerets on each side. 

Male scale 1 millimeter long, white, tricarinate, exuvia yellow 
to brown. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Rosa. 



20 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Genus PHENACASPIS Cooley and Cockerell 
Type, Chionaspis nyssae Comstock. 

"Scale of female elongated, with the exuviae at the anterior 
extremity, white. Scale of male much smaller than that of 
female; elongated with the sides nearly parallel. Pygidium 
with the terminal pair of lobes more or less sunken into the 
body, and having their inner edges serrate or crenate, and 
strongly divergent leaving a notch on the median line. The 
color and shape of the scales of the two sexes, together with 
the median notch of the pygidium are the essential characters 
of the genus." (Cooley.) 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Caudal margin of female with one pair of lateral lobes (Plate III, 

fig. 11) _ _ inday. 

According to the available literature, the median lobes are dis- 
tinguishable, but second and third lobes are indicated by pro- 
minences eugeniae. 

a". Caudal margin with two pairs of lateral lobes (Plate III, fig. 13). 
b 1 . Female scale transparent and thin. 

c\ Female scale circular; groups of lateral circumgenital glands con- 
tiguous and almost confluent mischocarpi. 

c a . Female scale elongate; groups of glands distinctly separate. 
b*. Female scale opaque. 

d 1 . Female scale nearly 3 millimeters in diameter; thorax enlarged and 

lobed (Plate III, fig. 16) thoracica. 

dr. Female scale not more than 2 millimeters in diameter; thorax 
not enlarged pallida. 

Phenacaspis inday (Banks). 

Chionaspis Candida (not of Green) Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 

1 , 222, PI. 4, figs. 1-5. 
Chionaspis inday Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 787; Sanders, 

Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Tech. Ser. (1909), No. 16, pt. 

3, 48. 

Female scale elongate-oval, widened posteriorly, about 2.5 milli- 
meters long, 1.20 millimeters broad, white, exuviae pale (Plate 
V, fig. 12). Adult female with abdominal segments lobed; 
median lobes of caudal margin divergent, minutely dentate, 
followed by a spinelike plate and a low triangular plate; two 
lobules of second lobes low and rounded, followed by a spinelike 
plate (Plate III, fig. 11). Circumgenital glands with median 
group of 8 orifices, anterior laterals of 14 to 19, posterior 
laterals of 14 to 16. Male scale white woolly, carina? scarcely 
definable; about 1 millimeter long. (From the original de- 
scription.) 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidas of the Philippine Islands 21 

This is very similar to P. dilatata Green ; it may be separable 
on account of the difference in shape of male and female scales ; 
the median lobes of P. inday (Banks) are longer and more 
divergent. It is probable that this species should be considered 
as belonging to Phenacaspis rather than to Chionaspis. 

Luzon, Manila (Banks), on Cocos nucifera; Laguna, Los 
Banos (Baker) , on Mangifera indica. 

Phenacaspis eugeniee (Maskell). 

Phenacaspis eugenise (Maskell) Febnald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 238; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 134. 

Female scale elongate-oval, about 0.75 millimeter in diameter, 
white. Caudal margin of adult female with divergent median 
lobes, edges serrate; a spinelike plate laterad of these lobes, 
two other lobes represented by broad prominences, each bear- 
ing a spine. Circumgenital glands with median group of 6 
to 8 orifices, anterior laterals of 16 to 18, posterior laterals of 
18 to 20. 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend), on a palm. 

This species has not been definitely recorded from the Philip- 
pine Islands. Cockerell remarks that a specimen collected by 
Townsend "seems to be P. eugenids." 

Phenacaspis mischocarpi Cockerell and Robinson. 

Phenacaspis mischocarpi Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1914), 33, 328. 

Female scale circular, about 1.75 millimeters in diameter, 
dull white, exuviae lateral, pale orange, projecting beyond the 
margin of the scale (Plate III, fig. 14). Female elongated, 
broadened anteriorly, conspicuously segmented; caudal margin 
with median lobes strongly divergent, serrulate on inner margins ; 
second and third lobes each of two separate rounded lobules; 
a spinelike plate and triangular projection laterad of median 
and second lobes, a heavy spinelike plate laterad of third lobes, 
three others on the margin beyond; margin beyond the lobes 
irregularly dentate and with four incisions having thickened 
edges (Plate III, fig. 13). Circumgenital glands with median 
group of 8 or 9 orifices, lateral groups each of 16 or 17 orifices, 
the anterior and posterior groups contiguous, almost confluent. 

Male scale about 1 millimeter long, tricarinate, exuvia pale 
yellow. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Mischocarpus fus- 
cescens. 



22 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Phenacaspis pellucida sp. nov. 

Female scale slightly elongated, about 2 millimeters long, or 
1.5 millimeters in diameter, white, transparent, and thin, show- 
ing the shriveled insect beneath; exuviae terminal; yellow to 
brown, second skin broad-oval, first skin projecting beyond 
scale. Adult female pale yellow, almost colorless, oval, broadest 
across the middle; abdominal segments apparent; caudal area 
with median lobes slightly darker, moderately divergent, rounded, 
with six to eight teeth on the inner edges, not produced to 
level of other lobes; second and third lobes each composed of 
two rounded lobules; a pointed glandular process laterad of 
median and second lobes ; a well-developed spinelike plate laterad 
of each lobe; margin beyond lobes serrate with an incision and 
a spinelike plate (Plate III, fig. 15). Circumgenital glands 
with median group of 7 or 8 orifices, anterior laterals of 19 
or 20, posterior laterals of 11 to 16. A few dorsal tubular 
spinnerets. 

Male scale white, sides parallel, distinctly tricarinate, exuvia 
pale yellow; about 1 millimeter long. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios {Baker), October, 1915, on Maca- 
ranga tanarius. 

All of the species listed in the above table having three pairs 
of lobes resemble Phenacaspis varicosa Green in the general 
characters of the caudal margin. However, P. pellucida seems 
to be distinct owing to its thin, transparent, and smaller scale. 
The same characters distinguish it from P, chinensis Ckll. The 
male scales and circular female scales of P. latissima Ckll., the 
oval pores of P. strobilanthi Green, and the very large lobes 
of P. megaloba Green, respectively, differentiate them from this 
species. 

Phenacaspis thoracica sp. nov. 

Female scale circular, 2.5 to 2.75 millimeters in diameter, flat, 
opaque, white; exuvia? yellow, first skin scarcely projecting 
beyond the margin, second skin broad-oval. Adult female brown- 
ish, elongated, thorax protruding, with lateral prominences, 
abdomen regularly and conspicuously segmented (Plate III, fig. 
16) ; on each side of the mouth a gland with oval pores; median 
lobes of caudal margin divergent, rounded, finely dentate on 
inner sides, produced to level of other lobes, very little darker; 
second and third pairs of lobes each composed of two rounded 
lobules ; a pointed glandular process laterad of median and sec- 
ond lobes ; a well-developed, spinelike plate laterad of each lobe ; 
margin beyond dentate, resembling P. mischocarpi (Plate III, 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 23 

fig. 17). Circumgenital glands with median groups of 9 or 10 
orifices, anterior laterals of 18 to 21, posterior laterals of 17 to 
26. A few dorsal tubular spinnerets in rows. 

Male scale white, sides parallel, distinctly tricarinate, exuvia 
pale yellow ; 1 millimeter long. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), December, 1915, on Mo- 
rinda bracteata. 

The caudal area of P. thoracica resembles that of P. varicosa 
Green, but the scale lacks the ridges of P. varicosa Green. The 
peculiar shape of the female seems to differentiate this species 
from similar species, such as P. chinensis Ckll. and P. latissima 
Ckll. 

Phenacaspis pallida sp. nov. 

Female scale circular, white and opaque, slightly convex, occa- 
sionally with a few irregular raised lines, 1.75 millimeters in 
diameter; marginal exuviae pale yellow, second skin broad-oval. 
Adult female elongate, broadened anteriorly; yellowish brown; 
often with base of abdomen contracted within the thorax ; abdo- 
minal segments well defined ; median lobes of caudal area widely 
divergent, serrate, little darker than the others, not produced to 
level of other lobes ; second and third pairs of lobes each composed 
of two separate rounded lobules; a pointed glandular process 
laterad of median and second lobes; a well-developed spinelike 
plate laterad of each lobe; margin beyond serrate with four 
widely separated, short incisions and three spinelike plates (Plate 
III, fig. 18). -Circumgenital glands with median group of 12 
orifices, anterior laterals of 22 or 23, posterior laterals of 14 
to 16. A few dorsal tubular spinnerets present. 

Male scale white suffused with brown, sides parallel, a single 
median carina, about 0.75 millimeter long. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), March, 1915, on Litsea. 

Although the caudal margin of Phenacaspis pallida resembles 
that of P. varicosa Green, the smaller size and inconspicuous and 
occasional ridges of the female scale seem to differentiate it. 
This species has the general characters of P. latissima Ckll., 
which is larger ; and of P. chinensis Ckll., the scale of which has 
a different form and orange exuviae. 

Genus CHRYSOMPHALUS Ashmead 
Type, Coccus aonidum Linnasus. 
Female scale circular, exuviae nearly central; last segment of 
the female with three pairs of well-developed lobes, with elong- 
ated thickenings of the body wall terminating at the bases of the 
lobes; circumgenital glands present. 



24 The Philippine Journal of Science 1m 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Adult female with abdomen contracted within the body, thorax extending 
back in a large rounded lobe on each side, which projects beyond the 

extremity of the abdomen (Plate IV, fig. 2) aurantii. 

a 2 . Caudal margin slightly or not at all contracted within the body. 

6\ Dorsal thickenings of caudal margin shorter than median lobes 

(Plate IV, fig. 3) pedroniformis. 

b\ Not so. 

c\ Lobes of caudal margin notched on outer edges; circumgenital 
glands with anterior lateral groups of 4 to 8 orifices, posterior 
lateral groups of 2 to 4 orifices; male scale similar to female 

(Plate IV, fig. 4) aonidum. 

e 2 . Caudal lobes with a single notch or tricuspid; circumgenital glands 
more numerous; male scale paler than female (Plate IV, fig. 5). 

rossi. 

Chrysomphalus pedroniformis Cockerell and Robinson. 

Crysomphalus pedroniformis Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 107, 427. 

Female scale circular or oval, 1.75 millimeters in diameter, 
slightly convex, dull pale reddish brown; exuviae central to 
sublateral, darker than rest of scale, first skin appearing as a 
more or less golden boss. Adult female almost circular, at 
period of gestation abdomen partly contracted within the body; 
median and second lobes of caudal margin with a notch on each 
side or second lobes may lack the inner notch, third lobes with 
a single notch on the outer edge; fringed plates between the 
lobes; a short spine laterad of each lobe (Plate IV, fig. 3). 
Circumgenital glands with anterior lateral group of 5 to 8 
orifices, posterior lateral group of 3 to 5. Dorsal pores in two 
rows on each side. 

Male scale elongate-oval, pale with darker exuvia. 

Luzon, Bataan (Mackie), on Eriodendron anfractuosum ; 
Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Vitis vinifera. 

Malenotti 3 considers this too near to Aspidiotus orientalis 
News, to be regarded as a distinct species. Lindinger has re- 
garded A. orientalis as a Chrysomphalus. 

Chrysomphalus aurantii (Maskell). 

Chrysomphalus aurantii (Maskell) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 287; COCKERELL, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 134. 

Female scale circular, flat, about 1.5 millimeters in diameter; 
yellowish brown, exuviae central, yellow, dull or shining. Female 
when fully developed with thorax extending backward in a 

3 Redia (1916), 11, 326. 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidae of the Philippine Islands 25 

rounded lobe on each side, projecting beyond extremity of ab- 
domen (Plate IV, fig. 2). Caudal margin with three pairs of 
well-developed lobes, median lobes notched on each side, second 
lobes similar, third lobes with a single notch on the outer edge ; 
laterad of each lobe and between median lobes are deeply fringed 
plates slightly longer than the lobes (Plate IV, fig. 1). Two 
groups of tubular spinnerets; four irregular rows of dorsal 
pores. 

Male scale oblong; same color and texture as female; 0.75 
millimeter long. 

Luzon, Manila {Townsend), on Artocarpus; Laguna, Mount 
Maquiling (Baker), on Astronia. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus). 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World {1903), 286; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 134; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
(1915), 34, 427. 

Chrysomphalus propsimus Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 230. 

Female scale circular, about 2 millimeters in diameter, slightly 
convex, reddish or grayish brown to black ; exuviae nearly central, 
yellow to dark brown. Adult female nearly circular; caudal 
margin with three pairs of well-developed lobes all notched on 
the outer edges, median lobes slightly notched on the inner edges ; 
fringed plates between each lobe (Plate IV, fig. 4). Circum- 
genital glands with anterior lateral groups of 4 to 8 orifices, 
posterior lateral of 2 to 4. Two double irregular rows of dorsal 
pores. Male scale ovate, of same color and texture as female; 
1 millimeter long. 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend), on Artocarpus and on a palm, 
(Banks), on Cocos nucifera; Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker), 
on a climbing aroid ; Los Baiios (Baker) , on Arenga saccharifera, 
Citrus nobilis, Cocos nucifera, and Garcinia. 

Chrysomphalus rossi (Maskell). 

Chrysomphalus rossi (Maskell) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 293; Cockerell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1899), 274; 
Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 134. 

Female scale circular or irregularly oblong, 2 to 2.5 millimeters 
in diameter, slightly convex, dull red-brown to black; exuviae 
central, yellow, often appearing darker than rest of the scale. 
Caudal margin of female with three pairs of lobes, each with a 
notch on the outer edge or obscurely trilobed; fringed plates 
between each lobe, only slightly longer than lobes (Plate IV, 
fig. 5). Circumgenital glands with anterior laterals of 9 to 12 



26 The Philippine Journal of Science mm 

orifices, posterior laterals of 8 or 9. Numerous filiform tubular 
spinnerets. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (T owns end) , on Arenga saccharifera 
and Cycas circinalis; Manila, on an orchid quarantined by Mr. 
A. Craw at San Francisco. 

This was the first coccid to be recorded from the Philippine 
Islands. 

Genus SCHIZASPIS Cockerell and Robinson 
Type, Schizaspis lobata Cockerell and Robinson. 

Female scale small, almost circular, flattened; exuviae large. 
Adult with margins deeply incised, lobed between the incisions ; 
no circumgenital glands ; anal orifice large, near hind end ; lobes 
and fringed plates well developed. Immature female oval, not 
lobed at sides. Male scale elongate, but not parallel-sided, white 
with yellow terminal exuviae, not keeled. 

Schizaspis lobata Cockerell and Robinson. 

Schizaspis lobata Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
(1915), 34, 423. 

Female scale nearly circular, about 0.75 millimeter in diameter, 
flat, yellowish brown, surface beaded with prominences in con- 
centric rows; exuviae sublateral or central, dull golden yellow. 
Adult female about 0.5 millimeter in diameter, circular, with 
seven deep constrictions, the margin between them convex (Plate 
IV, fig. 7) ; caudal margin with median lobes stout, having three 
almost equal notches, second lobes prominent, round projections 
shorter than the median lobes; between the median lobes two 
fringed plates, laterad of these lobes a spine and two fringed 
plates, laterad of the, second lobes a fringed plate and a series 
of spinelike plates, a short spine tips the second lobe (Plate IV, 
fig. 6). Anal orifice large, not far from hind end. 

Male scale nearly 1 millimeter long, white with yellow exuvia. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Ficus nota. 

Genus PARLATOFJA Targioni Tozzetti 

Type, Coccus ziziphus Lucas. 
"Species of which the scale of the female is long, narrow at 
the base, then enlarging suddenly; the exuviae of a rounded oval 
form. The margin of the anal segment is indented and presents 
in each notch some platelike scales. On the upper side near 
the margin are two rows of isolated pores. The scale of the 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidae of the Philippine Islands 27 

male of the same color as that of the female and much smaller." 

(Comstock.) 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Female scale black ziziplms. 

a 2 . Not so. 

b\ Adult female elongated; caudal margin without a rudimentary fourth 

lobe (Plate IV, fig. 9) _ proteus. 

¥. Adult female circular or subcircular. 

c\ Female scale slate-colored; fourth lobe of caudal margin dentate 

with a sharp terminal cusp (Plate IV, fig. 10) greeni. 

c 2 . Female scale light yellow; rudimentary lobe a pointed prominence 
of body wall bearing a spine (Plate IV, fig. 11) pergandii 

Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas). 

Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 322; Sasscer, Journ. Econ. Ent. (1913), 6, 218. 

Parlatoria zizyphus Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 426. 

Female scale elongate-oval, 1.75 millimeters long, 0.75 milli- 
meter wide, black, exuvise at anterior margin. Female insect 
oval; caudal margin with four pairs of lobes, first three pairs 
subequal and slightly tricuspid, fourth lobes narrow and pointed ; 
fringed plates between the lobes (Plate IV, fig. 8). Margin 
with short tubular spinnerets. Four groups of circumgenital 
glands, anterior laterals of 6 or 7 orifices, posterior laterals of 
8 to 10. 

Male scale white, exuvia black ; 1 millimeter long. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos {Baker), on Citrus decumana. 

Recorded by Sasscer on Citrus cuttings from the Philippine 
Islands. 

Parlatoria proteus (Curtis). 

Parlatoria proteus (Curtis) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 320; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 134. 

Female scale elongate-oval, 1 to 1.75 millimeters long, 0.50 to 
0.75 millimeter broad, convex, greenish yellow to grayish brown ; 
exuvise at anterior margin dark yellow, second skin yellow to 
brown. Adult female oval; caudal margin with three pairs of 
lobes similar to those of P. ziziphus, plates between the lobes 
also similar, no rudimentary fourth lobes (Plate IV, fig. 9). 
Circumgenital glands in four groups, anterior laterals 7, pos- 
terior laterals 4. 

Male scale elongate, sides parallel, 1 millimeter long, resembles 
female scale in color and texture. 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend), on Eugenia malaccensis. 



28 The Philippine Journal of Science wn 

Parlatoria greeni Banks. 

Parlatoria greeni Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 231. 

Female scale broad-oval, 1.35 to 1.65 millimeters long, pale to 
dark slate; exuviae at anterior end yellow. Female broadly 
elliptical; three pairs of lobes on margin similar to those of P. 
ziziphus, rudimentary fourth lobes, distinct dentate projection 
half the length of the other lobes. Fringed plates between the 
lobes (Plate IV, fig. 10). Posterior lateral circumgenital glands 
of 5 orifices, anterior laterals of 6. Male scale 0.87 millimeter 
long, 0.26 millimeter wide, sides parallel, carinate, white. (From 
the original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (Banks), on Cocos nucifera. 

Parlatoria pergandii Comstock. 

Parlatoria pergandii Comstock, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 319; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 
134; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1915), 
34, 426. 

Female scale circular to elongate, 1 to 1.75 millimeters long, 
pale red-brown ; exuviae brown or yellow. Adult female broadly 
oval ; caudal margin with three pairs of lobes and fringed plates 
similar to those of P. ziziphus; fourth pair broad and flat, bear- 
ing a spine (Plate IV, fig. 11). Circumgenital glands with an- 
terior laterals of 6 orifices, posterior laterals of 5. 

Male scale similar to P. proteus; scale brown, exuvia yellow. 

Luzon, Manila (Toivnsend) , on an aloelike plant; Laguna, 
Los Bafios (Baker), on Celtis philippinensis. 

Genus SELENASPIDUS Cockerell 

Type, Aspidiotus articulatus Morgan. 

Female scale flat, almost circular; exuviae central or subcen- 
tral ; female with a deep constriction between cephalothorax and 
abdomen. 

Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan). 

Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 

World (1903), 284. 
Pseudaonidia articulatus (Morgan) Sasscer, Journ. Econ. Ent. (1916), 

9, 218. 

Female scale pale brown or yellow-brown, flat, almost circular, 
2 to 2.25 millimeters in diameter; exuviae central to subcentral, 
yellow. Adult female with a marked division between thorax 
and abdomen (Plate IV, fig. 13) ; caudal area with median lobes 
rectangular, outer margins faintly notched, second pair broader, 



xii, d, i Robinson: Cocciclse of the Philippine Islands 29 

margin sloping with a slight notch or bidentate ; two bifurcate 
plates between lobes, palmate plates laterad of second lobes, be- 
yond these is a conspicuous spiny process (Plate IV, fig. 12). 
Dorsal tubular spinnerets about 55 on each side. Circumgenital 
glands in two lateral groups each of 6 to 8 orifices. [From 
Newstead, Monograph of British Coccidse (1905), 1, 127.] 
Found on citrus cuttings, Philippine Islands. 

Genus ASPIDIOTUS Bouche 

Type, Chermes hederse Vallot. 
Scale of female circular or nearly so, exuviae at or near the 
center, scale of male somewhat elongated with larval skin at one 
side of center or near one edge. Caudal margin of female 
varies. Hemiberlesia Leonard, a subgenus, includes those spe- 
cies in which the second and third pairs of caudal lobes are 
smaller or absent and the anal opening is very large. The type 
of Hemiberlesia is Aspidiotus rapax Comstock. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Circumgenital glands present. 

b\ Caudal margin of female similar to that of A. rapax (Plate V, figs. 
1 and 7) ; scale translucent white or gray. 

c\ Female scale circular, exuviae dark brown to black cydoniae. 

c'". Female scale similar to A. cydonise, exuviae yellow to green, slightly 

lateral cydoniae greenii. 

c 3 . Female scale slightly elongated, clear yellow to creamy white, 

central exuviae large and yellow lataniae. 

b\ Caudal margin not so. 

d 1 . Median lobes of caudal margin more than twice as large as others; 
cephalad of median lobes a conspicuous thickening about as long 

as the lobes (Plate V, fig. 2) coryphae. 

d i . Not so; female scale transparent white or yellow. 

c\ Adult female circular; caudal margin with four pairs of lobes 

often distinguishable (Plate V, fig. 3) destructor.* 

e'\ Adult female pyriform; caudal margin with three pairs of lobes, 
each set on a projection of the margin (Plate V, fig. 5). 

translucens.* 
a 2 . Circumgenital glands absent. 

p. Female scale flat, dark ferruginous, second lobes of caudal margin 
similar to, but smaller than, median lobes (Plate V, fig. 6). 

tayabanus. 
/-. Female scale convex, gray or yellowish; only median lobes well devel- 
oped (Plate V, fig. 7) _ rapax. 

* The difficulties in separating Aspidiotus destructor and A. translucens are obvious. 
Ettore Malenotti, in a recent paper, concludes that they are extremes of variation of a single 
species, which is to be called A. destructor. It apper.rs tha'. E. E. Green is of the same 
opinion. 



30 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Aspidiotus cydoniae Comstock. 

Aspidiotus cydonise Comstock, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 256. 

Female scale circular, 1.5 millimeters in diameter, convex, 
gray; exuvise subcentral, marked by a brown spot. Adult fe- 
male circular; median lobes of caudal margin with a notch on 
each side, second and third lobes represented by thickenings of 
the body wall or slight projections; simple plates between me- 
dian lobes, five fringed plates laterad of these lobes ; short spines 
laterad of the lobes and thickenings (Plate V, fig. 1). Circum- 
genital glands with anterior laterals of 8 or 9 orifices, posterior 
laterals of 5 to 7. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (C. F. Baker and F. Muir), on 
Blumea balsamifera and Hibiscus mutabilis. 

Aspidiotus cydoniae var. greenii Cockerell. 

Aspidiotus cydonise. var. greenii Cockerell, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of 
the World (1903), 256; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 427. 

Very similar to Aspidiotus cydonise in characters of the female 
and color of female scale, but the exuviae differ; however, the 
exuvise are similar to those of A. latanise. The three are so 
much alike that they may be no more than varieties. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos {Baker), on Achras sapota and 
Chrysanthemum. 

Aspidiotus lataniae Signoret. 

Aspidiotus latanise Signoret, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 266; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 133. 

Female scale circular, 2 millimeters in diameter, flat; exuviae 
cream white, densely coated, but a yellow spot in the center of 
each scale. Median lobes of caudal margin large and prominent, 
notched on each side, notch on inner side often imperceptible; 
two deep incisions on each side with conspicuous, thickened 
chitinous rim; laterad of each thickening a pointed glandular 
process; two spines between the median lobes, fringed spines 
laterad of median lobes. Circumgenital glands with anterior 
laterals of 3 orifices, posterior laterals of 6 or 7 orifices. In 
every respect the characters of the caudal margin agree with 
those of A. cydonise. (From Green and from the original de- 
scription of Signoret.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (T owns end) , on "cabbage." (Cab- 
bage palm?) 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidae. of the Philippine Islands 31 

Aspidiotus coryphae Cockerell and Eobinson. 

Aspidiotus coryphee Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 425. 

Female scale circular, nearly 2 millimeters in diameter, flat, 
dull white or pale ochreous, exuvise sublateral, first skin exposed. 
Adult female pyriform, caudal margin with median lobes large 
and prominent, almost contiguous, rounded apically with a single 
notch on the outer edges, second and third lobes small and trans- 
parent, notched like the median lobes; a small fringed plate 
between median lobes, two fringed plates laterad of second lobes, 
three fringed plates between second and third lobes, six similar 
plates beyond third lobes ; the usual spines at bases of lobes. A 
conspicuous thickening cephalad of each median lobe (Plate V, 
fig. 2). Anal orifice pyriform, pointed anteriorly. Circum- 
genital glands with anterior laterals of 7 to 9 orifices, posterior 
laterals of 6 to 8 orifices. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Corypha elata. 

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret. 

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 257; Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 218. 

Female scale circular, flat, 1.5 millimeters in diameter, yellow- 
ish or whitish; exuvise large, central, yellow (Plate V, fig. 4). 
Adult female circular; caudal margin with three pairs of lobes, 
often a fourth present, median lobes tricuspid or bicuspid, sec- 
ond and third lobes bicuspid, all nearly equal in length or with 
median pair slightly shorter; fringed plates between the lobes 
or beyond the third lobes (Plate V, fig. 3). Circumgenital 
glands with posterior laterals of 4 to 6 orifices, anterior laterals 
of 7 to 12. Filiform tubular spinnerets. 

Male scale oblongate-oval, pale translucent, central exuvia 
darker yellowish. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker) , on Cocos nucifera, Euge- 
nia calubcob, Mangifera indica, and Mangifera verticillata. 

Aspidiotus translucens Cockerell. 

Aspidiotus simillimus translucens Cockerell, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae 
of the World (1903), 278; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 
(1905), 10, 133. 

Aspidiotus translucens Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 106, 427. 

Female scale circular, flat, 1.5 millimeters in diameter, 
yellowish white; exuviae nearly central, pale yellow. Adult 
female pyriform; caudal margin with six prominent lobes, 
median obscurely tricuspid, not so long as the second, second 



32 The Philippine Journal of Science i9it 

and third slender, transparent, contracted at the base, notched 
on the outer edges; each lobe situated on a pointed prominence 
of the body wall; two slightly divided plates between median 
lobes, deeply notched plates laterad of the other lobes; a small 
spine at base of each lobe (Plate V, fig. 5). Circumgenital 
glands with anterior laterals of 6 to 11 orifices, posterior laterals 
of 4 to 6 orifices. Filiform tubular spinnerets present. 

Male scale similar to female, smaller, oval, 1 millimeter long, 
0.75 millimeter broad. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Bake?-), on Anona squamosa, 
Aleurites moluccana, Carica papaya, Cocos nucifera, Codiaeum 
variegatum, Dioscorea alata, Mangifera indica, Musa sapientum, 
Psidium araca, Spondias, Tamarindus indica; Bataan, Lamao 
(Baker), on Phoenix dactylifera; Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend) , 
on coconut seedling. 

Aspidiotus tayabanus Cockerell. 

Aspidiotus tayabanus Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 133. 

Female scale flat, dark ferruginous, exuviae marked by a dot 
and ring in gray or yellowish white, second skin orange-ferru- 
ginous. Female renif orm ; median lobes of caudal margin large 
and elongated, the inner edges almost contiguous, apex rounded, 
outer edge with a strong notch ; second lobes similar, but smaller 
and more pointed; spines large; beyond the second lobes are 
two pointed projections followed by three large, broad, strap- 
shaped plates slightly notched. Cephalad of the first and 
second lobes are two long club-shaped glands (Plate V, fig. 
6) . Dorsal pores small and few in number. (From the original 
description.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend), on Gardenia or 
Jasminum. 

This is by no means a typical Aspidiotus. 

Aspidiotus rapax Comstock. 

Aspidiotus rapax Comstock, Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 

(1903), 276; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

(1915), 34, 427. 

Female scale and adult insect indistinguishable from A. 

cydonise. Female insect only differs from A. cydonise in the 

absence of circumgenital glands. The thickenings of the caudal 

margin do not take the form of definite projections (Plate V, 

fig. 7). 

Luzon, Manila market (Baker), on oranges (Citrus auran- 
tium) from southern California. 



xn, d. i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 33 

Genus PSEUDAONIDIA Cockerell 
Type, Aspidiotus duplex Cockerell. 
Female scale moderately convex, subcircular, brownish black; 
caudal margin with three or four pairs of lobes, median lobes 
heavier, others narrower, fringed plates between the lobes; 
with or without a tessellated patch. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Fourth lobes of caudal margin slightly developed (Plate V, fig. 8). 

obsita. 
a". Fourth lobes well developed (Plate V, figs. 10 and 11). 

b 1 . Caudal area with a reticulated patch, median lobes little darker than 

the others (Plate V, fig. 10) _ trilobitiformis. 

6 2 . Caudal area without a reticulated patch, median lobes darker and 
heavier than the others (Plate V, fig. 11) circuliginis. 

Pseudaonidia obsita Cockerell and Robinson. 

Pseudaonidia obsita Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 109. 

Female scale circular, about 2.5 millimeters in diameter, 
slightly convex, appearing brownish black, but the true color 
is brownish pink; exuviae yellowish fulvous, sublateral. Occas- 
ionally the scales are white. Adult female somewhat oval, 
segments distinct, abdomen with a large reticulated patch. 
Caudal margin with three pairs of lobes and a fourth rudi- 
mentary; median pair dark, notched on each side, slightly 
shorter than the others; second and third pairs pale, elongate, 
with a notch on the outer side; fourth lobes indicated by a 
subangular projection; squames between the lobes bidentate; a 
spine laterad of second and third lobes (Plate V, fig. 8) . Cir- 
cumgenital glands with anterior laterals of 27 to 29 orifices, 
posterior laterals of 33. 

Male scale broad-oval, about 1.5 millimeters long, dull brownish 
pink, with pale orange first skin at one end. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Ficus caudatifolia. 

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green). 

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 284; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 
10, 134. 

Female scale usually semicircular, 3 to 4.5 millimeters in 
diameter, almost flat, pale reddish brown; exuviae yellow (Plate 
V, fig. 9). Female insect hard and horny with transverse 
striated lines, oblong, segments well defined ; caudal margin with 
eight obscurely tricuspid lobes, median stoutest but often not 

146187 8 



34 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

so long as the others. Plates between the lobes deeply fringed, 
little longer than the lobes. On dorsal surface an extensive 
reticulated patch, spaces of irregular size and shape (Plate V, 
fig. 10). Circumgenital glands with anterior laterals of 21 to 
24 orifices, posterior laterals of 16 to 27. Tubular spinnerets 
present. (From Green.) 

Luzon, Manila (Toivnsend) , on Artocarpus. 

Pseudaonidia circuliginis (Green). 

Aspidiotus circuliginis Green, Ent. Mont. Mag. (1904), 40, 208. 
Pseudaonidia circuliginis Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 426. 

Female scale nearly circular, 2.75 millimeters in diameter, 
black, exuviag yellow. Female insect also circular ; median lobes 
of caudal margin notched on each side, heavy and dark, second 
and third lobes transparent and elongate, similarly notched, 
fourth lobes represented by a heavy projection of the body wall; 
narrow bidentate plates between the lobes (Plate V, fig. 11). 
Circumgenital glands in two confluent groups each of 30 to 
33 orifices. A continuous thickened rim cephalad of the caudal 
lobes. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Corypha elata. 

Genus LEPID0SAPHES Shimer 

Type, Coccus ulmi Linnaeus. 
Female scale long, narrow, and usually curved. Caudal margin 
of female with heavy median lobes and second and third lobes 
consisting of two lobules; circumgenital glands usually present. 
Male scale resembles female in form and texture, not carinate. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a\ Female scale yellowish green or greenish yellow; exuvia? orange, with 

a dark red longitudinal stripe rabrovittatiis. 

a 1 . Female scale darker, grayish brown to red-brown. 
b 1 . Female scale broadened posteriorly. 
b*. Female scale broadest across middle, often curved, uniform light 

brown _ _ _ lasianthi. 

c\ Female without circumgenital glands. 

<P. Median lobes smaller than second pair (Plate VI, fig. 1). 

luzonica. 

d 2 . Median lobes larger than second pair (Plate VI, fig. 2) ixorae. 

c 3 . Female with circumgenital glands. 

e\ Female scale 3 to 4 millimeters long; median lobes of caudal 
margin entire, each forming a low semicircle (Plate VI, fig. 3). 

cocculi. 



xu, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 35 

e 2 . Female scale smaller; median lobes lobed on each side. 

f 1 . Median and second lobes of caudal area low and broad; female 

scale 2.5 to 2.75 millimeters long (Plate VI, fig. 4).. mcgregori. 
f. Median and second lobes prominent; female scale 1.8 to 2 

millimeters long (Plate VI, fig. 5) unicolor. 

Lepidosaph.es rubrovittatus Cockerell. 

Lepidosaphes rubrovittatus Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 

(1905), 10, 135. 
Lepidosaphes (Mytilaspis) fasciata GREEN, Journ. Econ. Biol. (1911), 

6, 31, fig. 

Female scale slender-elongate (Plate V, fig. 12), a peculiar 
greenish yellow ; exuviae dull orange with a dark red longitudinal 
stripe down the middle of each skin. Adult female with three 
lateral segments produced; median lobes of caudal margin stri- 
ate, slightly notched on each side, somewhat crenulate; third 
lobes rudimentary and scarcely noticeable; plates all spinelike 
and simple (Plate V, fig. 13). Circumgenital glands forming 
a letter V, median group of 3 orifices, anterior laterals of 7 to 8, 
posterior laterals of 4. Dorsal glands conspicuous, marginal oval 
gland orifices distinct. (From the original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend), on Eugenia malaccensis. 

Lepidosaphes lasianthi (Green) . 

Lepidosaphes lasianthi (Green) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 310. 

Female scale pyriform, often curved, 2 to 2.75 millimeters long, 
1 to 1.25 millimeters wide, uniform light brown ; exuvise anterior, 
yellow. Adult female about 1 millimeter long, 0.5 millimeter 
wide ; abdominal segments with prominent lobes ; caudal margin 
with median lobes widely separated, broad, sloping to a blunt 
point, two spinelike plates between median lobes, a spinelike 
plate and pointed glandular process laterad of median lobes, 
second lobes rounded and slightly notched on the outer sides, fol- 
lowed by two spinelike plates (Plate V, fig. 14) . Circumgenital 
glands with anterior laterals of 4 orifices, posterior laterals of 
6, median of 4; according to some authorities the median and 
anterior laterals are confluent. A few dorsal tubular spinnerets 
present. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker) , on Codiaeum variegatum. 

Lepidosaphes luzonica sp. nov- 

Female scale brownish white or very pale brown, about 2 
millimeters long, broadly elongated, slightly convex ; exuvise light 
reddish brown. Adult female pale yellow; at period of gesta- 



36 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

tion dark brown; abdominal segments bearing spinelike plates; 
broadened posteriorly.. Caudal margin with small lobes ; median 
lobes far apart, the interval occupied by two minute triangular 
projections; second lobes prominent, about three times as long 
as the median and similarly notched on each edge, with a low 
rounded or pointed projection on each side; two short and one 
long spinelike plate laterad of median lobes, second lobes followed 
by spinelike plates, varying in length and from two to three in 
number; notches of lobes vary; edge beyond carinate; caudal 
margin thickened cephalad of lobes (Plate VI, fig. 1). Cir- 
cumgenital glands absent. A few dorsal pores near margin. 

Male scale about 1.75 millimeters long, white, not carinate, 
sides nearly parallel ; exuvia pale yellow ; often occur in irregular 
masses. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio {Baker, 4900), on Ficus. 

The caudal margin resembles that of Chionaspis colemani 
Kuw., but the latter has circumgenital glands. The female scale 
is similar to L. albus Ckll., but the caudal margins are entirely 
different. 

Lepidosaphes ixorse Cockerell and Robinson. 

Lepidosaphes ixorse Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1915), 34, 425. 

Female scale broadly elongate, somewhat convex, often curved, 
about 3.5 millimeters long, the surface with ridges diverging 
from a center near the exuviae; exuviae orange. Adult female 
elongate-oval, abdominal segments produced; laterally, bearing 
spines; median lobes broad, sloping to a blunt point, the edges 
minutely dentate; second lobes of two shorter rounded lobules, 
the first similar to the median lobes, slightly notched on each 
side, the second simple; third pair of lobes short and rounded; 
two spines and two spinelike plates between median lobes, two 
spinelike plates laterad of median lobes and three laterad of 
second and third lobes ; basal margins of lobes thickened (Plate 
VI, fig. 2). Dorsal glands prominent. 

Male scale nearly 2 millimeters long, rather broad, similar in 
texture to the female scale. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Ixora coccinea. 

Lepidosaphes cocculi (Green). 

Lepidosaphes cocculi ( Green ) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World 
(1903), 307; Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. (1905), 10, 135. 

Female scale long and narrowly broadened posteriorly, 3 to 
4 millimeters long, 0.75 millimeter broad, dark purple-brown, 
marked by curved lines of growth; ventral scale pitted; exuviae 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coecidse of the Philippine Islands 37 

yellow. Adult female with abdominal segments marked by pro- 
minent lateral lobes ; caudal margin with two broad semicircular 
lobes separated by two spinelike plates and followed by two 
spinelike plates, two lobules of the second lobes rounded and 
entire, followed by two spinelike plates (Plate V, fig. 4) . Dorsal 
tubular spinnerets absent or inconspicuous. Circumgenital 
glands in five groups ; median of 5 or 6 orifices, anterior laterals 
of 8 to 13, posterior laterals of 6 to 8. 

Male scale similar to female, smaller. 

Luzon, Manila (Townsend) , on a palm; Laguna, Los Banos 
(Baker) , on Erythropalum scandens. 

Lepidosaphes mcgregori Banks. 

Lepidosaphes mcgregori Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906), 1, 233. 

Female scale long and narrow, diverging posteriorly, 2.5 mil- 
limeters long, 0.75 millimeter broad, clear red-brown, exuviae 
yellow. Adult female elongate; median lobes of caudal margin 
low and broad with crenulate surface, rounded, lobed on each 
side; second pair with two lobules, somewhat flat, margins en- 
tire; two spinelike plates between median lobes, two laterad of 
second lobes (Plate VI, fig. 4). Dorsal pores irregular. Circum- 
genital glands with median group of 4 orifices, anterior laterals 
of 6, posterior laterals of 5 or 6. Male scale with anterior por- 
tions pale yellow-brown, posterior and lateral margins narrowly 
white, 1.45 millimeters long, 0.35 millimeter wide. (From the 
original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (Banks), on Cocos nucifera. 

Lepidosaphes unicolor Banks. 

Lepidosaphes unicolor Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci. (1906) 1, 234. 

Female scale 1.8 millimeters long, 0.5 millimeter broad, sides 
nearly parallel ; dark red, including the exuviae. Caudal margin 
of adult female with median lobes similar to those of L. 
mcgregori, but not so flat ; second pair rounded ; fringed spinelike 
plates between median lobes and laterad of the others (Plate 
VI, fig. 5) . Circumgenital glands scarcely separable into groups, 
24 orifices in all, median 4 orifices somewhat distinct. (From 
the original description.) 

Luzon, Manila (Banks), on Cocos nucifera. 

Genus HEMICHIONASPIS Cockerell 

Type, Chionaspis aspidistrse Signoret. 
Female scale pyriform or elongated and narrow. Female 
insect broadened posteriorly, conspicuously segmented. Caudal 



38 The Philippine Journal of Science iw 

area with one, two, or three pairs of lobes; median lobes with 
inner edges straight, parallel, and close together, often cre- 
nate and darker than the others ; additional lobes of two lobules. 
Circumgenital glands always present. Male scale elongated, 
carinate. 

Synoptic table of the species. > 

a 1 . Female scale very narrow, almost linear; rich red-brown uvariae. 

a 2 . Female scale elongate, broadened posteriorly, varying to almost circular. 
b\ Caudal margin of female with second pair of lobes rudimentary (Plate 

VI, fig. 7) .' townsendi. 

b 2 . Caudal margin with second pair of lobes long and narrow (Plate VI, 
fig. 10 ) aspidistras. 

Hemichionaspis uvariae Cockerell and Robinson. 

Hemichionaspis uvarise Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1914), 33, 330. 

Female scale very narrow, almost linear, about 1.5 millimeters 
long, rich red-brown, exuviae paler and yellower. Female great- 
ly elongated, sides not prominently lobed, yellowish, turning 
green when boiled in KOH ; median lobes of caudal area large and 
dark, together forming a semicircle, margins crenate or dentate 
with six small teeth; second lobes represented by two small 
lobules, the first rounded and the second pointed ; beyond this a 
rudimentary prominence behind a spine; laterad of the spine a 
large spinelike plate; remainder of the margin divided into two 
or three flattened lobules, beyond which is a spinelike plate 
(Plate VI, fig. 6). Circumgenital glands with anterior and pos- 
terior laterals each of about 8 orifices, median of 4. 

Male scale about 0.5 millimeter long, white, parallel-sided, 
with a slight median keel, larval skin pale orange-fulvous. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), on Uvaria sp. 

Hemichionaspis townsendi Cockerell. 

Hemichionaspis totvnsendi Cockerell, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. 
(1905), 10, 135. 
Female scale pyriform, rather broad, varying to nearly circu- 
lar, light grayish to yellowish, exuviae a little yellower. Female 
insect rather short, four large rounded prominences on each 
side, light yellowish with some blue pigment after boiling ; median 
lobes contiguous, low and broad with four crenulations formed 
by three notches, the first being very deep and strong; second 
lobes rudimentary, scarcely rising above the general margin; 
first squames small and spinelike, the others (three single ones 
at rather long intervals and then a pair) very large and long 
(Plate VI, fig. 7) . Circumgenital glands with median group of 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 39 

about 16 orifices, anterior laterals of 19 to 20, posterior laterals 
of 25. Dorsal glands not numerous. Male scale white, bluntly 
tricarinate, exuvia pale yellowish. (From the original descrip- 
tion.) 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucban (Townsend) , on Gossypium. 

Hemichionaspis aspidistra (Signoret) • 

Hemichionaspis aspidistras (Signoret) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the 
World (1903), 239; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. (1914), 33, 328, fig. 3; (1915), 34, 107. 

Female scale elongated, broadened posteriorly, 1.8 to 2.6 milli- 
meters long, 0.75 millimeter wide, yellowish brown to brown, 
exuvise slightly brighter than the scale, whole scale often very 
thin. Female with abdominal segments prominent; caudal mar- 
gin with first pair of lobes contiguous, with three distinct notches 
on the outer edge; second pair of lobes long and narrow, spatu- 
late; a spinelike plate and glandular process laterad of median 
lobes (Plate VI, fig. 10). Circumgenital glands with median 
group of 5 to 15 orifices, anterior laterals of 15 to 22, posterior 
laterals of 17 to 23. Very few dorsal pores. 

Male scale white, sides parallel, carinate, exuvia yellow, 1 to 
1.3 millimeters long (Plate V, fig. 9). (From Cooley.) 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Erythropalum scan- 
dens; Benguet, Baguio (Baker), on Piper. 

Genus PINNASPIS Cockerell 

Type, Aspidiodus buxi Bouche. 

Shape of female scale varies, being broadened posteriorly or 
across the middle or curved; second exuvise very large; caudal 
margin with two pairs of lobes, circumgenital glands present. 
Male scale similar to female. 

Synoptic table of the species. 

a 1 . Median lobes prominent, rounded apically with deep notches on outer 
sides, double second lobes shaped like the blade of an ax (Plate VI, 
fig. 13) siphonodontis. 

a'. Median lobes with two deep notches on outer sides, second lobes similarly 
notched (Plate VI, fig. 14) buxi. 

Pinnaspis siphonodontis Cockerell and Robinson. 

Pinnaspis siphonodontis Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. (1915), 34, 110. 

Female mytiliform, rather narrow, about 1.5 millimeters long, 
pale red-brown, somewhat translucent, shrunken female appear- 
ing as a dark spot. Female elongated; abdominal segments 
distinct, produced laterally into tubercles, caudal area with 



40 The Philippine Journal of Science i9n 

median lobes prominent, almost contiguous, rounded apically 
with a deep notch on the outer edges, laterad of these is a spine- 
like plate, then a pointed projection ; two lobules of second lobe 
shaped like the blade of an ax, also followed by a spinelike plate 
and a pointed projection; remainder of margin serrate with a 
few spinelike plates (Plate VI, fig. 13). Circumgenital glands 
with median group of 4 orifices, anterior laterals of 10, posterior 
laterals of 9 to 11. 

Male scale about 0.5 millimeter long, parallel-sided, strongly 
tricarinate, brown (Plate V, fig. 18) . A specimen of P. siphono- 
dontis has been determined in which the male scale is white. It 
might be possible to have a male scale with a white variety. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Celtis philippinensis, 
Sandoricum koetjape, and Siphonodon celastrineus. 

Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche). 

Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche) Fernald, Cat. Coccidae of the World (1903), 
242; Cockerell and Robinson, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1914), 
33, 329. 

Female scale elongate, only slightly broadened posteriorly, 
often curved, 2 to 2.5 millimeters long, light brown, exuviae 
somewhat lighter. Adult female oval; median lobes of caudal 
margin with three terminal notches, sides parallel and almost 
contiguous, followed by a spine and a narrow glandular process, 
second lobe with the first lobule similar to the median lobes, 
second lobule rounded, followed by a glandular process and a 
spinelike plate (Plate VI, fig. 14). Circumgenital glands with 
anterior laterals of 9 to 10 orifices, posterior laterals of 10 to 12. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker), on Homalonema philip- 
pinensis. 

HOST INDEX 



Achras sapota Linn. 

Aspidiotus cydonim var. greenii 
Ckll. 
Aleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Anona muricata Linn. 

Saissetia hemisphserica (Targ.). 
Anona squamosa Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 

Coccus elongatus (Sign.). 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. 

Coccus viridis (Green). 

Pulvinaria psidii Mask. 
Antigonon leptopus Hook, and Arn. 

Pulvinaria tyleri Ckll. 



Arachis hypogaea Linn. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Arenga saccharifera Labill. 

Chrysomphalus aurantii (Mask.). 

Chrysomphalus rossi (Mask.). 
Artocarpus sp. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn.). 

Chrysomphalus aurantii (Mask.). 

Pseudaonidia, trilobitiforwAs 

(Green). 
Asplenium nidus Linn. 

Coccus diversipes Ckll. 
Astronia sp. 

Chrysomphalus aurantii (Mask.). 
Bhimea balsamifera (Linn.) DC. 

Aspidiotus cydonise Comst. 



xn, d, i Robinson: Coccidae of the Philippine Islands 



41 



Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Calanthe sp. 

Saissetia hemisphserica (Targ.). 
Carica papaya Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Celtis philippensis Blanco. 

Fiorinia fiorinise (Targ.). 

Parlatoria pergandii Comst. 

Pinnaspis siphonodontis Ckll. 
and Rob. 
Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. 

Aspidiotus cydoniss var. greenii 
Ckll. 
Citrus sp. 

Selenaspidius articulatus Morg. 
Citrus aurantium Linn, (in market, 
from California). 

Aspidiotus rapax Comst. 
Citrus decumana Murr. 

Coccus viridis (Green). 

Icerya seychellarum (Westw.). 

Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas). 
Citrus nobilis Lour. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn.). 

Coccus viridis (Green). 

Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll. 
Cocos nucifera Linn. 

Aspidiotus destructor Sign. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn.). 

Lepidosaphes mcgregori Banks. 

Lepidosaphes unicolor Banks. 

Paralecanium cocophyllse Banks. 

Parlatoria greeni Banks. 

Phenacaspis inday Banks. 
Codiaeum variegatum (Linn.) Blume. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 

Coccus elongatus (Sign.). 

Lepidosaphes lasianthi (Green). 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 

Pulvinaria thespesise Green. 
Coffea arabica Linn. 

Pseudococcus filamentosus 

(Ckll.). 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Corypha elata Roxb. 

Aspidiotus coryphse Ckll. and 
Rob. 

Pseudaonidia curculiginis 

(Green). 



Cycas circinalis Linn. 

Chrysomphalus rossi (Mask.). 

Saissetia hemisphserica (Targ.). 
Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe. 

Paralecanium cocophyllse Banks. 
Dioscorea alata Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Diospyros kaki Linn. 

Icerya seychellarum (Westw.). 
Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. 

(=Ceiba pentandra Gaertn.) 

Chrysomphalus pedroniformis 
Ckll. and Rob. 

Saissetia nigra (Nietn.). 
Erythropalum scandens Baill. 

Hemichionaspis aspidistrase Sign. 

Lepidosaphes cocculi (Green). 
Eugenia calubcob C. B. Rob. 

Aspidiotus destructor Sign. 
Eugenia jambos Linn. 

Pulvinaria psidii Mask. 
Eugenia malaccensis Linn. 

Lepidosaphes rubrovittatus Ckll. 

Parlatoria proteus (Curt.). 
Ficus sp. 

Lepidosaphes luzonica Rob. 

Pulvinaria psidii Mask. 

Pulvinaria psidii philippina Ckll. 
Ficus caudatifolia Warb. 

Pseudaonidia obsita Ckll. and 
Rob. 
Ficus minahassae Miq. 

Icerya seychellarum (Westw.). 
Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. 

Drosicha lichenoides Ckll. 

Schizaspis lobata Ckll. and Rob. 
Garcinia sp. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn.). 
Gardenia florida Linn. 

Coccus viridis (Green). 
Gossypium sp. 

Hemichionaspis townsendi Ckll. 
Graptophyllum hortense Nees. 

[ = G. pictum (Linn.) Griff.]. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Hibiscus mutabilis Linn. 

Aspidiotus cydonise Comst. 
Homalonema philippinensis Engl. 

Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche). 
Ixora coccinea Linn. 

Lepidosaphes ixorse Ckll. and 
Rob. 



42 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



Leucosyke capitellata Wedd. 

Icerya jacobsoni Green. 
Litsea sp. 

Phenacaspis pallida Rob. 
Macaranga tanarius (Linn.) Muell.- 
Arg. 

Phenacaspis pellucida Rob. 
Machilus sp. 

Fiorinia phantasma Ckll. and 
Rob. 
Mangifera indica Linn. 

Aspidiotus destructor Sign. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 

Phenacaspis inday Banks. 
Mangifera verticillata C. B. Rob. 

Aspidiotus destructor Sign. 
Manihot utilissima Pohl. 

Saissetia nigra (Nietn.). 
Mischocarpus fuseescens Blume. 

Phenacaspis mischocarpi Ckll. 
and Rob. 
Morinda bracteata Roxb. 

Phenacaspis thoracica Rob. 
Musa sapientum Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Phoenix dactylifera Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Piper sp. 

Hemichionaspis aspidistras Sign. 
Piper loheri C. DC. 

Platylecanium oribrigerum Ckll. 
and Rob. 
Plectronia viridis Merr. 

Paralecanium luzonicum Ckll. 
Psidium araca Raddi. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Psidium guajava Linn. 

Icerya seychellarum (Westw.). 

Pulvinaria psidii Mask. 



Rosa sp. 

Aulacaspis rosse (Bouche). 
Sandoricum koetjape (Burn, f.) Merr. 

Pinnaspis siphonodontis Ckll. 
and Rob. 
ScMzostachyum acutiflorum Munro. 

Odonaspis schizostachyi Ckll. and 
Rob. 
Siphonodon celastrineus Griff. 

Pinnaspis siphonodontis Ckll. 
and Rob. 
Solanum sp. 

Pseudococcus virgatus Ckll. 
Spondias sp. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 
Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. 

Coccus viridis (Green). 
Tamarindus indica Linn. 

Aspidiotus translucens Ckll. 
Tetrastigma. 

Paralecanium luzonicum Ckll. 
Theobroma cacao Linn. 

Pseudococcus tayabanus Ckll. 
TJvaria sp. 

Hemichionaspis uvarise Ckll. and 
Rob. 
Vitis vinifera Linn. 

Chrysomphalus pedroniformis 
Ckll. and Rob. 
Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. 

Protopulvinaria longivalvata 

bakeri Ckll. 
Withania origanifolia Paill. and Bois. 

Saissetia nigra (Nietn.). 
Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.). 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS APPLIED TO COCCID^E 
Anal cleft. Incision extending from caudal margin to anal orifice. 
Anal orifice. Caudal opening of the alimentary canal (Plate IV, fig. 6; 

Plate V, fig. 2). 
Anal plate. Chitinous process around or near anal orifice (Plate II, 

fig. 15). 
Anal ring. Chitinous ring inclosing anal orifice (Plate II, fig. 15). 
Carina (je). Ridges on male or female scale (Plate VI, figs. 9 and 11). 
Carinate. Having carinse. 

Caudal area. Region near the posterior margin, also called the pygidium. 
Ceriferous glands. Glands of the caudal area, the pores of which open 

in chitinous rings (Plate I, fig. 2). 



xii, d, i Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 43 

Circumgenital gland. A gland that furnishes the secretion for covering 

the eggs. It discharges by a group of circular openings around the 

genital aperture (Plate VI, fig.. 4). 
Digitules. Projections on tarsus or claw, appearing' as knobbed or broadly 

dilated hairs. 
Dorsal pores. Oval orifices on dorsal surface, often in rows through 

which substance secreted for scale is discharged (Plate IV, fig. 4). 
Exuvia (je). Integumenta of larva and pupa, which are molted and 

incorporated in the scale (Plate V, figs. 4, 9, and 12). 
Keeled. Carinate. 
Lobes. Divisions of the caudal area occurring in pairs, often described as 

being bilobed, bidentate, bicuspid; terminal pair known as median, 

others number laterally from median (Plate IV, fig. 11). 
Lobules. Divided lobes (Plate VI, figs. 5, 10, and 13). 
Plates. Projections arising without a base, in a circle; described as 

bidentate, notched, fringed (Plate V, figs. 3 and 11). 
Scale. Shieldlike covering of insect, composed of adult secretion and 

exuviae (Plate V, figs. 4, 9, and 12). 
Spine. Projection arising from a base within a circle (Plate III, fig. 3). 
Spinelike plate. Plate similar to a spine, arising as a plate (Plate III, 

figs. 1 and 18). 
Squame. Name often applied to a spinelike plate. 
Stigmatic area. Region of breathing pore; stigmatic spines often found 

here (Plate II, figs. 5, 7, and 13). 
Tubular spinnerets. A series of cylindrical or infundibuliform glands, 

opening by dorsal pores. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Figs. 1 to 3. Icerya jacobsoni Green, 1, antenna of female, X 53; 2, 
ceriferous glands of female ; 3, adult female, dorsal view. 
(From Green.) 
Fig. 4. Icerya Candida Cockerell, antenna of female, X 75. 

5. Icerya seychellarum (Westwood), antenna of female, X 75. 
Figs. 6 and 7. Pseudococcus virgatus (Cockerell), 6, antenna of female, 
X 75; 7, hind leg of female, X 38. 
8 and 9. Pseudococcus filamentosus (Cockerell), 8, antenna of 
female, x 135; 9, fore leg of female, X 75. 
Fig. 10. Coccus elongatus (Signoret), antenna of female, X 150. 

11. Coccus diversipes Cockerell, antenna of female, X 150. 
12 Coccus viridis (Green), antenna of female, X 150. 
Plate II 
FlGS. 1 to 3. Protopulvinaria longivalvata bakeri Cockerell, 1, scale of 
female; 2, scale of male; 3, antenna of female. (From 
Cockerell.) 
4 and 5. Pulvinaria psidii Maskell, 4, antenna of female, X 195; 5, 

stigmatic area of female. 
6 and 7. Pulvinaria thespesiee Green, 6, antenna of female, X 98; 

7, stigmatic area of female. 
8 and 9. Ceroplastes gigas Cockerell, 8, caudal margin of female; 9, 
cephalic margin of female. (From Cockerell.) 
Fig. 10. Paralecanium luzonicum Cockerell, antenna of female, 

X 195. 
FlGS. 11 to 13. Paralecanium cocophyllse Banks, 11, antenna of female 
(from Banks) ; 12, antenna of female, X 195; IS, mar- 
ginal plates and stigmatic area of female (from Banks) . 
14 to 17. Platylecanium cribrigerum Cockerell and Robinson, 14, 
compound cribriform plates of female; 15, anal plates 
and ring of female; 16, antenna of female; 17, dermal 
processes of female. 
Fig. 18. Saissetia hemisphzerica (Targioni Tozzetti), dermal pores 

of female. 
19. Saissetia nigra (Nietner), dermal pores of female. 
Plate III 
Figs. 1 and 2. Odonaspis schizostachyi Cockerell and Robinson, 1, caudal 
margin of female; 2, scales on adult female. 
3 and 4. Fiorinia fiorinise (Targioni Tozzetti), 3, caudal margin 
of female (from Cooley) ; 4, scale of female (after 
Newstead). 

45 



46 The Philippine Journal of Science 1m 

Figs. 5 to 7. Fiorinia phantasma Cockerell and Robinson, 5, caudal 
margin of female; 6, caudal margin of second stage 
female; 7, adult female at period of gestation. 
8 to 10. Aulacaspis rosse, (Bouche), 8, caudal margin of female; 
9, female scale (after Newstead) ; 10, scale of second 
stage female (after Newstead) . 
11 and 12. Phenacaspis inday (Banks), 11, caudal margin of female; 

It, female scale. (After Banks.) 
13 and 14. Phenacaspis mischocarpi Cockerell and Robinson, IS, 
caudal margin of female; 1%, female scale. 
Fig. 15. Phenacaspis pellucida sp. nov., caudal margin of female. 

Figs. 16 and 17. Phenacaspis thoracica sp. nov., 16, adult female; 17, 

caudal margin of female. 
Fig. 18. Phenacaspis pallida sp. nov., caudal margin of female. 

Plate IV 

Figs. 1 and 2. Chrysomphalus aurantii (Maskell), 1, caudal margin of 

female; 2, adult female. 
Fig. 3. Chrysomphalus pedroniformis Cockerell and Robinson, 

caudal margin of female. 

4. Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnasus), caudal margin of 

female. 

5. Chrysomphalus rossi (Maskell), caudal margin of female. 
Figs. 6 and 7. Schizaspis lobata Cockerell and Robinson, 6, caudal mar- 
gin of female; 7, adult female. 

Fig. 8. Parlatoria ziziphus (Lucas), caudal margin of female. 

9. Parlatoria proteus (Curtis), caudal margin of female 
(from Palmer). 

10. Parlatoria greeni Banks, caudal margin of female (from 

Banks). 

11. Parlatoria pergandii Comstock, caudal margin of female. 
Figs. 12 and 13. Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan), 12, caudal margin of 

female; 13, adult female. (From Newstead.) 

Plate V 

FlG. 1. Aspidiotus cydonise Comstock, caudal margin of female 

(after Comstock). 
2. Aspidiotus coryphse Cockerell and Robinson, caudal mar- 
gin of female. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, 3, caudal margin of 
female; 4, female scale (from Banks). 

Fig. 5. Aspidiotus translucens Cockerell, caudal margin of female 

(after Green). 

6. Aspidiotus tayabanus Cockerell, caudal margin of female 

(from Cockerell). 

7. Aspidiotus rapax Comstock, caudal margin of female 

(after Comstock). 

8. Pseudaonidia obsita Cockerell and Robinson, caudal mar- 

gin of female. 
Figs. 9 and 10. Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green), 9, female scale; 10, 
caudal margin of female. (After Green.) 



xn, d, 1 Robinson: Coccidse of the Philippine Islands 47 

Fig. 11. Pseudaonidia circuliginis (Green), caudal margin of 

female. 
Figs. 12 and 13. Lepidosaphes rubrovitattus Cockerell, 12, female scale; 

IS, caudal margin of female. (From Cockerell.) 
Fig. 14. Lepidosaphes lasianthi (Green), caudal margin of female. 

Plate VI 

Fig. 1. Lepidosaphes luzonica sp. nov., caudal margin of female. 

2. Lepidosaphes ixorse Cockerell and Robinson, caudal margin 

of female. 

3. Lepidosaphes cocculi (Green) caudal margin of female. 

4. Lepidosaphes mcgregori Banks, caudal margin of female 

(after Banks). 

5. Lepidosaphes unicolor Banks, caudal margin of female 

(after Banks). 

6. Hemichionaspis uvarise Cockerell and Robinson, caudal 

margin of female. 

7. Hemichionaspis townsendi Cockerell, caudal margin of 

female. 
Figs. 8 to 10. Hemichionaspis aspidistras, (Signoret), 8, female scale; 9, 

male scale; 10, caudal margin of female. 
Figs. 11 to 13. Pinnaspis siphonodontis Cockerell and Robinson, 11, white 

male scale; 12, brown male scale; IS, caudal margin 

of female. 
Fig. 14. Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche), caudal margin of female (after 

Comstock) . 

[Vol. XI, Sec. D, No. 5, of this Journal was issued January 3, 1917; 
No. 6 was issued March 22, 1917.] 



Robinson : Philippine Coccid^e.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 1. 




PLATE I. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



Roiiinson : Philippine CoccidjE.] 



[Phil. Joukn. Sci., XII, D, No. 1. 





Hi 







12 





15 




§ 



IS 



N\ it. 



-A 




u 



17 



19 



PLATE II. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



Robinson : Philippine Coccid/e.] 



Phil. Jocrn. Sci., XII, D, No. 1. 




PLATE III. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



Robinson: Philippine Coccid/E.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 1. 



Mj 



1 







ni 







'/%A*H 




fnk 



'wiu 









PLATE IV. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



Robinson: Philippine Coccid^e.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII. D, No. 1. 




6 °J 




PLATE V. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



Robinson : Philippine CoccidjE.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 1. 




PLATE VI. PHILIPPINE COCCID/E. 



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Page. 

ROBINSON, ELIZABETH. Coccidae of the Philippine Islands 

[scale insects] 1 



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Vol. XII MARCH, 1917 No. 2 



THE DERBID^E OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By Frederick Muir 
(The Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii) 

ONE PLATE AND FOUR TEXT FIGURES 

The Philippine Archipelago bids fair to be one of the richest 
regions in the world in the delicate little insects included in 
the family Derbidse. For many years the four species recorded 
by Stal x were all that were known from the Archipelago ; Banks 
has added a few species, and Melichar, working upon a part 
of Professor Baker's collection, has added others. The present 
paper brings the total to 98 species in 39 genera. There are 
about a dozen species of the Rhotaninse that I have not yet been 
able to identify satisfactorily, so that the total number of species 
now known is well over one hundred. 

The material I had at my disposal was the large collection 
made by Prof. C. F. Baker, collections belonging to the Philippine 
Bureau of Science and the College of Agriculture, and collections 
made by myself during my three visits to Luzon. The greater 
portion of the Baker collection and all of my own were made on 
Mount Maquiling and in the neighboring district of Los Banos, 
situated in Laguna Province, Luzon; apart from these, a few 
specimens from Baguio, Mount Banahao, and a few other local- 
ities are all we have of the Derbidae of Luzon. The large island 
of Mindanao is represented by small collections from Davao, 
Zamboanga, and one or two other localities; there are a few 

'O/d. Vet. Akad. Forh. (1870), 27, 750. 

147575 49 




50 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

specimens from, the adjacent island of Basilan. A few speci- 
mens from Palawan and from Negros complete the material 
known from the Archipelago. It is evident, therefore, that our 
collections are far too incomplete to judge with any certainty of 
the endemism in the various islands. Of the 98 species listed, 
68 are recorded from Luzon and 36 from Mindanao, only 12 
being common to the two islands. I believe that further col- 
lecting will show a very high percentage of species peculiar to 
the different islands. Many of the species have been erected 
upon characters found in the male genitalia — the form of the 
pygophor, anal segment, and genital styles being the characters 
used — but the final word on endemism will not be spoken until 
a careful comparison has been made of the sedeagi of the species 
represented in two or more islands. The case of Kamendaka 
mindanensis and its three allies is a good illustration of the 
truth of this contention. Objections have been raised to 
"phallic" species, but if distinct structural differences are found 
in these organs, I fail to see why they should not be considered 
specific. If an equal difference in structure were to be found in 
the head, the thorax, or the abdomen, there would be no objection 
to treating them as specific; in fact in some cases they would 
be used for erecting genera. Unfortunately the majority of 
fulgorids have been described without any reference to their sex. 

Of the 98 Philippine derbids, only 13 are reported from 
foreign countries, and these are mainly from Borneo and Java. 
This confirms a remark I made elsewhere that there is a high 
endemism among these insects in the islands of the Malay Ar- 
chipelago. The derbid fauna of British India, including Ceylon 
and Burmah, numbers 53 species, that of Java numbers less 
than 30, and more collecting has been done in those regions than 
in the Philippine Islands. 

But little is known of the life history of these small creatures ; 
the eggs have never been described, and I have failed to find 
them. The few nymphs that have been described all live in 
rotten wood or under old bark. Proutista mcesta (Westwood) 
is a common insect on sugar cane in Java, the Philippine Islands, 
Formosa, and some other countries of the Pacific, but nothing 
is known of its eggs or young. 

Fifty-five of the 68 species of derbids found in Luzon have 
been taken on Mount Maquiling and in the neighboring locality 
of Los Banos. This is a remarkable botanical and entomo- 
logical region and deserves a passing reference. Sixty-five kilo- 
meters from the city of Manila, the mountain rises from the 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 51 

southern shore of Laguna de Bay. This lake is the largest body 
of fresh water in the Archipelago and nearly cuts Luzon into 
two portions, its western shore being about 15 kilometers from 
Manila Bay and its eastern shore less than 30 kilometers from 
the eastern coast. The mountain rises to the height of 1,143 
meters, and its base covers an area of some 10,000 hectares; it 
is of volcanic origin, but the only signs of volcanic activity at 
present are a small, boiling-mud crater, on the northeast flank 
of the mountain, and a series of hot mineral springs, along 
the northern base, some of which arise at the edge of Laguna 
de Bay and give the name to the town of Los Bahos. 

The mountains along the eastern coast hold back the moisture 
of the winter monsoons, so that the western portion of the 
island experiences considerable dryness from January to May; 
Mount Maquiling is on the eastern edge of this dry district, 
but its peak is high enough to support a wet forest. Mount 
Banahao (some 2,300 meters high) is only 50 kilometers from 
the former mountain and is well within the wet, eastern district. 
The difference in the growth of vegetation in these two districts 
is very great. 

The flora of Mount Maquiling has been investigated by Dr. 
F. W. Foxworthy, of the Bureau of Forestry; by Dr. E. B. 
Copeland, of the College of Agriculture; and by Dr. W. H. 
Brown, of the Bureau of Science. There have been recorded 
from the mountain 1,814 species of ferns and of flowering plants, 
representing 164 families; 800 of these species are trees. Not 
only are the plant species on the mountain remarkably numerous, 
but the mixed nature of the vegetation in any one station is 
also notable. 

As might have been expected, the rich and varied flora of the 
mountain supports a rich insect fauna. Of the many species 
that Professor Baker and his collector, Julian Valdez, have al- 
ready secured, only a small part has been identified or described. 

Few finer localities than Mount Maquiling could be found for 
the establishment of a biological station; situated on the edge 
of a large lake, with higher mountains in a different climatic 
province within easy reach, this natural botanic garden should 
be to the northwestern portion of the triangular area compris- 
ing the Malay Archipelago what Buitenzorg is to the south- 
western portion. The College of Agriculture and the School 
of Forestry are situated at the northeastern foot of the moun- 
tain and form a center around which a biological station could 
be formed. Although the facilities one finds at Buitenzorg are 



52 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

lacking at Los Bafios, yet the same spirit of hospitality and 
the desire to assist visiting naturalists are present, and it is 
to be hoped that at a not too far distant date means will be 
found to enable workers to take full advantage of this wonderful 
botanical and entomological field. 

As an economic entomologist who has spent a number of years 
traveling in the Malay and South Pacific Islands in search of 
beneficial insects, I can fully appreciate the practical value of an 
entomological station in such a locality. Why should the moth 
sugar-cane borer (Diatrsea striatalis Sn.) be so numerous and 
destructive in Java and Formosa and rare in the Philippine 
Islands? Why should one species of leaf -hopper (Perkinsiella) 
nearly ruin the sugar industry in the Hawiian Islands 
and seven species do only minor damage in the Philippine 
Islands? What keeps in check the thousands of phytophagous 
insects of great fecundity and rapid development that inhabit 
these tropical islands? These and similar problems when 
solved will be the saving of valuable crops all over the Tropics, 
and the knowledge of these subjects will enable us to reason on 
biological subjects, such as natural selection and evolution, with 
a better understanding. In the past experimental zoology has 
been undertaken almost entirely in temperate climates, but in 
the future a great portion of this will be done in the Tropics 
on account of the greater facilities. Biologists working on the 
laws of inheritance often have to wait a year for one generation 
in the Temperate Zones; whereas, in the Tropics, it would be 
possible to have ten or a dozen in the same period. For these 
and for other reasons I would plead for biological stations in 
such localities as Mount Maquiling — even if, by so doing, I stray 
away from the subject of this paper. 

In a former paper 2 I attempted to tabulate all of the genera 
of Derbidae. Since then many forms have passed through my 
hands, and the tables have stood the test fairly well. Except 
in certain details I am not inclined to make many alterations 
in that work. What I formerly called groups I now treat as 
subfamilies. Nisia and its allies I excluded from the family; 
Derbe and Mysidia I at present place with the Zoraida group; 
Rhotana, along with five or six allied genera, remain in old group 
IV (Rhotaninse) . 

The horismology of the neuration is indicated in the figures; 
the "shoulder keels" are well-developed carina? extending from 
the anterior margin of the pronotum near back of eye to the 

'Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, Div. Ent. (1913), 12. 



XII, D, 2 



Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 



53 



posterior margin of pronotum ; in some cases these are continued 
along the hind edge to the lateral margins, which are curved and 
form a chamber — the "antennal chamber" — behind the antennae ; 
the "subantennal process" is a flange, or plate, on the gena below 
the antenna. 

All measurements are taken from apex of head to anus and 
from apex to base of one tegmen. 

My thanks are due to Prof. C. F. Baker for the loan of his 
collection and for the gift of many specimens, including types; 
to Prof. C. S. Banks for allowing me to work over the collection 
of the Bureau of Science and for gifts of specimens; and to 
the dean and the faculty of the College of Agriculture, University 
of the Philippines, for their help and hospitality during my stay 
in the Philippine Islands, while studying the parasites of cer- 
tain lamellicorn beetles. 

Types, when not otherwise stated, will be deposited in the 
collection of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Honolulu, 
Hawaii, which already contains nearly a third of the types of 
this family. 

The following genera and species are considered in this paper : 

PHILIPPINE DERBIDSE 



Goneokara pullum Muir. 
Neocyclokara flava g. et sp. nov. 
Phaciocephala badia sp. nov. 
Phaciocephala pseudobadia sp. nov. 
Syntames tubulifer Melichar. 
Herpis flavescens sp. nov. 
Herpis philippina sp. nov. 
Herpis pallidinervis sp. nov. 
Vefcunta lineata Melichar. 
Vekunta palawanensis sp. nov. 
Lamenia albicosta sp. nov. 
Lamenia bakeri sp. nov. 
Lamenia philippina sp. nov. 
Lamenia flavescens Melichar. 
Lamenia pseudotypicus (Muir). 
Lamenia croceus (Muir). 
Lamenia pallidinervis sp. nov. 
Neolamenia flava g. et sp. nov. 
Pyrrhoneura maculata sp. nov. 
Phantasmatocera fuscofasciata sp. 

nov. 
Dendrokara monstrosa Melichar. 
Dendrokara torva Melichar. 
Neodendrokara crescentiformis g. et 

sp. nov. 



Nesokaha lineata Muir. 
Nesokaha philippina Muir. 
Nesokaha rubrinervis sp. nov. 
Nesokaha nigropunctata sp. nov. 
Kaha flava sp. nov. 
Kaha pseudomedia sp. nov. 
Kaha angulata sp. nov. 
Eosaccharissa philippina sp. nov. 
Eosaccharissa pulchra sp. nov. 
Eosaccharissa fusca sp. nov. 
Kamendaka mindanensis sp. nov. 
Kamendaka luzonensis sp. nov. 
Kamendaka tayabasensis sp. nov. 
Kamendaka maquilingensis sp. nov. 
Kamendaka flava sp. nov. 
Kamendaka incommoda sp. nov. 
Nicerta palawanensis sp. nov. 
Megatropis oblique fas data Melichar. 
Megatropis immaculata Muir. 
Megatropis sanguinea sp. nov. 
Megatropis interruptolineata Me- 
lichar. 
Banksiella pulchra g. et. sp. nov. 
Leptaleocera nigrofasciata sp. nov. 



54 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



Leptaleocera bakeri Melichar. 
Leptaleocera banksi sp. nov. 
Heronax maculipennis (Melichar) 

comb. nov. 
Mysidioides tagalica sp. nov. 
Zeugma valdezi sp. nov. 
Zoraida insulicola Kirkaldy. 
Zoraida maculata sp. nov. 
Zoraida javanica (Westwood) . 
Zoraida westwoodii (Stal). 
Zoraida lutescens sp. nov. 
Zoraida hyalina Melichar. 
Zoraida ftaviventris sp. nov. 
Zoraida sinuosa (Boheman)? 
Zoraida melichari sp. nov. 
Losbanosia bakeri g. et sp. nov. 
Peggia nitida (Stal) . comb. nov. 
Peggia irrorata sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis dorsimaculata sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis pallida sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis pseudojavana sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis puncticosta (Melichar) 

comb. nov. 
Peggiopsis dorsopunctata (Melichar) 

comb. nov. 
Peggiopsis pseudopuncticosta sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis flavicornis (Melichar) 

comb. nov. 
Peggiopsis pseudoflavicornis sp. nov. 
Peggiopsis stali sp. nov. 



Mindana latifrons g. et sp. nov. 
Proutista mossta (Westwood) . 
Proutista nigritarsis sp. nov. 
Neocamma trifasciata Melichar. 
Paraproutista trifasciata sp. nov. 
Paraproutista luzonensis sp. nov. 
Paraproutista maculipennis (Banks) 

comb. nov. 
Paraproutista platypes sp. nov. 
Paraproutista fuscipennis sp. nov. 
Acanthocera punctifrons Melichar. 
Sikaiana makii Muir. 
Sikaiana vitriceps sp. nov. 
Muiria iridescens sp. nov. 
Leomelicharia nigrovittata sp. nov. 
Leomelicharia delicata sp. nov. 
Leomelicharia delicatissima sp. nov. 
Leomelicharia pulchra sp. nov. 
Distantinia nigrocacuminis g. et sp. 

nov. 
Rhotana punctovenosa Melichar. 
Rhotana excelsa Melichar. 
Rhotana basipunctulata Melichar. 
Levu lucida Muir. 
Levu irrorata sp. nov. 
Decora pavo Bierman. 
Mecynorhynchus fuscus Muir. 
Mecynorhynchus hyalinus Muir. 
Mecynorhynchus kershawi Muir. 
Mecynorhynchus nigropunctatus 

nom. nov. 



The following characters will separate the subfamilies, the 
tribes, and the genera of the present known Philippine forms : 

Key to the subfamilies of Philippine Derbidse. 

a\ Tegmina exceptionally long and narrow, wings less than half the length 
of tegmina, sometimes very minute; or, if wings longer, cubitus 

with 3 to 11 veins reaching hind margin Derbinae. 

a 2 . Tegmina not long and narrow, wings more than half the length of 
tegmina. 
b 1 . Cubital veins not reaching to hind margin, but ending in the extended 
claval vein; third claval cell open, extending along hind margin to 

last apical cell Otiocerinae. 

b". Cubital veins ending in hind margin of tegmen ; third claval cell closed, 
not extending to last apical cell. 
c\ Cubitus simple or furcate, not running into first median sector. 

Cenchreinae. 

c 2 . Cubitus connected with first median sector, forming an angular or 

diamond-shaped cell, sometimes with a cross vein near base of 

first sector, forming a triangular cell Rhotaninae. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 55 

Key to the genera of Philippine Cenchreinse. 

a\ Subcosta and radius separate from near base, subcostal cell long. 
ft 1 . No subantennal process, or, if present, very small. 

c\ Shoulder keels large, forming a distinct antennal chamber. 

Phaciocephalus. 
c 2 . Shoulder keels absent or very small, forming no distinct antennal 

chamber Goneokara. 

b 2 . Subantennal process well developed. 

d n . Subcosta and radius separate from near base; tegmen with apex 

broad, roundly truncate Herpis. 

d 2 . Subcosta and radius separate slightly before middle; tegmen long, 

apex pointed Neocyclokara. 

a 2 . Subcosta and radius contiguous to middle or beyond; subcostal cell short. 

e 1 . Subantennal process absent or but slightly developed Vekunta. 

e 2 . Subantennal process present. 
f. Antenna? reaching to apex of head, large and flattened.. ..Neolamenia. 
f. Antennae small, subovate or subpyriform Lamenia. 

Key to the genera of Philippine Otiocerinse. 

a 1 . Media not contiguous to radius or separating before the forking of 
subcosta and radius. 
b 1 . First median sector arising before the apical third of tegmen. 

c 1 . Forking of subcosta and radius occurring at or before the middle 
of tegmen; subcostal cell long. 
d 1 . Antennae with first joint long, much longer than wide. 

e 1 . No subantennal process Dendrokara. 

e 2 . Subantennal process present Neodendrokara. 

d\ First joint of antenna? short; not or but little longer than wide. 
f 1 . No subantennal process. 

g 1 . In profile vertex and face forming a curve, not produced 

greatly in front of eyes Pyrrhoneura. 

g 2 . In profile head angular or extending well in front of eyes. 
h 1 . Carinae of vertex meeting at apex, in profile angular at 

junction .of face and vertex S Phantasmatocera. 

h 2 . Carinae of vertex not meeting, in profile face and vertex 

forming a continuous curve ? Phantasmatocera. 

f. Subantennal process present. 

i 1 . In profile head with vertex forming a curve, face not greatly 

produced Nesokaha. 

i*. In profile head with vertex quadrate or angular, greatly 

produced Kaha. 

c 2 . Forking of subcosta and radius beyond middle of tegmen; subcostal 
cell short. 
j 1 . In profile vertex and face obtusely angular; face strongly curved, 

especially on apical half Eosaccharissa. 

j 2 . In profile vertex and face acutely angular; face only slightly 

curved Kamendaka. 

b 2 . Median sectors confined to apical third of tegmen. 

k 1 . Costal edge of tegmen not entire Banksiella. 

k. 2 Costal edge of tegmen entire. 

P. Eyes in front reaching nearly to base of clypeus. 



56 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

to 1 . Eyes reaching margin of clypeus, reniform, anterior half equal 

in size to posterior half Nicerta. 

m 2 . Eye reaching not quite to base of clypeus, subreniform, anterior 

half much narrower than posterior half Leptaleocera. 

I 2 . Eye in front not reaching nearly to base of clypeus... .Megatropis. ' 
a 2 . Media not separating from radius until after forking of subcosta and 
radius. 

n 1 . Subantennal process absent ..._ Heronax. 

n 2 . Subantennal process present JMysidioides. 

Key to the genera of Philippine Derbinse. 

a x . Eyes in front not reaching to base of clypeus, subcostal cell long, some- 
times very narrow (Derbini). 

b 1 . Shoulder keels large, subantennal process present Zeugma. 

b 2 . Shoulder keels not large, subantennal process absent. 
c\ Antennae terete, subterete, ovate, or subovate. 

dr. Four cubital veins reaching hind margin, first median sector 
included in cubital system; antennas large, longer than face 
(female with genital styles normally developed). 

e\ Hind edge of tegmen entire Zoraida. 

e 2 . Hind edge of tegmen serrate Losbafiosia. 

dr. Antenna? short, not longer than face (female with genital styles 
abortive) . 
f. Clavus closed, claval suture and vein entering hind margin 
(according to Melichar's figures). 
g 1 . Subcosta and radius separating near base, amalgamating at 

apex; clypeus large, carina? distinct Neocamma. 

g 2 . Subcosta and radius not amalgamated at apex; clypeus 

smaller, carina? indistinct _ Acanthocera. 

p. Clavus open, first claval vein extended to cubital system. 

h 1 . Media with 4 or 5 unbranched sectors Proutista. 

h 2 . Media with 4 or 5 sectors, the second furcate (first true 

sector attached to cubital system) Paraproutista. 

c 2 . Antenna? flattened (female with genital styles normally developed). 

t*. Basal fourth of costa arcuate Peggia.* 

V s . Basal fourth of costa not arcuate. 

f. Face very narrow, vertex not broader than long Peggiopsis. 

j. 2 Face nearly as broad as long, vertex broader than long..Mindana. 
a 2 . Subcostal cell very short or absent; eyes in front reaching to base of 
clypeus (female with genital styles abortive) (Sikaianini). 
kr. Cubitus arising from base of tegmen, basal median cell present. 

Z\ Basal median cell broad and short, not reaching halfway along 
tegmen. 
to 1 . Antenna? much shorter than thorax and head together, cylindrical, 

slightly constricted about middle Sikaiana. 

m 2 . Antenna? as long as head and thorax together or nearly so. 

Muiria. 
P. Basal median cell very narrow, reaching to about middle of tegmen. 

Leomelicliaria. 
fc 2 . Cubitus arising from media about one fourth from base....Distantinia. 
* As I am in doubt as to this genus, I leave it distinct from Peggiopsis for the present. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 57 

Key to the genera of Philippine Rhotaninsz. 

a\ Lateral carinae of face not contiguous, or only so for a very short distance 

between eyes; face not linear ...Decora. 

a 2 . Lateral carinas of face contiguous to near apex. 
ft 1 . Triangular cell at base of first median sector. 

c\ Shoulder keels well developed levu. 

c 2 . Shoulder keels absent or very slightly developed Rhotana. 

b 2 . No triangular cell at the base of first median sector. 

Mecynorhynchus. 

DERBIDiE 

CENCHREIN^E 
Genus GONEOKARA Muir 

Goneokara pullum Muir. 

Goneokara pullum Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. 
Ent. (1913), 12, 33. 

Mindanao, Dapitan (Baker), one male. The type of this 
species is from Borneo. 

Genus NEOCYCLOKARA novum 

Neuration of tegmina similar to that of Cyclokara girdlestoni 
Muir; two cubital veins, four median sectors, the first furcate; 
wings reaching one fourth from apex of tegmina. Vertex sub- 
quadrate, base wider than apex, in profile making a continuous 
curve with face; much longer than broad, apex broader than 
base, narrowest between eyes, sides carinate, slightly arcuate; 
clypeus large, a little longer than face, flat on sides and front, 
lateral carina? distinct, median indistinct, apex reaching hind 
coxas, apex of labium reaching apex of abdomen; subantennal 
plate forming a quadrate plate below antenna, longer than 
broad; antennae very small, ovate. Pronotum widely and 
shallowly emarginate on hind margin, shoulder keels well 
developed, lateral margins turned dorsad and forming, with 
subantennal plate, an antennal chamber; mesonotum broader 
than long, posterior angle rounded, lateral angles behind middle. 

Neocyclokara flava sp. nov. Plate I, figs. 9 and 17. 

Male. — Yellow, slightly fuscous on abdominal tergites. Teg- 
mina hyaline, opaquely white with waxy secretion, a light fuscous 
mark across clavus, another from hind margin at apex of clavus 
to media, and as a narrow, bent mark to costa, bases of median 
sectors fuscous, and with fuscous at apices of subcostal and 
radial cells; wings opaquely white with waxy secretion, veins 
white. 



58 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges obtuse- 
angularly produced along the side of the anal segment; anal 
segment very small, annular; genital styles long, apex rounded, 
dorsal edge straight, ventral edge produced into an obtuse angle 
in middle, two curved spines on the inner side about middle, 
one near the dorsal and the other near the ventral edge. 

Length, 2 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Female. — Similar to the male in size and color. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), cotype in College of 
Agriculture, No. 18101; Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker). 
The type is a male from Baguio. 

Genus PHACIOCEPHALA Kirkaldy 

Phaciocephala badia sp. nov. 

Male. — Clypeus, face, vertex, and dorsum of thorax and ab- 
domen black or fuscous brown, the rest fuscous yellow; in some 
specimens face and clypeus also yellow; tibise and tarsi fuscous. 
Tegmina hyaline, fuscous, veins much darker, darker color 
spreading into cell ; wings fuscous, veins brown. The whole in- 
sect often covered with white, waxy secretion which gives it a 
blue-black appearance. 

Ventral edge of pygophor angularly produced, lateral edges 
slightly arcuate; anal segment narrowly cordate, the broadest 
portion forming the apex, a narrow emargination extending 
nearly to anus, anus in middle; genital styles long, dorsal edge 
entire, slightly curved upward, basal half of ventral edge sub- 
parallel to dorsal edge, then produced into a quadrate process 
beyond which it tapers to the pointed apex. 

Female. — Posterior edge of pregenital sternite roundly pro- 
duced in middle. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 6. 

Luzon, Los Banos (Baker, Muir) ; Mount Maquiling and 
Mount Banahao (Baker), cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 
18117. This comes near to P. funebris Muir 3 from Larat. 

Phaciocephala pseudohadia sp. nov. 

Yellow or very light brown, a dark brown spot in antennal 
chamber; posterior border of pronotum, carina? of vertex, and 
anal segment dark fuscous or brown, dorsum of abdomen fuscous, 
apices of tibiae fuscous; tegmina hyaline, opaque with waxy 
secretion, veins brown, the color spreading into cells, especially 
on basal half; wings hyaline, opaque with waxy secretion, veins 
brown. 

'Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. Ent. (1913), 12, 35. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidee of the Philippine Islands 59 

The genitalia differ from those of P. badia in having the 
medioventral process more acute; the anal segment wider, with 
the apical emargination slightly wider; the quadrate process on 
dorsal edge of genital style more rounded; and the apex shorter 
and blunter. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 6. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), cotype in College 
of Agriculture, No. 18102, on nipa palm, Nipa fructicans 
Wurmb. 

This species, like P. badia, is often covered with a white waxy 
secretion. 

Genus SYNTAMES Fowler 

Syntames tubulifer Melichar. 

Syntames tubulifer- Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 269. 

I consider that this species represents a new genus of Cixiidse ; 
the neuration is not that of Syntames, and the long apical joint 
of the labium excludes it from the Derbidse. The peculiar ab- 
dominal structures are somewhat allied to those of Benna and 
Bennaria. 

Genus HERPIS Stal 

Herpis flavescens sp. nov. 

Congeneric with H. vulgaris (Fitch) ; subcosta and radius 
separate from base, vertex broader than long. 

Male. — Yellow or fuscous yellow, eyes dark brown, dorsum 
of abdomen darker. Tegmina yellow or fuscous yellow, veins 
slightly darker; wings fuscous with brown veins. 

Pygophor short, ventral and lateral edges straight; anal seg- 
ment considerably longer than wide, gradually narrowing to 
near middle, then subparallel-sided to apex, which is obtusely 
pointed, a small dorsal ridge near the middle of base, anal style 
at apex on ventral surface; genital styles large, subquadrate, 
narrowest at base, widest at apex, on apical edge two small, 
angular projections turned inward. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite exceedingly short at sides, pos- 
terior edge angularly produced. 

Length, 1.75 millimeters; tegmen, 3.75. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker, Muir) ; Malinao 
(Banks) ; Laguna, Los Baiios (Banks) , College of Agriculture, 
No. 18119. 

Herpis philippina sp. nov. 

Male. — Face, clypeus, legs, and sides of pronotum yellow, rest 
fuscous brown. Tegmina dark fuscous, veins darker; wings 



60 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

fuscous with dark veins. The insect sometimes entirely covered 
with a white, waxy secretion giving it a blue-black appearance. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly and 
very obtusely angular ; anal segment long, narrow, apex and base 
subequal in width, narrowing to middle, a small dorsal projection 
near base, anus at apex, below which the apical corners are 
produced into two small spines; genital styles large, broadly 
lanceolate, apex turned inward and produced into a long spine. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite very short at sides, angularly 
produced to middle. 

Length, 2.25 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Muir) ; Tayabas, Lucena (Banks) , 
cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 18118. 

Herpis pallidinervis sp. nov. 

Male. — Vertex a little broader than long, a fine carina divides 
it from face; carinse of mesonotum straight, parallel. Neura- 
tion of tegmina irregular, three small spurs from subcosta into 
costal cell and four from radius into radial cell forming three 
small, incomplete cells within the radial cell. Brown, carina? 
of head and thorax lighter brown. Tegmina brown with pale 
veins ; wings fuscous with dark veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly ar- 
cuate; anal segment subquadrate, length about twice the width 
of base, apex truncate and narrower than base, anus at apex; 
genital styles subquadrate, base narrower than apex, apex sub- 
truncate with a deep emargination, a deep keel extends from 
base to apex down the middle, a small rounded process arises 
from the inside of the dorsal edge near the middle. 

Length, 2 millimeters ; tegmen, 3.7. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Pregenital sternite short, espe- 
cially at sides, posterior edge obtuse-angularly produced from 
sides to middle ; anal segment very small, apex rounded. 

Mindanao, Davao {Baker). 

Genus VEKUNTA Distant 

Vekunta lineata Melichar. 

Vekunta lineata Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 270 
This species is known to me only from the original description. 

Vekunta palawanensis sp. nov. 

Female. — Light reddish yellow or brown, head and pronotum 
lighter than mesonotum, darker mark on pleura, dorsum of ab- 
domen darker brown. Tegmina hyaline, opaque with waxy 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 61 

secretion, yellowish, veins darker; wings fuscous with darker 
veins, opaque with waxy secretion. 

Pregenital sternite short at sides, median third of posterior 
edge produced into lanceolate process reaching a third from apex 
of styles; anal segment short, broadly lanceolate, not reaching 
to apex of genital styles, anus in middle. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker). 

Genus LAMENIA Stal 

Lamenia albicosta sp. nov. 

Female. — Vertex slightly longer than wide, subantennal pro- 
cess forming a semicircular plate. Dark fuscous brown or 
black ; antennas, subantennal plate, clypeus, rostrum, and a broad 
posterior margin on pronotum yellow; legs and abdominal ster- 
nites light brown, front femora and bands on front tibiae fus- 
cous. Basal half of tegmina fuscous, apical half fuscous on 
veins extending into cells, a white band along costa widening 
at end of costal cell. 

Pregenital sternite with median third of posterior edge slightly 
produced, apex of production truncate. 

Length, 2.75 millimeters ; tegmen, 5. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

Lamenia bakeri sp. nov. 

Male. — Dark shining brown or black, antennas, legs, and base 
of abdomen lighter, first and second tibiae with fuscous bands. 
Tegmina dark, shining brown or black, a long yellowish spot on 
costa at end of costal cell with a dark spot in the middle of it. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges angularly 
produced; anal segment large, length about three times the 
width, anus in basal third, sides subparallel to about middle then 
gradually converging to the obtusely pointed apex, in lateral 
view ventral edge straight; genital style long, narrow, curved 
upward, sides straight on basal half then gradually narrowing 
to the acutely pointed apex ; a small, sharp spine arises from the 
inner surface near the base. 

Length, 3 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and size. Posterior 
edge of the pregenital sternite slightly produced from sides to 
middle third, which is produced into a subconical process with 
an obtuse apex and a slightly constricted base and with its disk 
raised into a small round knob. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 



62 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Lamenia philippina sp. nov. 

Male. — Dark shining brown, lighter over legs and ventral sur- 
face. Tegmina dark shining brown with a small light dot at 
the apex of costal cell. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly 
rounded ; anal segment long and narrow, length nearly four times 
the width, anus about one third from base, sides subparallel on 
basal half, gradually converging to apex, which is curved ven- 
trad; a deep, narrow cleft from apex halfway to anus; genital 
styles long and narrow, the apices acute and curved upward; a 
sharp spine arises from the inner surface near base. 

Length, 2.7 millimeters ; tegmen, 4. 

Female unknown. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

Lamenia flavescens Melichar. 

Lamenia flavescens Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., See. D (1914), 9, 179. 

Placed by its author with Nisia, in the Achilinae. Specimens 
from the type locality that I identify as this species have the 
following genital characters: 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges an- 
gularly produced; length of anal segment a little more than 
twice the width, anus in middle, sides parallel to middle, then 
gradually converging to the bluntly pointed apex; genital style 
long and narrow, slightly constricted just before the subtrun- 
cate apex; otherwise the edges subparallel, a quadrate process 
wider than high arises from the inner surface near base. 

Female. — The posterior edge of the pregenital sternite slightly 
produced on lateral third, but steeply so on the median third, 
the production longer than broad at base, with rounded apex; 
sternite, including the production, longer than broad. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker), one male, which agrees with the 
Maquiling specimens ; Laguna, Los Bafios (Banks) , College of 
Agriculture, No. 18116. 

Lamenia pseudotypicus (Muir). 

Thyrocephalus pseudotypicus Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. 
Assoc, Div.'Ent. (1913), 12, 40. 

Two specimens from Mindanao — one from Davao and the 
other from Zamboanga (Baker) — appear to be this species, pre- 
viously known from Borneo. 

Mindanao, Zamboanga and Davao (Baker). 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 63 

Lamenia croceus (Muir) . 

Thyrocephalus croceus Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, 
Div. Ent. (1913), 12, 39. 

One pair from Mindanao, Davao (Baker), which I provision- 
ally place under this species. In color and size it is similar to 
the following species (L. pallidinervis) from which it differs in 
the shape of its genitalia. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges obtuse-angu- 
larly produced, length of anal segment not quite thrice the width, 
sides subparallel, apex rounded, lateral edges near apex turned 
ventrad in the shape of an obtuse angle with acute apex, genital 
styles long and narrow, edges subparallel to near the rounded 
apex, apical portion curved slightly dorsad, two small knobs 
arise from middle of inner surface near base, one of which is 
studded with minute spines. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

Lamenia pallidinervis sp. nov. 

Male. — Reddish yellow, carina? of face, labium, tarsi, and 
dorsum of abdomen slightly fuscous. Tegmina hyaline tinged 
with yellow, veins lighter. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edge angularly 
produced, which is subacute and longer than the width at base ; 
anal segment long and narrow, length slightly less than thrice 
the width, sides parallel to near the rounded apex, anus a little 
basad of the middle, in profile the ventral edge entire; genital 
styles long and narrow, gradually narrowing to the acute apex, 
which is turned dorsad and inward; edges entire, a stout, acute 
spine arises from the middle of the inner surface, and a small 
round knob near the base. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4.3. 

Female. — Similar in color and size to the male. Pregenital 
sternite triangular, the sides sinuous. 

Mindanao, Zamboanga (Baker). 

Genus NEOLAMENIA novum 

This genus differs from Lamenia in having the second antennal 
joint as long as the face, broad, slightly flattened, sides sub- 
parallel, apex truncate, subantennal plate forming a narrow 
ledge below antenna; the basal half of clypeus forming an 
oblong disk, slightly depressed mediolongitudinally, the lateral 



64 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

carina? curved, forming the sides of the disk, median carina con- 
fined to apical half of clypeus. 

Neolamenia flava sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 7. 

Male. — Fuscous yellow, front coxse, mesonotum, and dorsum 
of abdomen darker fuscous. Tegmina fuscous yellow, opaque 
with waxy secretion, veins darker, infuscation greater along 
apical margin; wings white, opaque with waxy secretion, veins 
brown. 

Posterior edge of pygophor straight, anal segment much longer 
than broad, apex bluntly conical, turned downward, with minute 
emargination at apex; styles as long as anal segment, subpar- 
allel-sided, apex bluntly pointed, turned inward, ventral edge 
slightly sinuous, dorsal edge having a small pointed process a 
third from apex. 

Length, 3 millimeters ; tegmen, 4.5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir) ; Basilan {Baker) . 

otiocerunle 
Genus PYRRHONETJRA Kirkaldy 

Pyrrhoneura maculata sp. nov. 

Male. — Lateral carina? of face parallel. Light yellow, fuscous 
on abdomen; a black spot on carina? of face in front of eyes, a 
spot on lateral margins of pronotum and a small one on lateral 
angles of mesonotum. Tegmina white, opaque with waxy secre- 
tion; veins white; a series of black dots as follows: Some five 
or six along costal cell, two in clavus, two on base of cubitus, 
one on apex of cubitus, one on base of first median sector, a 
larger one over middle of first and second sectors, first four 
and last three apical cells fuscous, fuscous clouding in apex 
of subcostal cell and at base of fourth sector ; wings white with 
white veins. 

Ventral and lateral edges of pygophor straight; anal segment 
long, narrow, parallel-sided, apex turned ventrad, truncate, anus 
near apex; genital styles long, narrow, apex bluntly pointed, 
turned inward, ventral edge nearly straight, dorsal edge with 
two rounded projections, or teeth, about middle. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite wider than long, in lateral view 
slightly concave in middle, hind edge evenly produced to middle, 
slightly emarginate in middle, a fine, longitudinal groove from 
apex to near middle. 

Length, 2 millimeters; tegmen, 3.5. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 65 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Muir), cotype in College 
of Agriculture, No. 18123, on young coconut palms. 

Genus PHANTASMATOCERA Kirkaldy 
Phantasmatocera fuscofasciata sp. nov. 

Male. — Head similar to that of Swezeyia laratica. i Yellow; 
facial carinse tinged with brown, a fuscous mark on lateral edges 
of pronotum, which extends across corners of mesonotum and to 
tip of tegmina. Tegmina hyaline, opaque with waxy secretion, 
veins white, a fuscous mark extending from base along clavus 
to median cross vein, then along media to apical cross veins; 
wings hyaline, opaque with waxy secretion, veins light yellow. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly and 
roundly produced; anal segment long, narrow, sides straight, 
slightly narrowing to apex; apex broad, rounded, and turned 
ventrad, anus at apex; styles reaching a little beyond apex of 
anal segment, narrow, slightly curved upward at apex, rounded, 
turned inward, styles slightly compressed longitudinally, a 
carina running from apex to base on outer surface, ventral edge 
entire, dorsal edge notched near apex. 

Female. — Shape of head as in P. vitiensis Kirkaldy. 5 Light 
yellow; vertex and face above eyes white; a fuscous mark from 
face to front of eye and from back of eye to base of tegmen, 
along the middle of which it is continued to apex. Tegmina 
yellowish, opaque with waxy secretion; the fuscous mark pro- 
ceeds from base of clavus along cubitus to mediam cross vein then 
along media to apex ; wings opaquely white, veins white. 

Pregenital segment broader than long, posterior edge pro- 
duced angularly from sides to middle, apex turned dorsad and 
depressed longitudinally so that from a ventral view it gives 
the apex of produced part the appearance of being angularly 
emarginate. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters; tegmen, 3.6. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling (Muir, 
Baker, Banks), cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 18122, 
females much more numerous than males; Mindanao, Butuan, 
Davao (Baker). 

* Swezeyia laratica Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. Ent. 
(1913), 12, 50, from Larat, is likely to be more correctly placed in Phan- 
tasmatocera. 

6 Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. Ent. (1906), 1, 431 (Fiji), 
(1907), 3, 177. 

147575 2 



66 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Genus DENDROKARA Melichar 
Dendrokara Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 272. 

Dendrokara monstrosa Melichar. 

Dendrokara monstrosa Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 
9, 272. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling and Paete (Baker) ; Min- 
danao, Butuan (Baker) . 

Dendrokara torva Melichar. 

Dendrokara torva Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 273. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), College of Agri- 
culture No. 18104. 

Genus NEODENDROKARA novum 

This genus is differentiated from Dendrokara by the presence 
of a well-developed subantennal plate and of moderately devel- 
oped shoulder keels. It approaches Nesokaha, but the long basal 
joint of antenna places it near Patara, a genus of which I have 
not seen a specimen. 

Neodendrokara crescentiformis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 8. 

Male. — In profile, head oblong, longer than wide, no angle at 
junction of vertex and face; vertex acutely angular, base keel- 
less, sides with high keels, face narrow, keels contiguous to 
apex; semicircular with slight antennal emargination on the 
ventral margin; antennas with first joint longer than wide; 
large second joint crescent-shaped, gradually thickened toward 
apex, which thick end is hollowed, second joint attached by its 
middle to the basal joint, large sense organs scattered over the 
whole surface; clypeus narrow, shorter than face, and laterally 
compressed, lateral carinse distinct, median indistinct; prono- 
tum short, angularlj 1 " emarginate behind, shoulder keels moder- 
ately developed; mesonotum longer than wide, lateral angles 
about middle, indistinctly tricarinate. Tegmina very similar to 
those of Dendrokara torva. Yellow, keels of face and sense 
organs on antennae reddish; tegmina yellow with yellow veins; 
cubitus, median sectors, and apex of media tinged with red. 

Ventral and lateral edges of pygophor straight; anal segment 
narrow, long, tectiform; anus near apex, beyond which apex 
turned ventrad, roundly emarginate (forming a spine at each 
apical corner) ; genital styles narrow, reaching to end of anal 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands (37 

segment ; dorsal edge entire, slightly curved dorsad, ventral edge 
produced at about middle, apex blunt, turned slightly inward. 

Length, 3 millimeters; tegmen, 5.5. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

Genus NESOKAHA Muir 

Nesokaha lineata Muir. 

Nesokaha lineata Mum, Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. (1915), 3, 120. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor straight; lateral edges ob- 
tuse-angularly produced; anal segment long, narrow, subpar- 
allel-sided, apex truncate, turned ventrad, anus at apex; genital 
styles narrow, reaching end of anal segment; apex bluntly 
pointed, turned inward. 

This species was originally described from a female. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Muir), on young coconut 
palms. 

Nesokaha philippina Muir. 

Nesokaha philippina Muir, Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. (1915), 3, 119. 

Luzon, Mount Banahao (Muir) , one female on a coconut palm. 
Nesokaha rubrinervis sp. no v. 

Male. — Clypeus, face, vertex, thoracic nota, and abdomen 
dark reddish fuscous; antennse, subantennal plates, thoracic 
sternites, and legs yellow; a fuscous mark between first and 
second coxae. Tegmina dark reddish fuscous, veins red, costa 
and apical veins lightest, subcostal apical cell slightly hyaline; 
wings dark fuscous, veins reddish. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges very slightly 
arcuate, anal segment longer than wide, sides slightly arcuate, 
apex roundly emarginate, anus at apex; styles narrow, reaching 
end of anal segment; apex subtruncate, turned slightly dorsad; 
a faint carina runs longitudinally along outer surface and is 
produced at apex into a small point. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite convex, posterior edge obtusely 
produced to middle, a narrow emargination from apex of pro- 
duction to middle of sternite. 

Length, 2 millimeters; tegmen, 3.5. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Muir), on young coconut 
palms. 

Nesokaha nigropunctata sp. nov. 

Male. — Carinse of face contiguous. Yellow; head and pro- 
notum lighter, dorsum of abdomen fuscous, tegulae black. 



68 The Philippine Journal of Science 191? 

Tegmina light yellow, opaque with waxy secretion, veins on basal 
half yellowish, on apical half reddish, especially media and 
median sectors; a large, round, black spot at apex over fourth 
median sector, dark fuscous over basal half of costal cell, shad- 
ing off into subcostal cell, dark fuscous over hind edge of clavus ; 
wings fuscous, veins dark. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly ar- 
cuate ; anal segment longer than width at base, slightly narrow- 
ing toward apex, which is roundly emarginate, anus just before 
apex; genital styles reaching to end of anal segment, narrow, 
curved slightly dorsad, apex rounded, a small angular projec- 
tion about middle on inner surface. 

Length, 2.3 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker). 

Genus KAHA Kirkaldy 

Kaha Kirkaldy, Ent. Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc. (1906), 1, 

433. (Feb. 3.) 
Devadanda Distant, Fauna Brit. Ind., Rhyn. (1906), 3, 315. 

Kirkaldy's work above quoted bears the date of publication, 
February 3. The exact date of publication of Distant's work 
I do not know, as the volume only bears the date of 1906, the 
introduction being dated February, 1906. It is highly prob- 
able that the publication of Kaha antedates that of Devadanda, 
because the introduction to Distant's work must have been 
written at least several days before the day of publication. 

Devadanda differs from Kaha in the shape of the antennae, 
a character which cannot be taken as of generic importance, as 
there is much specific and sexual difference in this group. The 
former genus was founded upon a single specimen, the sex of 
which is not mentioned, but it is probably a male ; I do not think 
the description of the antenna? is morphologically correct, as the 
condition described is not found in the Derbidse or in the 
Fulgoroidea. 

Nesokaha differs from Kaha in having the vertex and face, in 
profile, forming a continuous curve or with only a small angu- 
lation at the junction of vertex and face, the face not prolonged 
in front; the antennas are simple in both sexes. It is possible 
that the two genera will have to be united. 

Kaha fiava sp. nov. 

Female. — Yellowish; vertex and basal portion of face trans- 
parent, apically fuscous red, darkest between eye and middle 
of face; clypeus and lateral portions of pro- and mesonotum 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 69 

fuscous; front and middle femora fuscous; abdomen reddish. 
Tegmina hyaline, semiopaque with waxy secretion, basal half 
light yellow, apical half fuscous, darkest in apical cells, a 
small black mark at base of costal cell, four fuscous marks 
across apical half of costal cell, a dark mark over cross vein at 
base of last median sector; veins yellowish on basal half, red- 
dish, bordered with yellowish, in fuscous apical half; wings 
slightly fuscous with darker veins. Ventral edge of pregenital 
sternite produced angularly from sides to middle; anal segment 
small, anus at apex; a pair of short processes with a couple 
of hairs on apex of each arises from near apex on the ventral 
margin. 

In profile the head of this species is not produced so far as 
in K. media Muir and is more conical; antennae as in media. 

Length, 2.25 millimeters; tegmen, 4.25. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Barios (Muir). 

A damaged female from Mindanao, Butuan (Baker), is simi- 
lar to this species. 

Kaha pseudomedia sp. nov. 

Male. — Head and antenna? as in Kaha leefmanii Muir. Dark 
shiny brown, tinged with red. In lateral view the vertex, basal 
portion of face, and a small angular mark in middle of face 
(most distal portion of head) white, rest of head brown, darkest 
around eye; subantennal plate and shoulder keel light; median 
carina of pro- and mesonotum lighter ; legs light. Tegmina dark 
fuscous; four small, angular, white marks in apical portion of 
costal cell, the distal three being crossed by the red transcostal 
veins; two semihyaline patches in basal median cell, another 
in clavus, veins reddish, apical ones brightest; wings light fus- 
cous, veins brown, a dark mark on the cross vein which arises 
from fourth median sector. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly and 
roundly produced ; anal segment long, narrow, subparallel-sided, 
bent ventrad at a right angle a little distad of middle; anus just 
distad of bend, apex truncate with a minute spine at each 
corner, straight basal portion sloping from middle to sides; 
styles long, narrow, apiceg rounded and turned dorsad, ventral 
edge subangularly produced before middle, dorsal edge produced 
into a small process about middle, basal portion of process 
round, with small hairs, distal portion produced into a small 
spine. 

Female. — Posterior edge of pregenital sternite angularly pro- 
duced from sides to middle, disk subconically produced in 



70 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

middle, in side view the projection gradually rises from base to 
apex, then suddenly falls; anal segment small, anus at apex, 
apex produced into two small projections. 

Length, 2.25 millimeters; tegmen, 3.5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker, Muir) ; Minda- 
nao, Davao (Baker) ; Basilan (Baker). 

There is one male specimen with a short, straight, anal 
segment that may represent a different species or may be an 
abnormal individual. 

Kaha angulata sp. nov. 

Male. — In profile the projecting face is acutely angular, 
whereas in Kaha media Muir it is more quadrate ; antennae with 
long "scales," but not so conspicuous as in K. pseudomedia. 
Dark shiny brown; viewed in profile, the genae appear hyaline 
along basal half; a small hyaline spot beneath eye; legs lighter. 
Tegmina dark, a lighter spot across middle of costal cell; veins 
dark, reddish; apical and transcostal veins lighter red, a small 
dark mark over cross vein arising from fourth median sector; 
wings fuscous, veins dark. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges slightly and 
arcuately produced; anal segment broad and fairly short, slop- 
ing from middle to sides, in lateral view the sides excavated 
just before the rounded apex, anus at apex; style long and 
slender, apex rounded and turned slightly dorsad, projection on 
ventral edge more angular than in K. pseudomedia, that on 
dorsal edge angular with spine on apex. 

Length, 1.75 millimeters; tegmen, 3. 

Female. — Face not produced so greatly as in the male ; viewed 
in profile, the produced face appears to be curved, thus approach- 
ing the genus Nesokaha; antennae with lower portion of second 
segment slightly produced and bearing "scales." Dark shining 
brown, a thin, hyaline streak along vertex and base of genae ; legs 
pale yellow. Tegmina and wings as in the male. 

Pregenital sternite angularly produced from sides to middle, 
disk near apex of production, produced into a low, conical 
process. 

Length, 2 millimeters; tegmina, 3.5. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker), Davao (Baker) ; Luzon, Mount 
Banahao and Mount Maquiling (Muir). 

Allied to these new species of Kaha, there are several species 
of which the genitalia unfortunately have not been described, so 
that there will be some uncertainty until I can compare the 
types. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of. the Philippine Islands 71 

Genus EOSACCHARISSA Kirkaldy 

Eosaccharissa philippina sp. nov. 

Male. — Yellow; a fuscous spot on face in front of eye, fuscous 
on abdominal tergites. Tegmina hyaline, slightly opaque with 
waxy secretion, a faint fuscous spot in middle of costa, two at 
apex of radius, a more distinct spot at end of clavus, a faint 
yellow mark from end of clavus across base of radius to costa, 
slightly yellowish at base and over apical cross veins; wings 
hyaline, veins light. 

Ventral edge of pygophor at middle produced into a square 
plate, the corners rounded, the dorsal surface with a median 
depression in which the sedeagus lies ; lateral edges very slightly 
rounded ; anal segment large, basal half slightly wider than long, 
sides slightly arcuate, bent ventrad second half much narrower, 
at right angles to basal half, apex roundly emarginate, anus at 
apex of first half; genital styles semispatulate, base narrow, 
dorsal edge slightly curved dorsad, ventral edge roundly pro- 
duced on apical half, apex pointed, turned inward, a small spine 
about middle of inner surface. 

Length, 3.6 millimeters; tegmen, 4.5. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 

Eosaccharissa pulchra sp. nov. 

Female. — The apical half of face is less rounded than in the 
type species. Light yellow; carina? on lower half of face black 
with a black mark across face to base of eye, genital styles 
fuscous. .Tegmina white, veins white, five fine brown hair 
streaks from costa, one through middle of costal cell, two at 
apex, and two smaller a little beyond; a broader black mark 
from apex of media to apical cross vein, a small dark mark at 
end of clavus; yellowish along side of hair streaks, over cubitus 
and apex of median sector ; wings white with white veins. 
Tegmina and wings opaque with waxy secretion. 

Pregenital sternite produced in middle on posterior edge into 
a flat, conical process, length about twice the width at base. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters ; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Muir), on young coconut 
palms; Laguna, Los Baiios (Muir), cotype in College of Agri- 
culture, No. 18121. 

Eosaccharissa fusca sp. nov. 

This species differs from the type in having the face in lat- 
eral view more conical in the middle, the costal cell broader, and 
the costal margin more arcuate. Yellowish ; a mark across face 



72 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

to eye, front and middle tarsi, marks on femora and tibise, and 
abdominal tergites fuscous. Tegmina fuscous, hyaline in costal 
cell, clavus, and apical cells; two small black specks in median 
apical cells, veins dark, tinged with red; wings fuscous, veins 
dark. 

Medioventral edge of pygophor produced into a long, acutely 
angular process; lateral edges straight; anal segment long and 
narrow, parallel-sided, anus just before apex, apex narrowly 
rounded and turned slightly ventrad; styles long, narrow on 
basal two thirds, apical third rounded. 

Length, 3.6 millimeters ; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Muir) , Mount Maquiling (Baker) . 

The two specimens I have of this species are heavily covered 
with white, waxy secretion on tegmina and head. 

Genus KAMENDAKA Distant 

Kamendaka mindanensis sp. nov. 

Male. — Vertex ascending, angulation of vertex with face acute, 
face narrow, but carinas not contiguous. 

Stramineous; dorsum of abdomen and facial carinse fuscous. 
Tegmina hyaline variegated with stramineous and clear hyaline 
markings, the clear portions being the apex of clavus, the basal 
portion of cubital cell, the costal cell with the exception of three 
marks, one at base, one in middle, and one at apex, base and 
near apex of radial cell, three spots around base of first median 
sector, the third median cell, and some of the apical cells; the 
stramineous markings sometimes edged with fuscous; radio- 
apical and first, second, fourth, and fifth medioapical cells 
fuscous ; veins stramineous in colored portion and white in clear 
portion. 

Medioventral edge of pygophor produced into a process 
broader than long, the lateral edges arcuate and the apex trun- 
cate, the lateral edges turned dorsad and forming a canal in 
which the base of the sedeagus lies ; anal segment narrow, sides 
subparallel, length more than twice the width, anus slightly 
before apex, segment narrows slightly beyond anus, apex 
broadly rounded ; genital styles reaching to end of anal segment, 
curved dorsad, narrow at base, dorsal edge straight, entire, 
ventral edge arcuately ampliate on apical half, a small conical 
projection from ventral edge near middle, a small, stout spine 
with a curved apex about the middle of the inner surface of 
dorsal edge; sedeagus shown in fig. 1. 



XII, D, 2 



Muir: Derbidx of the Philippine Islands 



73 




Fig. 1. Kamendaka mindanensis 
sp. nov., aedeagus. 



Length, 2 millimeters ; tegmen, 3.5. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Poste- 
rior edge of pregenital sternite roundly 
produced from sides to middle. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker) ; Lanao, 
Kolambugan (Banks), cotype in College 
of Agriculture, No. 18105. 

This and the three following species 
are similar in structure and color to K. versicolor Muir from 
Amboina, and they cannot be separated from each other except 
by the structure of the male genitalia. 

Kamendaka hizonensis sp. nov. 

Male. — Differs from K. mindanensis Muir in having the apex 

of anal segment not so narrow, the genital styles narrow at base, 

apical half slightly wider with sub- 
parallel edges, apex subtruncate, a small, 
rounded projection on ventral edge near 
middle, a stout spine with curved apex 
on dorsal edge near middle; aedeagus 
shown in fig. 2. 
Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker, Muir). 

Kamendaka tayabasensis sp. nov. 

Male. — Anal segment caudad of anus 
obtusely pointed ; genital styles narrow, 
apical half but slightly broader than 
basal half, apex subacute ; sedeagus very 
distinct (fig. 3). 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling 
(Baker) . 




Fig. 2. Kamendaka luzonensis 
sp. nov., aedeagus. 




Fig. 3. Kamendaka tayabasensi3 
sp. nov., aedeagus. 



Kamendaka maquilingensis sp. nov. 

Male. — Apex of anal segment round; genital styles long, very 

narrow, curved, slightly widened on apical fourth, apex sub- 
angular, a small process like a Phrygian 
cap about one third from base of the 
ventral edge, a curved spine in about 
the same position on the dorsal edge; 
sedeagus shown in fig. 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling 
(Muir) . 




Fig. 4. Kamendaka maquiling- 
ensis sp. nov., sedeagus. 



Kamendaka flava sp. nov. 
Female. — The vertex 



in profile ascending, acutely angular 



at junction of face and vertex, carinas of face near together at 



74 The Philippine Journal of Science 1m 

base, but not contiguous. Yellow; tegmina semiopaque, yellow- 
ish, veins yellowish, four small black spots on apical margin of 
apical median cells. 

Pregenital sternite very short at sides, hind margin steeply 
produced to middle, apex of production broadly pointed, sides 
slightly concave. 

Length, 2.25 millimeters; tegmen, 3.5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Kamendaka incommoda sp. nov. 

In profile, vertex not so steeply ascending as in K. flava and 
face more strongly curved, thus approaching Eosaccharissa Kirk. 

Male. — Dirty yellow, dark mark from middle of face to eye 
and from back of eye over posterior corners of vertex, light 
brown mark down middle of anterior half of mesonotum, 
fuscous over dorsum of abdomen; a black mark near base of 
hind tibiae. Tegmina hyaline, slightly fuscous over base and 
darker over posterior area to second median sector ; a few faint 
spots in costal cell, one at base of media and one in middle of 
cubitus; veins yellowish with slight infuscation along the sides. 

Medioventral edge of pygophor produced into a square plate 
with rounded corners and a median, longitudinal depression on 
the dorsal surface; anal segment little longer than its width 
at base, sides curved gradually to a point, anus median; over 
the anus a small conical plate, in lateral view, the segment 
sinuous; genital styles narrow at base, gradually widening to 
apex, which is subtruncate and diagonal. 

Female. — A little darker in color than male. Pregenital ster- 
nite produced angularly from sides to middle. 

Length, 2 millimeters ; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 
Genus NICERTA Walker 
Nicerta palawanensis sp. nov. 

Female. — Congeneric with Nicerta cruenta Muir; antennas 
slightly flattened. 

Yellowish; antennae fuscous, a small red streak from base of 
face to. eye. Tegmina white, tinged with yellow; a series of 
red spots down the middle, first near base of media, another 
at forking of cubitus, a series through median cells to apex; 
wings white with white veins. 

Posterior edge of pregenital sternite evenly and roundly pro- 
duced from sides. 

Length, 3.6 millimeters; tegmen, 5.5. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker). 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 75 

Genus MEGATEOPIS Muir 

Megatropis obliquefasciata Melichar. 

In the females of this species that I have examined, the second 
antennal joint has little or no trace of the prong at its base. The 
oblique line is sometimes represented by only a dark mark at end 
of clavus and another on radius. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker), College of Agri- 
culture No. 18124. 

Megatropis immaculata Muir. 

Megatropis immaculata Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, 
Div. Ent. (1913), 12, 58. 

Mindanao, Butuan and Zamboanga (Baker) ; Basilan 
(Baker). Previously known from Amboina and Borneo from 
females only; it is possible that M. flexicornis Muir is the male 
of M. immaculata. 

In Philippine specimens the second antennal joint of the male 
varies from the horseshoe form of M. flexicornis Muir to the M. 
pallida Muir type with a short prong; in the female there is no 
prong, as in M. coccineolinea Muir. 

Megatropis sanguinea sp. no v. 

Male. — Head slightly narrower than in the type species, there- 
by approaching Nicerta; second joint of antennae with a small 
knoblike prong at base; gena wide in front of eye, as in M. 
rubella Muir; the shape of eye approaches that of Leptaleocera. 
Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish, heavily tinged with red, 
which is darkest on dorsal surface, abdomen infuscate. Tegmina 
deep scarlet, veins darker; wings fuscous with dark veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, sides slightly arcuate; 
length of anal segment twice the width, sides slightly arcuate, 
apex rounded, anus in basal half; styles reaching apex of anal 
segment, narrow, dorsal edge entire, slightly curved, apex 
rounded, ventral edge produced into a triangular process in 
middle. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 6. 

Female. — Second antennal joint without a knob or prong at 
base. Yellow tinged with red. Tegmina yellowish tinged with 
red; wings fuscous, veins darker. 

Pregenital sternite with posterior edge produced into a wide, 
rounded process. 

Length, 4.5 millimeters; tegmen, 6.5. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 



76 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

In spite of the difference in color of the male and female 
as here described, I feel sure that they are of the same species. 

Megatropis interruptolineata Melichar. 

Megatropis interruptolineata Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D 
(1914), 9, 271. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Muir), College of Agriculture 
No. 18125. 

Genus BANKSIELLA novum 

In profile vertex slightly excavate, ascending, angular at junc- 
tion with face; face well rounded, forming a semicircle; vertex 
small, angular, slightly longer than width of base; lateral ca- 
rinas broad and beset with wax pits; carinas continue onto 
face where they are contiguous to near apex; antennas very 
small, second joint little longer than broad, arista at apex; eye 
small, nearly round, very slight antennal emargination on ven- 
tral edge; clypeus shorter than face, rounded, carinas absent; 
pronotum short, hind edge angularly emarginate, in the middle 
acutely so; shoulder keels fairly well developed; mesonotum a 
little longer than wide, tricarinate, the lateral angles slightly 
behind middle, posterior angle acute; hind tibiae with a minute 
spine at base and a few small spines at apex. Tegmina with 
basal half of costa sinuous, then angularly emarginate, beyond 
which it is shallowly and arcuately emarginate, apex rounded, 
broad; precostal area confined to basal fifth, costal vein curved, 
subcosta and radius amalgamated to near apex, media parting 
from radius near base, first sector in apical third, cubitus 
forking beyond middle, second cubital cell closed ; apex of clavus 
a little beyond middle of tegmen. 

This strange little insect is very aberrant; by the closing of 
the second cubital cell and by the median sectors being confined 
to the apical third it falls into the Nicerta group, I should think 
somewhere near Robigus. 

Banksiella pulchra sp. nov. Plate I, figs. 6 and 15. 

Female. — Vertex and basal portion of face whitish, apical por- 
tion of face fuscous with two light marks passing over it; an- 
tennas, clypeus, and thorax brown, lighter over carinas and in 
middle of pronotum; femora fuscous; abdomen yellowish, fus- 
cous at apex. Costal cell hyaline, basal fourth of tegmen light 
brown, darkest along the apical edge of this area, a triangular 
yellowish patch across tegmen, with its base on hind margin; 
the rest of the tegmen light reddish brown, except the apex, 



xn, d, 2 Muir: Derbidas of the Philippine Islands 77 

which is yellowish, a series of lighter marks across costal cell; 
veins in apical half reddish, partly bordered with fuscous. 

Length, 3 millimeters ; tegmen, 4.5. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks). 

Genus LEPTALEOCERA Muir 

Leptaleocera nigrofasciata sp. nov. 

Male. — Second antennal joint only slightly flattened, nearly 
as long as head and thorax together, otherwise typical. The 
subcostal cell is shorter in leptaleocera than in Megatropis. 

Yellow; eyes, a small spot on each corner of mesonotum, and 
a line from base of clavus to apex of media black or fuscous 
brown; tegmen otherwise light yellow with light veins; wings 
white with whitish veins. 

Posterior edge of pygophor entire; length of anal segment 
twice the width, sides straight, apex wider than base, very 
shallowly emarginate, apical corners with a minute spine, anus 
at about the middle ; styles reaching to end of anal segment and 
of medium width; apex pointed and turned inward, with two 
small elevations on inner surface near apex. 

Length, 4 millimeters ; tegmen, 6.3. 

Luzon, Mount Maquiling and Malinao (Baker) . 

Leptaleocera bakeri Melichar. 

Leptaleocera bakeri Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 271. 

The antennae reach beyond the apex of head; they are large 
and flat. "Ventral edge of pygophor straight; length of anal 
segment twice the width, parallel-sided, anus in middle, apex 
roundly emarginate ; genital styles reaching to apex of anal seg- 
ment, lanceolate, with apex turned inward. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), a male specimen, 
College of Agriculture No. 18106. 

Leptaleocera banksi sp. nov. 

Male. — This species differs from the typical form in having 
the antennae subcylindrical and constricted in the middle; the 
second cubital cell is closed by the cubital veins. Hind tibiae 
broadened toward apex; hind tarsi short and broad, first tarsal 
joint about as broad as long, flattened. Scarlet, tibiae yellowish, 
abdominal tergites slightly fuscous. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight; lateral edges slightly ar- 
cuate; anal segment considerably longer than broad, lanceolate, 
base broad, anus in middle, apex slightly curved ventrad ; genital 



78 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

styles reaching to end of anal segment, subparallel-sided to 
near apex, then narrowing to the pointed apex, which is turned 
inward; ventral edge entire, a small, round process on dorsal 
edge near apex. 

Length, 3.6 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), type, No. 18103, 
College of Agriculture; Basilan (Baker). 

This species is provisionally placed in Leptaleocera. 

Genus HERONAX Kirkaldy 
Heronax maculipennis (Melichar). 

Fenuahala maculipennis Melichae, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 
436. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor produced very slightly and 
squarely at middle; from the inside of pygophor at the base of 
each style arises a curved spine, flat and broad at base and 
curved outward; lateral edges very slightly and angularly pro- 
duced; anal segment long and with anus near base, widening 
suddenly from base to anus, then suddenly narrowing, the apex 
forming a long process which is turned downward and bifurcate 
at apex; genital styles spatulate, notched along lower edge; 
asdeagus large and complex. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite angularly produced on hind 
margin, apex turned dorsad; anal segment very small, apex 
rounded. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Lucena (Banks), Bureau of Science No. 
18016; bred from nymphs taken from rotten stumps of buri 
palm, Corypha elata Roxb. 

Genus MYSEDIOEDES Matsumura 

Mysidioides tagalica sp. nov. 

Male. — Head not angular at junction of vertex and face; an- 
tennae flattened; media separating from radius at first sector. 
Fuscous yellow; darker over clypeus, face, lateral portions of 
pro- and mesonotum, and abdominal tergites. Tegmina hyaline, 
slightly fuscous, semiopaque with waxy secretion ; darker infus- 
cation in bands across costal cell, base of subcostal cell, along 
cubitus, over greater area of median cells, and in apical cells; 
veins fuscous in fuscous areas, yellow in hyaline areas, reddish 
along costa and on apical radial nerves; wings lightly fuscous 
with brown veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, without spines on the 
inner median surface; lateral edge produced into a very small, 
angular projection; anal segment large, basal half straight, 



xn. d, 2 Muir: Derbidas of the Philippine Islands 79 

subparallel-sided, anus in middle, apical half composed of two 
long spines at right angles to basal half; genital styles reaching 
beyond anal segment, somewhat spatulate, dorsal edge curved 
dorsad, ending in a strong spine, which is turned inward, ven- 
tral edge arcuately produced on apical half, notched about the 
middle, basad of the notch with two small, round projections on 
inner surface; sedeagus large and complex. 

Length, 3.6 millimeters; tegmen, 5. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but larger and the infuscation 
much darker. Antennee club-shaped. The pregenital sternite is 
longer than broad, flattened or even slightly concave, posterior 
edge obtusely, angularly produced. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir) , on bird's-nest fern ; 
Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Muir) . 

Unfortunately the genitalia of Mysidioides sordidum (Muir) 
and M. borneensis (Muir) are not described, and I am not in a 
position to compare them with this species, but the coloration 
differs somewhat. The Banahao specimen is much darker and 
the red on the veins is much plainer. 

I have other species, represented by females only, which I 
refrain from naming. 

DERBIN^l 

, Genus ZEUGMA Westwood • 

Zeugma valdezi sp. nov. 

Zeugma vittata Melichae, MS. (not of Westwood) . 

Width of vertex and face as in Zeugma javana Muir, nar- 
rower than in Z. vittata (Westwood). 

Brown or reddish brown; a dark longitudinal mark passing 
over vertex, face, and clypeus; five dark marks on mesonotum, 
the outer ones faint; abdomen darker; faint fuscous bands on 
first and second tibiae. Tegmina very light fuscous or reddish 
yellow, darker along veins, veins reddish brown, darker fuscous 
in subcostal cell, over apex of radius, and on apical cross veins, 
lighter areas around infuscated apical cross veins, in middle of 
median sectors, and over base of radial cell; wings fuscous, 
reaching a little beyond middle of tegmina, veins brown. 

Ventral edge of pygophor produced into a short, wide process 
at middle, the apex widely and angularly emarginate; lateral 
edges produced into wide angular plates, the ventral edge of pro- 
jection obtusely, angularly produced in middle; anal segment a 
little longer than lateral plates, longer than broad, widest near 
apex, which is round with a slight angular emargination, making 



80 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

it subcordate in outline, the lateral edges turned ventrad, anus 
in middle; genital styles much longer than anal segment, grad- 
ually widening from base to middle then narrowing to the apex, 
which is produced as a long, fine point, apical third turned 
dorsad and inward. 

Female. — Like the male. Pregenital sternite angularly pro- 
duced on hind margin, apex of projection turned dorsad; a 
slight depression across middle of sternite. 

Length, 5 millimeters; tegmen, 10. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling ; Mindanao, Davao and Bu- 
tuan (Baker). 

I name this species for Julian Valdez, Professor Baker's Cuban 
collector. 

Genus ZORAIDA Kirkaldy 

Thracia Westwood, Trans. Linn. Soc. (1842), 19, 10. 
Zoraida KlRKALDY, Entomologist (1900), 242 n. nom. 

Besides the nine species enumerated below, there are several 
species represented by females only, which I refrain for the 
present from describing. 

a 1 . Tegmina colored or maculate, more or less, all over. 

ft 1 . Tegmina fuscous all over with small white spots along the red veins. 

insulicola. 
b 2 . Tegmina fuscous brown over costal, subcostal, and radial areas with 

fuscous spots along cubital and median veins maculata. 

a 1 . Tegmina not maculate or not maculate over the median and cubital area. 
c\ Tegmina all clear hyaline or with the costal, subcostal, and radial 
areas yellowish or very light brown. 
cP. Anal segment of male with apical third turned ventrad at right 

angle to basal two thirds, apex pointed javanica. 

cf. Anal segment of male straight or only slightly curved ventrad. 
e 1 . Anal segment of male long, narrow, tapering to an acute point. 

westwoodii. 
e 2 . Anal segment of male not acutely pointed at apex. 
p. Anal segment of male rounded at apex, medioventral process 

fan-shaped lutescens. 

f. Length of anal segment of male nearly twice the width, apex 

conical and curved slightly ventrad hyalina. 

c 2 . Tegmina dark brown or dark fuscous over costal, subcostal, and radial 
areas, sometimes extending into median area. 
g 1 . Costal, subcostal, and radial areas fuscous brown; dorsal surface 
of body brown, ventral surface yellow; anal segment of male short 

with rounded apex flaviventris. 

g-. Costal, subcostal, and radial areas brown, extending into median area 
at base of sectors. 

h 1 . Anal segment of male long, narrow, apex acute sinuosa. 

K~. Anal segment of male short, broad apex blunt melichari. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 81 

Zoraida insulicola Kirkaldy. 

Zoraida insulicola Kirkaldy, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. 
Ent. (1913), 12, 69. 

This may be Zoraida cumulata Walker; if so the original de- 
scription makes no mention of the red veins, the white spots 
along veins, and the light costal margin. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Los Banos (Banks), 
College of Agriculture No. 18133; Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

Previously known from Amboina. 

Zoraida maculata sp. nov. 

Antenna? a little longer than face. Light brown, dorsum of 
abdomen fuscous with a lighter spot in middle, this spot and the 
scutellum often covered with waxy secretion. Tegmina hyaline ; 
costal, subcostal, and radial areas brown or fuscous brown, ex- 
tending to median area at bases of sectors ; white spots on basal 
half of costal and along radial cells ; subcosta, radius, and media 
reddish; median sectors and cubitus brown with fuscous marks 
along them, most distinct at apices on hind margin, four pairs of 
brown spots near apex, one on each side of each apical vein. 
Wings reaching to base of first median sector of tegmina, 
hyaline, veins brown. 

Medioventral process of pygophor angularly lanceolate with 
the lateral angles near base, lateral edges of pygophor roundly 
produced; anal segment about the length of remainder of 
abdomen, narrowly lanceolate, apical fourth turned ventrad, 
apex narrow, shallowly emarginate, anus slightly before middle, 
basad of anus the dorsal surface slopes to the sides; genital 
styles large, reaching to apical fourth of anal segment, base 
narrow, apical half subquadrate, a carina proceeds from base 
to apex, forming the ventral edge on the basal half and the 
dorsal edge at apex, a round knob on ventral edge near base, the 
dorsal edge near middle forming an angular point. 

Length, 4 millimeters ; tegmen, 13. 

Female. — Slightly darker than the male. Posterior edge of 
pregenital sternite slightly and roundly produced on middle 
half; anal segment slightly longer than wide, subturbinate, apex 
with a small emargination. 

Length, 4 millimeters ; tegmen, 10.25. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker), male, type; Davao (Baker), 
Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), female, cotype in College of 
Agriculture, No. 18108. 

147575 3 



82 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Zoraida javanica (Westwood). 

Thracia javanica Westwood, Trans. Linn. Soc. London (1842), 19; 
Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. (1870), 27, 750. 

I have seen no Philippine specimens of this species. Those 
so named that I have seen do not agree with my specimens from 
Java. 

Zoraida westwoodii (Stal). 

Thracia westwoodii Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. (1870), 27, 751. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor angularly produced in 
middle, the apex rounded; lateral edges sinuous, roundly pro- 
duced at sides of anal segment; anal segment longer than 
abdomen, slightly widening to anus (which is about one third 
from base), then gradually narrowing to a long, pointed apex, 
sinuous in profile; genital styles very long, narrow at base, 
dorsal edge roundly produced at about the middle, ventral edge 
sinuous, apex pointed and turned inward. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite wider than long, posterior edge 
very slightly and roundly produced ; anal segment about as broad 
as long, round, apex with a small emargination. The female 
is larger than the male. 

There is a specimen marked westwoodii, Bureau of Science 
collection No. 5371, that is very slightly darker in color and in 
which the pregenital sternite is longer, the posterior edge more 
fully produced, and with an angular emargination in middle; 
the anal segment more conical in outline, and its apex not emar- 
ginate. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker) . 

Zoraida lutescens sp. nov. 

Male. — Antenna? a little longer than face. Ochraceous, carina? 
of mesonotum lighter, fuscous over abdominal tergites. Teg- 
mina hyaline, light ochraceous over costal, subcostal, and radial 
cells, veins ochraceous. Medioventral process of pygophor wider 
than long, forming a wide arc slightly constricted at the corners, 
making it somewhat fan-shaped, lateral edges of pygophor pro- 
duced into a small, acute angle; width of anal segment about 
twice the length, anus in middle, apex rounded, lateral edges 
turned ventrad, a small transverse ridge basad of anus, in profile 
ventral edge convex; genital styles large, narrow at base, wide 
on apical half, sublanceolate, on the ventral edge there are two 
small emarginations basad of the middle, dorsal edge sinuous 
basad of the middle. 

Length, 3.5 millimeters; tegmen, 8.5. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 83 

Female. — In coloration similar to the male. Pregenital ster- 
nite wider than long, very slightly and obtuse-angularly produced 
from sides to middle; anal segment about as wide as long, lan- 
ceolate, acute-angularly emarginate at apex. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 8.5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (B. R. Bautista) , cotype in College 
of Agriculture, No. 18326; Manila (H. Loewinsohn) Bureau of 
Science No. 15802, (Banks) Bureau of Science No. 14242. 

Zoraida hyalina Melichar. 

Zoraida hyalina Melichar, Notes Leyden Mus. (1913), 36, 97. 

One male agrees with Melichar's description of this Javanese 
species; the costal, subcostal, basal half of radial, and base of 
median cells slightly yellowish. A white, waxy secretion over 
scutellum. 

Ventral edge of pygophor angularly produced in middle; lat- 
eral edges angularly produced; length of anal segment nearly 
twice the width, parallel-sided, apex conically rounded and turned 
slightly dorsad, anus in middle with a small projection just in 
front of it, in lateral view the ventral edge curved dorsad; 
genital styles reaching to end of anal segment, spatulate, base 
narrow, apex bluntly pointed, dorsal edge with a small emargi- 
nation near apex, ventral edge with a small emargination before 
middle and slightly sinuous basad of emargination. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker). 

Zoraida flaviventris sp. nov. 

Male. — Antennse a little longer than face. Head, antennse, legs, 
and ventral surface of thorax and abdomen yellow, dorsal surface 
fuscous brown, scutellum and four spots (sense organs?) on 
fifth and two on sixth abdominal tergites yellow. Tegmina 
hyaline, veins brown, costal, subcostal, and radial cells dark 
fuscous brown. 

Ventral edge of pygophor roundly produced, width nearly twice 
the length, a depression at each corner and a small longitudinal 
carina down middle ; anal segment longer than wide, apex broadly 
rounded, base slightly constricted, anus about middle, a small 
ridge between anus and base, lateral edges turned ventrad, in 
lateral view ventral edge deeply convex or even subangular; 
genital styles reaching to apex of anal segment, subspatulate, 
apex broadly pointed, a round knob on dorsal edge near base, 
a quadrate process, which is broader than long, on ventral edge 
near middle. 

Length, 4 millimeters ; tegmen, 9.7. 



84 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Mindanao, Agusan River (W. Schultze), Bureau of Science 
collection. 

Female. — Three specimens from Mindanao are a little darker 
than the male. Pregenital sternite a little broader than long, 
posterior edge obtusely angularly produced from sides to middle, 
a small emargination at apex of production; anal segment very 
little longer than broad, sides rounded, apex truncate or very 
obtusely angularly emarginate. 

Mindanao, Davao {Baker) . 

Zoraida sinuosa (Boheman) ? Plate I, fig. 14. 

Derbe sinuosa Boheman, Kgl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. 

In the Baker collection there are specimens under the above 
name (determined by Melichar), and in the Bureau of Science 
collection the same species stands under the name Z. javanica 
(Westwood). That it is the former (African) species, I doubt; 
and I do not consider it to be the latter species, as it does not agree 
with specimens that I have from Java. I leave it under 
Boheman's name until I can examine, or learn more about, 
the type of Derbe sinuosa Boh. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor produced at middle into a 
subturbinate process; lateral edges obtusely angular at sides 
of anal segment; anal segment long, projecting more than 
half beyond lateral projections, anus cephalad of middle, in dorsal 
view the sides subparallel as far as anus, then gradually narrow- 
ing to the sharply pointed apex, in lateral view curved ventrad, 
beaklike; genital styles as long as anal segment, ventral edge 
straight with a curved emargination about middle, dorsal edge 
produced angularly beyond middle, apex bluntly pointed, a small 
round knob with a minute curved spine on inner margin before 
middle. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite longer than wide, hind edge sub- 
angularly produced from sides to middle; anal segment small, 
little longer than wide, subturbinate. 

Palawan, Malampaya {Schultze), Bureau of Science No. 
13908; Luzon, several localities. This appears to be the com- 
monest species of Zoraida in the Philippines. 

Zoraida melichari sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 18. 

Male. — Subcosta and radius separating about middle of 
tegmen, subcosta faint, radial cell narrow, slightly widening 
toward apex, with a "false vein" down the middle; four cubital 
veins reaching hind margin; four median sectors. 

Yellow or light brown, granulations on antennae darker, a 
dark mediolateral mark on abdomen, genitalia reddish; a white, 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidx of the Philippine Islands 85 

waxy secretion at times covers the scutellum and middle line 
of abdomen. Tegmina hyaline; subcosta, radius, media (but 
not sectors), and base of cubitus reddish, other veins light 
brown ; base of cubitus, base of median cell to first sector, radial, 
subcostal, and costal cells to apex fuscous, the dark color 
passing over base of second sector to first, and over base of third 
and fourth sectors and radial apical cross vein, lightly fuscous 
between veins on apical margin, the apices of veins there being 
lighter; wings reaching nearly to middle of tegmina, hyaline, 
with brown veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor at middle with a subangular process, 
a little longer than width of base, apex rounded; lateral edges 
broadly and bluntly angular at sides of anal segment; anal seg- 
ment extending about a third beyond lateral projections, anus 
at about middle, in dorsal view sides subparallel or slightly 
concave, apex broadly rounded; genital styles reaching slightly 
beyond anal segment, dorsal edge angularly produced before 
apex, a small, round knob on inner border before middle, ventral 
edge with a small, curved emargination beyond middle, apex 
broadly angular. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite subangularly produced from 
sides to middle; anal segment a little longer than wide, subtur- 
binate. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 9.5. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan {Banks), cotype in College of 
Agriculture, No. 18109, Davao {Baker). 

In coloration this species is like the next preceding, but the 
short anal segment in the male, with its rounded apex, and the 
shorter and blunter genital styles distinguish it. The Davao 
specimens are darker than those from Kolambugan. 

Genus LOSBAnOSIA novum 

Head considerably narrower than thorax; vertex quadrate, 
apex truncate, narrower than base, disk excavate; face narrow- 
ing between eyes, then widening below eyes, again narrowing 
slightly, then widening; no distinct demarcation between face 
and clypeus, lateral carina? of vertex continued down face to 
below antenna?; eyes round, bulging, with exceedingly small an- 
tennal emargination on ventral edge ; length of clypeus subequal 
to face, lateral carina? small, median carina distinct, continued 
onto face for some distance ; antenna? cylindrical, as long as head 
and thorax together; thorax, legs, and abdomen as in Zoraida. 
Radius arising from subcosta about one fourth from base, sub- 
costal cell very narrow ; median vein very close to radius as far 



86 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

as apical fourth, median basal cell short and broad, first median 
sector joined to cubitus, making four cubital veins; four simple 
median sectors (not counting one joined to cubitus) ; hind margin 
angularly excavate at apex of each cubital and median sector, 
giving the hind margin a serrated edge ; wings reaching to apex 
of abdomen, lanceolate ; a large anal stridulating area. 

The neuration of this genus is similar to that of Diostrombus; 
but the radial and the media are much nearer together, and 
the first median sector is furcate and more closely associated with 
the cubitus. 

Losbanosia bakeri sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 4. 

Female. — Brown; apex of clypeus, labium, legs, and hind 
border of mesonotum lighter; head and pronotum darker, the 
latter speckled with white granules, a few light dots on meso- 
notum and many on abdomen, abdominal segments tinged with 
red, anal style red. Tegmina hyaline, dark fuscous over basal 
half of costal and entire subcostal and radial cells, the dark color 
expanding to hind margin at extreme base and over basal por- 
tions of cubital veins, also over basal portions of first and second 
median sectors, and over apical cells and veins, each "tooth" 
on hind margin fuscous; veins yellowish in hyaline portion of 
tegmina, red in fuscous portion ; apical portion of costal cell with 
red and white splashes, red and white dots along costa, subcosta, 
radius, and media ; wings hyaline, veins red, fuscous at apex and 
along veins, apex rounded. Pregenital segment longer than 
broad, in lateral view concave in middle, posterior edge angularly 
produced in middle, between the angular projection and genital 
styles there is a small, quadrate, black plate ; anal segment small, 
about as broad as long, anus at base, beyond which it forms a 
half cylinder, apex slightly emarginate; genital styles well de- 
veloped, as in Zoraida. 

Length, 4.5 millimeters; tegmen, 10. 

Luzon, Mount Maquiling {Baker, Muir) . 

Unfortunately I have seen only female specimens. 

Genus PEGGIA Kirkaldy 

Nebi-issa Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. (1870), 27, 751 (name preoc- 
cupied) . 
Peggia Kirkaldy, Entomologist (1901), 34, 6 (new name). 

Peggia nitida (Stal). Plate I, fig. 1. 

Nebrissa nitida Stal, Ofv. Vet. Akad. Forh. (1870), 27, 751. 
I have seen no specimen that I can identify with any satisfac- 
tion as P. nitida. This is to be regretted, as it prevents me from 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidae of the Philippine Islands 87 

defining the genus with any certainty. That it may clash with 
Peggiopsis Muir is probable. One female specimen in the 
Bureau of Science collection, which stands under this name, does 
not agree very well with Stal's description. I accept it 
provisionally and associate two other specimens with it. The 
following description is taken from the above-mentioned 
specimen : 

Vertex quadrate, base wider than apex; face narrow with a 
fine longitudinal groove in the center ; clypeus much longer than 
face, tricarinate, sides flattened; antennas longer than head and 
thorax together, narrow, flat, sense organs evenly distributed; 
mesonotum broader than long, carinas obsolete. Tegmina with 
costal cell arcuately produced at base, distad of which it is ex- 
ceedingly narrow ; radial cell so narrow from base to near third 
median sector that the median vein appears to be united to 
the radius, beyond this point it widens suddenly; four median 
sectors and four cubital veins ; wings rudimentary, not reaching 
to middle of abdomen. Dark brown ; head, dorsal half of an- 
tennas, pleurae of pronotum, legs, and middle of abdomen lighter 
brown. Tegmina hyaline with reddish brown veins, basal 
portion to first median sector fuscous with two small, hyaline 
spots in middle, a dark fuscous mark at apex of subcosta, ex- 
tending along radius to apex of media. Pregenital sternite wider 
than long, posterior edge obtuse-angularly produced from sides 
to middle, disk subconcave when viewed in profile ; anal segment 
small, broadly lanceolate, apex slightly emarginate. 

Negros, Occidental Negros, Bago (Banks), Bureau of Science 
No. 6631. 

Peggia irrorata sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 16. 

Male. — Vertex very short, broad ; face broadest at base, slightly 
narrowed between eyes, carinas fine, not contiguous; antennas 
as long as head and thorax combined, flattened; thorax similar 
to that of Zoraida; abdomen slightly compressed, dorsally arched. 
Costal cell exceedingly narrow, especially beyond basal fourth; 
subcosta and radius separating about one fourth from base, but 
they remain so near together that they are practically contiguous 
to near apex; radial cell very narrow to near apex where it 
widens very slightly. Cubitus with four veins extending to 
hind margin, the fifth joining a cross vein near margin; four 
median sectors ; wings minute, not reaching middle of abdomen. 
Brown, a median and lateromedian lighter marks on mesonotum, 
the lateral edges of pronotum light with two small dark marks ; 
abdomen dark brown, speckled all over with lighter granules. 



88 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Costa, subcosta, and radius with apical veins reddish, costal and 
subcostal cells yellowish, other veins fuscous brown, fuscous in 
radial cell and less distinctly so in apical cells, rest of tegmina 
hyaline; wings hyaline with brown veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor produced in middle into a lanceolate 
process, which is a little longer than broad; lateral edges an- 
gularly produced at sides of anal segment, the apex acutely 
pointed; anal segment longer than broad, slightly narrowed 
before middle, apex rounded, anus a little beyond middle, a small, 
elevated ridge immediately basad of anus ; genital styles reaching 
to end of anal segment, apices rounded, ventral edges arcuately 
excavate on distal half, dorsal edges slightly angular about 
middle. 

Length, 3.5 millimeters ; tegmen, 9. 

Female. — Like the male, but with three light marks across 
radial cell near the first, third, and fourth median sectors. Pre- 
genital sternite a little broader than long, posterior edge ob- 
tuse-angularly produced from sides to middle, disk in middle 
concave. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Muir) ; Ilocos Norte, 
Dungon Dungon (Banks), a pair taken in copula, cotype in 
College of Agriculture, No. 18327. 

Genus PEGGIOPSIS Muir 

Peggiopsis MuiR, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, Div. Ent. 
(1913), 12, 72. 

Most of the species of this genus are easily distinguished 
from species of Zwaida Kirkaldy by the broad, flat antennas, 
but a few species have the antennse narrower and not so dis- 
tinctly flattened. In all such species the wings are rudimentary 
and do not reach to the end of the abdomen. It is possible that 
this genus may clash with Peggia Kirkaldy, the type of which 
I am uncertain about. 

The nine species I place under this genus are distinguished 
as follows: 

Key to the species of Peggiopsis. 

a 1 . Wings reaching to the end of abdomen or beyond. 

b 1 . Antennse longer than head and thorax together; each of four ab- 
dominal tergites with a row of black spots; anal segment of male 
long, apex acute, apical third turned ventrad, forming a right angle 

with basal portion dorsimaculata. 

b 2 . Antenna not longer than head and thorax together; abdomen without 
black spots. 
c 1 . Veins of tegmina yellow: apex of male genital style truncate. 

pallida. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 89 

c 2 . Veins of tegmina brown; apex of male genital style forming a long, 

blunt spine turned inward pseudojavana. 

a 2 . Wings rudimentary, not reaching to the end of abdomen. 

d\ Antennae not longer than head and thorax together. Veins of tegmina 
yellow; anal segment of male longer than broad, subquadrate, nar- 
rowing to apex which is emarginate puncticosta. 

d'. Antennae distinctly longer than head and thorax together. 

e\ Three rows of black spots on dorsum of abdomen dorsopunctata. 

e\ Without such black spots. 
f. Anal segment of male long, narrow, apex subacute; antennae 

with dark band near apex pseudopuncticosta. 

f. Anal segment of male with rounded apex or with small emar- 
gination. 
g 1 . Medioventral process of male pygophor triangular... .flavicornis. 
g'\ Medioventral process of male pygophor lanceolate. 

pseudoflavicornis. 

g*. Medioventral process of male pygophor spatulate with acute 

apex stali. 

Peggiopsis dorsimaculata sp. no v. 

Male. — Wings reaching beyond apex of abdomen; antennse 
about as long as head and thorax together, flattened, sense 
organs most numerous along the raised edges. Ochraceous, 
thorax slightly fuscous, abdomen lighter, antenna? yellow with 
red sense organs, the second to sixth abdominal tergites each 
with a row of raised black spots (sense organs?), anal segment 
tinged with red. Tegmina hyaline, very slightly fuscous, sub- 
costa, radius, and media red, median sectors and cubital veins 
brown, fuscous over basal portion of costal and radial cells, 
darker fusieous over radial cross vein, base of sectors, apex of 
third sector, and subcostal cell; wings fuscous hyaline with 
brown veins. 

Medioventral process of pygophor lanceolate, the length about 
twice the breadth; anal segment lanceolate, length about four 
times the width, apex blunt, apical third turned ventrad; anus 
about one third from base, dorsal surface longitudinally ridged 
from base to anus; genital styles reaching to bend in anal 
segment, base narrow, wide distad of middle, ventral edge 
sinuate, a carina near, and parallel to, ventral edge, dorsal edge 
roundly ampliate on apical two thirds, a small transverse carina 
between dorsal edge and ventral carina, apex narrowly truncate, 
the corners forming broad points, those on the right styles more 
pronounced than those on the left. 

Female unknown. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 13. 

Mindanao, Davao {Baker). 



90 The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



Peggiopsis pallida sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 13. 

Male. — Antennas scarcely as long as head and thorax together ; 
face not produced below eyes; a longitudinal "false vein" in 
the apical half or radial cell. Light yellow, sense organs on the 
antennae brownish. Tegmina hyaline, slightly opaque with 
waxy secretion, veins light yellow. 

Length, 2.7 millimeters; tegmen, 8.5. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Pregenital sternite wider 
than long, posterior edge obtuse-angularly produced from sides 
to middle ; anal segment a little longer than broad, sides arcuate, 
apex roundly pointed, anus at base. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters; tegmen, 8.5. . 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker) , Mount Maquiling (Baker, 
Muir) ; Negros, Occidental Negros, Bago (Banks), Bureau of 
Science No. 6632. 

Peggiopsis pseudojavana sp. nov. 

Male. — Antennas hardly as long as head and thorax, flat; teg- 
mina and wings as in P. pallida. Yellow, inclining to red on 
dorsum; tegmina hyaline, subcosta, radius, and base of median 
vein yellowish; rest of veins brownish; wings hyaline, veins 
brown. 

Ventral edge of pygophor produced into a small process, 
longer than broad, narrowing to the bluntly pointed apex ; lateral 
edges forming an angle at sides of anal segment; anal segment 
large, longer than broad, slightly constricted at base, rounded 
at apex, which is turned ventrad; anus before middle; genital 
styles narrow, about as long as anal segment, apex forming a 
long blunt spine turned in at right angles to basal portion, ven- 
tral edge straight, with a round process about a third from 
base, dorsal edge slightly arcuate. 

Length, 2.7 millimeters; tegmen, 7. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 

A female from Los Banos (Muir) that I associate with this 
species is less red in color, front femora with fuscous streak, 
hind tibiae with middle and apical spines black, and a black 
mark on apical half ; anal segment red. Hind edge of pregenital 
sternite slightly and roundly produced from sides to middle, 
wider than long, with a wide depression along middle. Another 
female from Basilan (Baker), which could equally well belong 
to this species, has the basal portion of the disk drawn out into 
a blunt spine. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidee of the Philippine Islands 91 

Peggiopsis puncticosta (Melichar) . 

Zoraida puncticosta Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 433. 
The long, flat antennae and the rudimentary wings place this 
species in the genus Peggiopsis. One male in the Baker collec- 
tion from the type locality (Mount Maquiling) that agrees with 
Melichar's description has the genitalia as follows : Medioventral 
process of pygophor acutely triangular, the length about twice 
the width at base ; anal segment subquadrate, length about twice 
the width at base, the width of apex about half that of the 
base, apex slightly emarginate, anus near middle; genital styles 
large, narrow at base, gradually widening to apex, which is 
truncate with rounded corners, dorsal edge concave, ventral 
edge convex, a small subangular process on ventral edge near 
base. 

Peggiopsis dorsopunctata (Melichar) . 

Zoraida dorsopunctata Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 
434 (Mount Maquiling). 

The long, flat antennae indicate that this is not a Zoraida. 

I have one specimen that may be the female of this species. 
Face in profile slightly projecting below eyes; antennae flat, 
half as long as head and body, edges subparallel; cubitus with 
six veins extending to hind margin. Yellow, edges of antennae 
reddish; mesonotum slightly fuscous, dorsal edges of tegulae 
fuscous, two spots on scutellum, second, third, and fifth ab- 
dominal tergites, each with two spots, anal segment reddish. 
Hind margin of pregenital sternite obtusely, angularly produced 
from sides to middle, disk flattened; anal segment longer than 
wide, sides very slightly arcuate, narrowed toward apex, which 
has a distinct angular emargination ; anus at about middle. 

Luzon, Los Baiios (Muir). 
Peggiopsis pseudopuncticosta sp. nov. 

Antennae flat, broad, as long as thorax and abdomen together ; 
wings not reaching to the middle of the abdomen; apical half 
of costal cell narrow; radial cell narrow to the cross vein, 
beyond which it is wider. Light brown, reddish over the abdo- 
men; slightly fuscous near base of antennae and a dark band 
near the reddish apex, three dark marks on mesonotum, which 
are broadest posteriorly. Tegmina hyaline with yellowish veins, 
costal cell with a series of some forty minute black spots. 

Medioventral process of pygophor conical in outline with an 
acute apex; lateral edges obtusely angled; anal segment long 



92 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

and narrow, length about thrice the width of base, anus slightly 
distad of middle, sides subparallel to anus then slightly converg- 
ing to the rounded apex ; genital styles boomerang-shaped, widest 
on apical half, ventral edge concave, a rounded emargination 
basad of middle of dorsal edge. 

Length, 3.3 millimeters; tegmen, 9. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

Peggiopsis flavicornis (Melichar). Plate I, fig. 11. 

Zoraida flavicornis Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 433. 

The large, flat antenna places this species in Peggiopsis. In 
the specimens I identify as this species, the subcosta leaves the 
radius level with the first median sector; it is very obscure and 
parallels the radius to the apex ; the costal area is narrow, espe- 
cially in the distal half, but distinct; radial cell very narrow 
to halfway between second and third median sectors, then sud- 
denly broad to apex; four cubital veins reaching posterior 
margin, the first median sector forming part of the cubital 
system; four median sectors. Vertex triangular, depressed in 
middle, lateral carinae meeting at apex; face elongate diamond- 
shaped, widest below eyes, a fine hair line divides carinae on 
middle of face, the latter diverging at apex. 

Male. — Medioventral edge of pygophor produced into a small 
triangle turned dorsad; lateral edges straight; length of anal 
segment about twice the breadth, slightly narrowed at middle, 
rounded toward apex, where there is a slight emargination, anus 
in middle, a small ridge across segment just basad of anus; 
genital styles longer than anal segment, narrow, curved dorsad, 
inner surface concave, outer convex, narrowest at base, apex 
rounded, slightly constricted near apex. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite convex, wider than long, poste- 
rior margin obtuse-angularly produced from sides to middle; 
anal segment a little longer than broad, sides slightly arcuate, 
narrowing slightly to the emarginate apex, anus at base, a small 
angular projection from preanal tergite covering the base. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Muir), College of Agriculture 
No. 18132. 

Peggiopsis pseudoflavicornis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 10. 

Male. — In profile the face below eyes projects slightly; anten- 
na? as long as body, flat and broad, otherwise as in P. flavicornis; 
in color similar to flavicornis, but without the fuscous shading 
on mesonotum and the spots on scutellum. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 93 

Ventral edge of pygophor produced in middle into a broadly 
lanceolate process; lateral edges projecting angularly beside 
anal segment; anal segment longer than broad, narrowing to 
the apex, which has a minute emargination, anus in middle, a 
small projection arising basad of anus; genital styles longer 
than anal segment, concavo-convex, narrow at base, apex 
rounded, ventral edge with a large notch near apex and a small 
one more basad, dorsal edge with two small projections near 
the middle. These styles are larger and wider than in P. 
flavicornis. 

Length, 3.3 millimeters; tegmen, 10. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao (Baker). 

Peggiopsis stali sp. nov. 

Male. — Antennae flat, longer than head and body, narrowed 
toward base and apex ; face not distinctly protruding below eyes. 
Tegmina with four cubital veins extending to hind margin, four 
median sectors; subcostal cell very narrow, commencing about 
middle of tegmen; radial cell very narrow at base, gradually 
widening to apex; costal cell distinct, but narrow, slightly wide 
in basal third; wings rudimentary, not reaching to middle of 
abdomen. 

Ventral edge of pygophor produced into a spatulate process 
with the apex drawn out to a fine point, slightly laterad of this 
process provided with two small knobs, lateral edges bluntly 
angular at sides of anal segment; anal segment much longer 
than wide-; parallel-sided, turned ventrad at apex; apex wide, 
roundly emarginate, anus in middle, a small ridge basad of anus, 
genital styles not so long as anal segment, narrow at base, 
widening to the truncate apex, dorsoapical corner produced into 
a rounded point, ventral edge sinuous, dorsal edge with two 
small processes near middle, the distal one rounded, basal one 
a bent, blunt spine. 

Yellow, facial carinae and edges of antennse tinged with red, 
lateral edges of pronotum red, fuscous on sides of abdominal 
tergites, anal segment red. Tegmina hyaline, basal third of 
costal cell yellow, apical two thirds of costal cell, subcostal cell, 
and basal portion of radial cell red, middle portion of radial cell 
fuscous; costa, subcosta, and radius red; other veins brown, 
color in three apical veins fades out at apex. 

Length, 3 millimeters; tegmen, 8.75. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks). 



94 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Certain characters of this species approach those of the genus 
Peggia (Nebrissa Stal). 

Genus MENDANA novum 

Vertex very short and very broad with a fine carina around 
the edges ; face as broad as the vertex, constricted on lower half 
between antenna?, the fine carina? of vertex continued down the 
center of the face with a fine groove between them, no distinct 
carina? on lateral edges ; eyes round with a small antennal eraar- 
gination on lower edge ; clypeus longer than face, carina? obsolete ; 
antenna? large and flat. Costal cell narrow on basal fourth, 
beyond which it is practically obsolete, subcostal cell very narrow, 
radial cell very narrow to cross vein, beyond which it widens 
considerably, cubitus with four veins reaching hind margin, 
media with four sectors; wings rudimentary, not reaching to 
middle of abdomen. Genital styles of female well developed. 

Mindana latifrons sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 12. 

Antenna? longer than thorax and abdomen together, arista a 
little cephalad of apex, beyond which the apex is subacute; sur- 
face studded with brown sense organs, which are most numerous 
around the edges. Tarsi and apices of femora fuscous ; abdomen 
with two dark, shining bands across dorsum broken in the mid- 
dle ; genitalia dark fuscous. Tegmina clear hyaline, dark fuscous 
over apical half of costal and all subcostal areas, extending at 
apex of tegmen to apex of media, veins dark fuscous. 

Medioventral process of pygophor turbinate, with the acute 
end apical; anal segment subcaudate, with the acute end basal, 
slightly longer than broad, anus in middle ; genital styles long, , 
narrow, slightly curved, apex rounded, a small obtuse-angular 
projection on ventral edge near base, a small, round projection 
on dorsal edge about middle. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 10. 

Female. — Slightly fuscous over middle of pro- and mesonotum, 
otherwise similar to the male. 

Pregenital sternite broader than long, hind margin obtuse- 
angularly produced from sides to middle; anal segment longer 
than broad, slightly narrowed to the apex, which is emarginate. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 10. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker), 1 female; Davao (Baker), 1 
male. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 95 

Genus PROUTISTA Kirkaldy 

Proutista moesta (Westwood) . 

Derbe (Phenice) moesta Westwood, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1851), 

II, 7, 209. 
Proutista moesta Kirkaldy, Entomologist (1904), 279. 

Common on sugar cane at Los Banos. This is a very common 
and widely distributed insect, but I have not been able to find 
the young. 

Luzon, Manila (Banks) ; Mindoro, Mangarin (Banks) . 
Bureau of Science Nos. 2256, 6499, 17022. 

Proutista nigritarsis sp. nov. 

Male — Labium flattened and widened toward the apex. Light 
brown, clypeus and proboscis dark brown or black, carinse of 
thorax and legs lighter, apex of tibiae and third tarsal segment 
black, abdominal segments with darker marks along hind 
margin. Tegmina very similar to those of P. moesta (West- 
wood), but with markings browner and not so extensive, 
especially in the apical median cells. 

Pygophor with ventral edge straight; anal segment long, 
narrow, subparallel-sided, apical third turned ventrad at a right 
angle to basal portion, apex rounded; genital styles long, 
narrow, subparallel-sided, slightly bent a little beyond middle, 
apex rounded and slightly swollen, forming a small knob; a 
small, thick spine arises from the dorsal edge near base. 

Length, 2.7 millimeters; tegmen, 6.3. 

Female. —-Similar to the male in size and coloring. The small 
plates at the sides of the genital area larger than in P. moesta 
and considerably thickened. 

Mindanao, Zamboanga (Baker). 

Genus NEOCAMMA Melichar 

Neocamma trifaseiata Melichar. 

Neocamma trifaseiata Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 
435, PI. 1, figs. 1-4. 

I have not seen specimens of this genus, but according to 
Melichar's figures it differs from allied genera in having the 
clavus closed, the claval suture and claval vein extending to the 
hind margin; the subcosta and radius separate near base, but 
amalgamate again near apex; the neuration of the wing also 
differs. In coloration this species is similar to Paraproutista 
trifaseiata Muir. 



96 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Genus PARAPROUTISTA Muir 
Paraproutista trifasciata sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 2. 

Male. — In coloration this appears to be similar to Neocamma 
trifasciata Melichar. Light brown or reddish yellow; clypeus 
and a small mark across pronotum darker; antennse, legs, and 
anal segment lighter. Tegmina and wings as in Neocamma 
trifasciata. 

Pygophor scarcely differentiated from abdominal segments, 
a small, pointed process in middle of ventral edge, no emargina- 
tion around anal segment ; anal segment short, subtubular, ventral 
edge at apex forming a point turned ventrad; genital styles 
short, broad, subcircular, depressed from middle to dorsal edge. 

Female. — Genital area sunk below surface, elongate oval ; anal 
segment in dorsal position, short and tubular, anus situated at 
end. 

Length, 3 millimeters ; tegmen, 7.5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Muir), two cotypes in College of 
Agriculture, No. 18131. 

Paraproutista luzonensis sp. nov. 

Male. — This species is similar to P. trifasciata, but is redder in 
color, especially on abdomen ; the three fuscous marks on tegmina 
are wider, especially on the costal border. 

Anal segment as in P. trifasciata, but the apex broader and 
slightly emarginate, and the genital styles narrower and longer. 

Length, 2.5 millimeters; tegmen, 7. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Paraproutista maculipermis (Banks). 

Jada maculipennis Banks, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1910), 5, 39, PI. 
3, fig. 8. 

The short club-shaped antennas and the two cubital veins and 
six median sectors, the third of which is furcate, place this 
species in Paraproutista. The face in profile does not project 
conically, so it cannot be placed in Jada. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor obtuse-angularly produced 
from sides to middle, the sides of the process being slightly con- 
cave, the apex with a fine transverse suture; lateral edges 
acute-angularly produced at sides of anal segment, length of 
processes greater than width at base ; anal segment longer than 
lateral processes, narrow, narrowing to the pointed apex, which 
is slightly curved ventrad; anus before middle; genital styles 
not so long as anal segment, rounded at apex, edges subparallel. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 97 

Paraproutista platypes sp. nov. 

Male. — Hind tarsi laterally flattened, Dark fuscous brown; 
carinas of thorax and posterior angle of mesonotum lighter, legs 
light brown, tarsi and apex of hind tibia? fuscous. Tegmina 
fuscous brown with yellowish hyaline areas forming eight or 
nine irregular spots in costal cell, continuing into radial cell in 
middle and across subcostal cell near apex, lighter over the 
cubital veins and the cross veins of the first three median sectors ; 
some irregular marks over apical half of third and fourth median 
sectors and an irregular triangular spot at apices of tegmina, 
veins dark; wings fuscous with dark veins. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight; anal segment subparallel- 
sided, length a little more than twice the width, anus in middle, 
slightly narrowed and rounded at apex; genital styles acutely 
angular, length about twice the width of base, outer surface 
convex, a small angular projection on ventral edge near base. 

Length, 4.3 millimeters; tegmen, 11.5. 

Female. — A transverse ridge across middle of pregenital seg- 
ment, posterior edge slightly rounded. In size and color similar 
to male. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

Paraproutista fuscipennis sp. nov. 

Male. — Fuscous brown, carinse of head and thorax lighter, 
legs and proboscis yellowish. Tegmina dark fuscous, a series of 
about ten white spots on costa, small white spots on cross vein 
of cubitus arid first three median sectors, a light spot at base of 
fourth and fifth median sectors, small white spots at apex of 
radius and media, which are otherwise dark, the subcosta and 
radius reddish. 

Ventral edge of pygophor straight, lateral edges very slightly 
and roundly produced ; anal segment with anus in middle, broad 
at base and narrowing rapidly, the portion distad of the anus 
forming a slender, sharp spine, slightly curved ventrad; genital 
styles triangular, subequilateral, a median carina from apex to 
base. 

Length, 4 millimeters; tegmen, 9.5. 

Female. — Similar to the male in size, but considerably lighter 
in color, the spots on costa more or less coalescing. Posterior 
edge of pregenital segment angularly produced from sides to 
middle. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

147575 4 



98 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Genus ACANTHOCERA Melichar 

Aeanthocera punctifrons Melichar. Plate I, fig. 3. 

Acanthocera punctifrons Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 
9, 436, PI. I, figs. 5-8. 

The Los Banos specimens that I identify as of this. species 
agree in specific characters with Melichar's description of 
Acanthocera punctifrons, but differ generically. The subcosta 
reaches the costal margin near apex, a folding under of the 
costal membrane giving it the appearance of Melichar's figures; 
the first median sector is attached to the cubital system, but 
not so distinctly as in Paraproutista, the second free sector is 
furcate, the clavus is open; this is the same tegmen as that of 
Paraproutista. 

In the female the genital styles (ovipositor and sheath) are 
abortive as in Proutista, Paraproutista, Neocamma, and the 
Sikaianini. 

Jn the male the ventral edge of pygophor is straight ; a trian- 
gular projection arising from the inner surface fits perfectly 
between the genital styles, lateral edges entire; anal segment 
longer than broad, anus in basal third, beyond anus the segment 
curves ventrad and narrows to the truncate apex; genital 
styles broader than long, broadest at apex, which is slightly 
sinuous, ventral margins fitting against angular projection from 
pygophor. 

Genus SIKAIANA Distant 

This and three allied genera form a small tribe of minute, 
delicate derbids closely allied to one another. Although they are 
rare in collections, yet they are abundant in their habitats ; they 
most frequently rest upon the underside of leaves of various 
species of palms. In all the species with which I am acquainted, 
the anal area of the wing is large and is modified into a stridulat- 
ing organ, the rest of the wing is small or minute. Whether 
these groups should be considered as genera or subgenera is a 
point on which homopterists may not all agree, but it is ex- 
pedient to recognize the character upon which they are founded. 

Sikaiana makii Muir. 

Sikaiana makii MuiR, Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. (1915), 3, 117. 

One female agrees with the description of this species, but 
a male is required to make the identification definite. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Muir), on palm trees. 
Formerly only known from Formosa. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 99 

Sikaiana vitriceps sp. no v. 

Female. — White or light yellow, fuscous on antennae and ab- 
dominal tergites. Tegmina hyaline, vitreous, veins yellow, costa 
reddish, three yellowish spots at end of costal cell with red dots 
on costa between them, a square black mark at end of subcostal 
cell and a lighter mark beyond it to media; wings reaching to 
about end of basal median cell, hyaline, veins yellow, costa ex- 
cavate from a little before middle to apex. 

Anal segment exceedingly short, anal style large, roundly 
cordate, concavo-convex, arising from beneath the apex of seg- 
ment; genital styles small and complex. 

Length, 1.3 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bahos {Muir), on palm trees. 

Genus MTJIRIA Kirkaldy 

Muiria iridescens sp. nov. 

First joint of antennae as long as wide or a little longer, second 
joint as long as head and thorax, flattened, set at side about one 
fourth from apex, second joint of female not quite so long. 

Flavous, fuscous on abdomen; tegmina hyaline, iridescent, 
veins yellow, apical half of costal and radial cells yellowish with 
small white dots, a black spot at apex of costal cell and a 
lighter one at apex of media, a few small red dots along apex of 
tegmen ; white, waxy secretion along apical edge ; wings minute, 
of the same shape as in M. stridula Kirkaldy. 

Male. — Lateral edges of pygophor forming a small, angular 
projection on each side of anal segment; anal segment much 
longer than lateral projections, flattened horizontally, lateral 
margins subparallel to beyond middle then gradually converging 
to the pointed apex, curved downward from about the middle; 
genital styles reaching beyond lateral plates, much longer than 
wide, apex diagonally truncate. 

Length, 1.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Muir), on palm trees. 

Genus LEQMELICHARIA Muir 

Leomelicharia nigrovittata sp. nov. 

Fuscous red or reddish brown, posterior edge of mesonotum 
lighter, legs and abdominal sternites yellowish. Tegmina hya- 
line, all the apical third and a band down the costa including 
the costal, subcostal, and basal median cells, and slightly beyond 
at the bases of median sectors black; a small white dot at 
apex of submedian cell; veins reddish, especially the costa and 



100 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

costal cross veins and the apical veins; wings minute, hardly 
reaching beyond apex of scutellum, triangular, reddish ; stridulat- 
ing area large. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor at middle with a small an- 
gular process; the edges of pygophor produced into a long 
process, narrowing to the bluntly rounded apex; anal segment 
not reaching to end of lateral processes, little longer than wide, 
narrowed toward apex; rounded; anus at apex and ventrad; 
anal style in lateral view larger than, and appearing as the distal 
portion of, the anal segment; styles not reaching to end of 
lateral processes, narrow, broadest at base, apices turned inward, 
lying within the pygophor; sedeagus large. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite slightly angularly produced at 
middle; styles (ovipositor and sheath) abortive; on each side of 
the genital area a plate (lateral plate) , with its ventral portion 
subcircular ; a small process in the middle meets a corresponding 
process from the other side, the dorsal portion conical; the anal 
segment, which lies between the conical portions, is small, about 
as long as broad; anal styles rounded at apex and longer than 
anal segment. 

Length, 1.80 millimeters; tegmen, 5.8. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir) , common on palm 
trees; cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 18127. 

Leomelicharia delicata sp. no v. 

Light brown, pronotum with a light mark on the middle; 
mesonotum darker on lateral angles; abdomen dorsally with 
four lines of lighter spots; legs, apex of abdomen, and abdom- 
inal sternites yellow. Tegmina hyaline, vitreous, slightly tinged 
with yellow, a fuscous mark along costal area covering costal 
and subcostal cells to apex, a series of yellow spots occupying 
most of costal cell from middle to apex, veins reddish, especially 
costa and apical veins ; wings minute, triangular, fuscous, stridu- 
lating area large. 

Male. — Ventral edge of pygophor not drawn out into a point, 
lateral projections acutely angular, apex pointed; anal segments 
shorter than lateral projections, constricted near apex; anal 
style large, arising from apex of segment on ventral side, in 
lateral view the segment and style appear as if composed of 
three pieces; genital styles not quite reaching to end of lateral 
processes, narrow, bluntly pointed at apex, broader and rounder 
at base. 

Female. — Lateral plates on genital area much smaller than in 
L. nigrovittata, dorsal plates forming a small triangle, the ventral 



xii. d, 2 Muir: Derbidm of the Philippine Islands 101 

plate narrow, more like a style with a rounded base; anal seg- 
ment wider than long, apex rounded, anal style large, circular, 
arising from below apex of segment. 

Length, 1.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir), on palm trees; 
cotypes in College of Agriculture, No. 18129. 

Leomelicharia delicatissima sp. nov. 

Light brown or yellowish, thorax darker with a light median 
mark and some lighter marks on sides, abdominal tergites darker 
with light dots ; genitalia yellowish. Tegmina hyaline, vitreous, 
subcostal and radial veins black, in apical half the black extending 
into radial, subcostal, and costal cells; a series of light dots in 
costal cell to apex, other veins reddish; wings minute, hardly 
reaching to third abdominal segment, fuscous on borders; 
stridulating area large. 

Female. — Pregenital sternite with a small angular projection 
on middle of posterior edge; genital area more like that of L. 
nigrolineata than that of delicata; upper lateral plates more 
obtusely angular. 

Length, 1.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Male. — Unknown. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir), on palm trees. 

In this species the basal median cell is not quite so long as, 
and is a little broader than, in the type species, thus approaching 
Sikaiana. 

Leomelicharia pulchra sp. nov. 

Light brown or yellowish, abdomen darker with lighter spots, 
anal area light. Tegmina hyaline, vitreous; costal, subcostal, 
and basal median cells black or fuscous to apex, the color also 
extending slightly along base of median sectors; veins red, es- 
pecially the costa and costal cross veins, three white dots in 
apical cells ; wings very minute, triangular, fuscous, stridulating 
area large. 

Male. — Lateral edges of pygophor produced into angular plates 
with blunted apices; anal segment little longer than broad, anal 
style at apex on underside, about as long as segment; styles 
reaching to end of lateral processes, narrow, apex bluntly pointed. 

Female. — Posterior edge of pregenital sternites drawn to a 
point in the middle; lateral plates very much like those of L. 
nigrolineata; anal style large and circular. 

Length, 1.5 millimeters; tegmen, 4. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir), on palm trees; 
cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 18128. 



102 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Genus DISTANTLNIA novum 

Differing from Leomelicharia in the neuration of the tegmina. 
The cubitus arises from the median vein about one fourth from 
base ; thus there are only two longitudinal veins in basal portion 
of tegmen. 

Distantinia nigrocacuminis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 5. 

Brown; carinas of vertex and pronotum, hind margin of me- 
sonotum, edge of tegulas, legs, genitalia, and small spots on ab- 
dominal tergites lighter. Tegmina hyaline, apical fourth dark 
fuscous with four white spots, the dark color continuing on 
costal and subcostal cells to middle of tegmina, another dark 
mark at junction of clavus with media, and a smaller one at ex- 
treme base; hind margin excavate at apex of median sectors, 
making the margin sinuate; veins reddish, especially the costa 
and the transcostal and apical veins; wings minute, triangular, 
fuscous, lighter on hind margin; stridulating area large. 

Male. — Lateral edges of pygophor drawn out into acute an- 
gles ; anal segment a little longer than broad, apex rounded, anal 
style about as long as segment, arising from ventral part of 
apex of segment; genital styles not reaching to end of lateral 
processes, acutely angular, attached to pygophor by one corner 
of base, apex subacute. 

Female. — Posterior edge of pregenital sternite produced as 
a subspatulate process, depressed along middle; lateral plates 
well developed, ventral plate circular, dorsal plate subangular 
with obtuse apex; between them lies a small bifurcated sclerite 
(belonging to basal plate?). 

Length, 1.8 millimeters; tegmen, 5. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Muir), on palm trees; 
cotype in College of Agriculture, No. 18130. 

In general appearance this is very much like Leomelicharia 
nigrovittata Muir, but the white spots in the black apex of the 
tegmina constitute a well-marked character. 

RHOTANIN^E 

The subfamily Rhotaninae, as now constituted, contains six 
genera (Decora, Levu, Rhotana, Genestia, Sumangala, and Mecy- 
norhynchus), but they are ill defined. There are still a few 
undescribed species before me, but I do not feel justified in 
naming them until I can define the genera more definitely. 



xii, d, 2 Muir: Derbidse of the Philippine Islands 103 

Genus RHOTANA Walker 

Rhotana punctovenosa Melichar. 

Rhotana punctovenosa Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 
437. 

Rhotana excelsa Melichar. 

Rhotana excelsa Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 437. 

This species has the carinse of vertex not touching, and on face 
they only just touch between eyes. The species has more of the 
characters of Decora than of Rhotana. 

Rhotana basipunctulata Melichar. 

Rhotana basipunctulata Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 9, 
438. 

Genus LEVU Kirkaldy 
In the species of the genus Levu the shoulder keels are distinct. 

Levu lucida Muir. 

Levu lucida Muir, Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. (1915), 3, 136. 

Veins redder than in the type species and the white marks not 
so distinct. Male pygophor laterally compressed; ventral edge 
straight; lateral edges very slightly angular; anal segment a 
little longer than width at base, narrowing steeply from base to 
apex, which is narrowly truncate, anus at apex; lateral styles 
reaching beyond anal segment, subparallel-sided, ventral apical 
corner rounded, dorsal corner angular, a small rounded process 
on inner dprsal edge near the middle. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Muir). 

Originally described from a female specimen from Java. 

Levu irrorata sp. no v. 

Male. — Congeneric with L. lucida, which differs from the type 
of the genus in having the costal cell very broad, especially the 
basal half where the costal border is arcuately produced. Yel- 
low; head and pronotum lighter than mesonotum, two or three 
small fuscous marks from eye to facial keels, two dark marks at 
posterior edge of mesonotum; legs fuscous. Tegmina fuscous, 
darkest at base, lighter along apical and posterior margins, three 
median apical cells vitreous with a small fuscous mark at apex 
of each cell, a series of five black specks near apical margin 
from end of costa to cubitus, veins spotted with fuscous and 
white, apical veins and apical cross veins tinged with red. The 



104 The Philippine Journal of Science 

white portions of tegmina often incrusted with a white, waxy 
secretion, making them very conspicuous. 

Pygophor laterally compressed, edges entire, anal segment 
small, gradually narrowed to rounded apex ; anus at apex ; styles 
gradually widening to the wide, truncate apex. 

Female. — Caudal edge of pregenital sternite angularly pro- 
duced from sides to middle. 

Length, 2.7 millimeters; tegmen, 5. 

Mindanao, Iligan (Baker) ; Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos 
(Muir), on palm trees; Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

Genus DECORA Dammermann 

Decora pavo Bierman. 

Decora pavo Bierman, Notes Leyden Mus. (1910), 33, 20. 

The original description is not available, but I believe this 
determination is correct. 

Mindanao, Lanao, Kolambugan (Banks), College of Agri- 
culture No. 18107; Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Muir). 

Genus MECYNORHYNCHUS Muir 

Mecynorhynchus fuscus Muir. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Bake?*) . Previously known from 
Java. 

Mecynorhynchus hyalinns Melichar. 

Mecynorhynchus hyalinus Melichar, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. D (1914), 
9, 437. 

As Melichar's use of the specific name hyalinus in this genus, 
for a Philippine species, antedates my use of it for a Javan 
species, the latter may be known as Mecynorhynchus nigro- 
punctatus new name. 

Mecynorhynchus kershawi Muir. 

Mecynorhynchus kershawi Muir, Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Plant. Assoc, 
Div. Ent. (1913), 12, 82; Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. (1913), 3, 133. 

Previously known from Borneo. Now recorded from Los 
Banos. 

Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. (1915), 12, 134. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Peggia nitida (Stal), tegmen, C, costa; Sc, subcosta; R, radius; 
M, media; Cu, cubitus; Ms ±, 2 , 3 , t, median sectors; Cu i, 2 , 3, *, 
cubital veins; Cs, claval suture; CU, Ch, claval veins. 

2. Paraproutista trifasciata sp. nov., tegmen. 

3. Acanthocera punctifrons Melichar, tegmen. 

4. Losbanosia bakeri g. et sp. nov., tegmen. (Lettering the same as 

in fig. 1.) 

5. Distantinia nigrocacuminis sp. nov., tegmen. (Lettering the same 

as in fig. 1.) 

6. Banksiella pulchra g. et sp. nov., tegmen. 

7. Neolamenia flava sp. nov., front view of head. 

8. Neodendrokara crescentiformis sp. nov., head in profile. 

9. Neocyclokara flava sp. nov., tegmen. 

10. Peggiopsis pseudoflavicornis g. et sp. nov., lateral view of apex of 

abdomen. 

11. Peggiopsis flavicornis (Melichar), lateral view of abdomen. 

12. Mindana latifrons g. et sp. nov., front view of head (one antenna 

viewed flat, the other at edge) . 

13. Peggiopsis pallida sp. nov., lateral view of apex of abdomen. 

14. Zoraida sinuosa Boheman?, lateral view of apex of abdomen. 

15. Banksiella pulchra sp. nov., lateral view of head. 

16. Peggia irrorata sp. nov., lateral view of apex of abdomen. 

17. Neocyclokara flava sp. nov., lateral view of head. 

18. Zoraida melichari sp. nov., lateral view of apex of abdomen. 

TEXT FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Kamendaka mindanensis sp. nov., sedeagus. 

2. Kamendaka luzonensis sp. nov., sedeagus. 

3. Kamendaka tayabasensis sp. nov., sedeagus. 

4. Kamendaka maquilingensis sp. nov., sedeagus. 

105 



Mum: Philippine Debbid/e.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 2. 




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D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
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Vol. XII MAY, 1917 No. 3 

STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE DIPTERA, II 

By M. Bezzi 

(Turin, Italy) V 

\ A/ 
ONE PLATE V^/ 

Since the publication of the first paper of this series 1 I have 
received from Professor Baker very rich material, which enables 
me to continue these studies and to add some very important 
novelties to the already interesting oriental fly fauna. A second 
"century" is here offered, which will be quickly followed by 
others. 

In the meantime some new species of Diptera have been de- 
scribed from the Islands, which are enumerated here with the 
object of completing the catalogue appended to the first century. 

TIPULID^E 

Geranomyia cornigera Alexander, Insec. Menstr. (1913), 1, 137, from 
Pettit Barracks (Ludlow). 

TACHINID^E 

Bengalia, two unnamed species, Bezzi, Ent. Mitteil. (1913), 2, 75 and 78, 
from Los Banos (Baker). 

PHORIDiE 

Aphiochmta variata Malloch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1912), 43, 515, from 
Manila (Stanton) . 

CYPSELIBvE (BORBORID^E) 

Leptocera (Limosina) picturata Malloch, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1912), 
43, 653, from Manila (Brown). 

1 See This Journal, Sec. D (1913), 8, 305-332, for the first century. 

149052 ^Q7 



108 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

ORTALID^ 

Campylocera thoracalis Hendel, Arch. f. Naturg. (1913), 79, 95, from 
Maao, Negros (Banks). 

MILICHIID.E 

Gitonides perspicax Knab, Insec. Menstr. (1914), 2, 166, reared from 
Pseudococcus sp., Manila (Compere). 

SECOND CENTURY OF THE BAKER COLLECTION 

The first century of Philippine Diptera was based upon speci- 
mens from Luzon only. More recently Professor Baker has 
collected in islands other than Luzon, and for this reason local- 
ities are given for each species of the second century. Another 
series of Diptera, chiefly blood-sucking forms, has been received 
from Mr. M. B. Mitzmain, Alabang, Rjzal Province, Luzon. 
This locality is about 35 kilometers from Los Banos. 

101. Plecia fulvicollis Fabr. 1805. 

Los Banos. A very common species spread over all the 
Oriental Region and extending also to New Guinea and Austra- 
lia. It is very variable in size, one female specimen measur- 
ing only 4 millimeters in length, like an Indian one recorded by 
Brunetti. 2 

102. Bibio rubicundus van der Wulp. 1884. 

Some females from Mount Banahao. Previously known only 
from Java. A very characteristic species, differing from Bi- 
bio obediens 0. S. (New Guinea) in the yellow coloration of the 
wings; the antennal flagellum, wanting in van der Wulp's type, 
is black; on the contrary, the scape, which is said to be black, 
is yellow in the present specimens, as in obediens. The very 
long spur of the front tibiae — about as long as the tibia — is dark 
reddish. The wings have the stigma pale yellow and rather 
broad; the second posterior cell is sessile at base. 

103. Culicoides judicandus sp. nov. 

Female. — Length of body, 1 millimeter. Near C. molestus 
Skuse of Australia and C. guttifer de Meijere of Java, but the 
wing pubescence very scanty and confined to the extreme tip 
of the wings. In this character it agrees with C. pungens de 
Meijere of Java; but the wing pattern is more like that of 
guttifer, from which it differs chiefly in having a clear spot at 
end of the subcostal cell, and in the fact that the clear marginal 

2 Fauna of Brit. India, 163. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 109 

spots are not in contact with the wing margin, but are placed at 
a little distance from it; the other spots are distributed as in 
guttifer. Neuration the same as in guttifer. Body brownish 
black, without distinct pattern. Legs dark brown, with the 
knees and the tips of tibise and tarsi whitish yellow. Antennae 
short and blackish. 

Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . Mr. Mitzmain has used 
this gnat in experiments on the transmission of surra. 

104. Pselliophora suspirans 0. S. 1882. 

Mount Maquiling. An endemic species. The present speci- 
mens differ from Osten Sacken's description in having a rounded 
yellowish spot between the middle and hind coxae, of which the 
author does not speak; the collar shows a grayish spot in the 
middle ; the wings show a trace of a yellowish tinge at base. 

Key to the Philippine species of the genus Pselliophora Osten Sacken. 

The genus Pselliophora seems to be rich in endemic Philippine 
species, some of which are very beautiful insects and are similar 
in general facies and coloration to some endemic species of the 
genus Eriocera. They may be distinguished as follows: 

a 1 . Tibise with a white basal ring; fourth posterior cell rather long, not 
much broader at base than at tip. 
5 1 . Wings uniform black or blackish; head brown; thorax entirely 

black dolens 0. S. 

b*. Wings brown, with a white spot in the middle. 
c\ Scutellum black. 

d 1 . Collar entirely black or with only a grayish middle spot; femora 
black at base; abdomen with a single yellow band. 

suspirans 0. S. 
d 2 . Collar with a broad white spot in the middle; femora broadly 
yellow at base, at least those of the hind pair in the female; 
third and fourth abdominal segments with yellow spots. 

suspirans hilaris var. nov. 
c-. Scutellum yellow; femora with yellow base; abdomen with segments 

2 to 4 reddish yellow; genitalia black idalia 0. S. 

a 2 . Tibia? without white basal rings; wings uniformly blackish, with the 
fourth posterior cell short, twice as broad at base as at end; species 
of greater size. 

e 1 . Thorax and legs entirely black prsefica sp. nov. 

e 2 . Thorax and legs partly orange-yellow tripudians sp. nov. 

105. Pselliophora suspirans hilaris var. nov. 

Very like P. suspirans, but distinguished by the more whitish 
than yellowish thoracic markings and by the more extended, 
whitish abdominal pattern. 

Male and female. — Length of body, 12 to 13 millimeters; of 
wing, 12 to 13. Rostrum without brown spot in front. Collar 



110 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

with a broad whitish spot toward the middle. Pleurae with a 
rounded whitish spot between the last two pairs of coxse. Scu- 
tellum black ; mesophragma with a less distinct yellowish spot on 
each side. Halteres black, with the stalk yellowish toward the 
base. Abdomen with the pale crossband on the second seg- 
ment as in P. suspirans, but besides with a broad yellowish band 
on the hind borders of third and fourth (in the male narrowly 
interrupted in the middle, in the female divided into two spots) ; 
also a smaller yellow spot on each side of fifth segment. On the 
venter all the segments after the second one with a broad yellow 
band at the hind border or a broad spot on each side; last seg- 
ment in the male produced in the shape of a long, conical yellow 
protuberance. Male genitalia black and black-haired above, dark 
yellowish pilose below, with a yellow, longitudinal, middle stripe 
and two yellow tubercles at tip below. Ovipositor black, the 
terminal lamella? dark yellow at tip. Hind femora in male 
narrowly, in female with the basal half, yellow. Wings as in 
P. suspirans; the triangular whitish spot at base of the two 
basal cells more developed ; the first posterior cell usually stalked 
at base. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios and Paete (Baker). 

106. Pselliophora praefica sp. nov. 

An entirely black species, with unicolorous legs and wings. 

Male. — Length of body, 15 millimeters; of wing, 16. Head 
black, but the underside of rostrum and a broad border at the 
hind margin of eyes reddish yellow ; palpi black and black-haired ; 
antennae entirely black, with the appendices of flagellum provided 
with scanty dark pubescence. Thorax entirely black even on 
collar, scutellum, and mesophragma; dorsum rather opaque, 
pleurae shining; the rather long hairs on postalar calli and 
scutellum black. Halteres black, with black pubescence on the 
stalk. Abdomen entirely black, even on center, with rather long 
black pubescence; genitalia entirely black and black-haired. 
Legs entirely black, even on the coxae, and black-pubescent, hind 
femora distinctly thickened. 

Wings uniformly darkened, with strong metallic reflections; 
squamae black; basal pubescence of the axillary angle long, soft, 
and black. Veins black, but the basal vein of the discoidal cell 
appears whitish or somewhat light in color; first posterior cell 
sessile at base; fourth posterior cell short, much narrowed at 
end, more than twice as broad at base as at end. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II HI 

107. Pselliophora tripudians sp. nov. 

Evidently allied to P. prsefica, but distinguished by the bright 
rufous of head, thorax, and tibiae. This very strikingly colored 
species seems to be allied to P. incunctans Walker of Celebes, 
velutina van der Wulp of Celebes, and annulosa van der Wulp of 
Java, but is different from these and from any other in coloration. 

Female. — Length of body, 18 millimeters ; of wing, 19. Head, 
with neck and rostrum, entirely bright rufous, with reddish or 
yellowish hairs and some scattered, long black hairs on occiput 
only; palpi rufous, with only the extreme tip of last joint deep 
black. Antennae entirely rufous and with reddish hairs, only 
the scape below with black hairs. Thorax with collar, protho- 
rax, and entire dorsum bright opaque rufous, with reddish hairs ; 
pleurae, scutellum, and mesophragma deep black, with black 
hairs. Halteres black. Abdomen entirely deep black, opaque, 
even on venter, with few and short black hairs ; ovipositor shin- 
ing black, with acute dark reddish terminal lamellae. Front 
coxae and trocanters rufous like the prothorax ; front legs want- 
ing in case of type; middle and hind legs with black coxae and 
trocanters ; femora black and black-haired, but their ends rufous 
and with reddish hairs ; tibiae rufous, reddish-haired, the extreme 
tips and terminal spurs black; tarsi black, but the praetarsi 
rufous at base. Wings exactly as in P. prsefica. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

The possibility is not excluded that the present species may be 
the female of P- prsefica. 

108. Tipula umbrina Wied. 1828. 

A female of this species from Los Bafios. It is known also 
from Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

109. Tipulodina cinctipes de Meijere. 1911. 

One female from Mount Maquiling, Luzon. This is a very 
distinct species on account of its vitreous wings and white- 
banded legs. It is perhaps the same as Tipula pedata of Osten 
Sacken's paper, but in the white ring of the front femora it 
answers better to the description of T. cinctipes from Borneo, 
known in the male sex only. The present specimen is larger, 
measuring 17 millimeters in length of body, 17 in length of 
wing, and 130 in spread of legs. The subcostal cell and 
a narrow streak along the fifth longitudinal vein are deep 
black; the fork formed by the first vein issuing from the 
discoidal cell is as long as its stalk, in contrast with de Meijere's 
description. 



112 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

The genus Tipulodina, in my opinion, is to be placed in the 
subfamily Dolichopezinae, and to this genus must be added other 
species besides T. pedata Wiedemann, like magnicornis Ender- 
lein, venusta Walker, inor&inans Walker, gracillima Brunetti, 
and patricia Brunetti. 

110. Megistocera fuscata Wied. 1821. 

A couple of specimens from Mount Maquiling. This is a very 
interesting species, known from Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Aru, 
and Borneo. The antennae of the male measure 65 millimeters 
in length, but they are in some cases more than 80. A very 
instructive figure of the characteristic wing of the present species 
has been published. 3 

111. Scamboneura dotata 0. S. 1882. 

A single female from Mount Maquiling. Endemic. This may 
be the unknown female of Osten Sacken's species, or a different 
species. It differs from the description of the male in the fol- 
lowing points: Frons entirely yellow, without middle brown 
line; joints of the flagellum entirely blackish; thorax entirely 
yellow, opaque, without stripes; scutellum and mesophragma 
entirely yellow, the latter paler; pleurae entirely pale yellowish. 
Abdomen yellowish, with a darker, median longitudinal stripe; 
ovipositor shining reddish, with the terminal lamellae straight 
and obtuse at end. 

In the Javanese species, S. quadrata de Meijere, 1913, of 
which only the female is known, the thorax has three longitudinal 
brown stripes; S. vittifrons Walker, 1861, from Amboina, also 
known only from the female, has an ochraceous unstriped thorax, 
with two black dots on each side ; in addition, the head, antennae, 
and abdomen are differently colored. At present I think it 
better to consider the present specimen as the other sex of 
dotata, or at most as a variety, which may be named S. dotata 
unicolor var. nov. 

Key to the Philippine species of the germs Eriocera sens. lat. 

The genus Eriocera seems to be very rich in endemic Philip- 
pine species; those known to me may be distinguished as 
follows : 

a\ Wings with only four posterior cells (Eriocera sens. str.). 

b\ Antennas of male enormously elongate, many times as long as the 
body; wings subhyaline in both sexes, with the anterior and poste- 

3 Zool. Jahrb. (1912), 32, 30. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 113 

rior cross veins placed on the same line with the basal vein of the 

diseoidal cell verticalis Wied. 

¥. Antennas of male much shorter than the body; wings in both sexes 
infuscated with a whitish middle spot and with the above-named 
veins not in the same line. 
c\ Hind legs of the usual shape; abdomen dilated, shining, with viola- 
ceous reflections and with some yellowish bands near the base. 

lativentris sp. nov. 
c 2 . Hind legs distinctly thickened; abdomen not dilated and entirely 

black crassipes sp. nov. 

a 2 . Wings with five posterior cells (genus Physecrania Big.). 

d 1 . Legs black; abdomen with one or two yellow crossbands near the 

base; wings with black base and fore border mansueta 0. S. 

d 2 . Legs yellow, with black knees; abdomen with four yellow cross- 
bands; wings with yellowish base and fore border. 

perennis 0. S. 

112. Eriocera verticalis Wiedemann. 1828. 

A couple of specimens from Los Bafios and Mount Maquiling. 
A very peculiar species, known from Java and Japan. The 
antennae of the present male measure 45 millimeters in length. 

113. Eriocera lativentris sp. nov. 

Closely allied to E. mansueta Osten Sacken in coloration of 
body and wings, but at once distinguished by the abdomen being 
more than twice as broad and with the last four segments 
strongly shining and adorned with violaceous reflections. 

Male. — Length of body, 11 to 13 millimeters; of wing, 10 to 12. 
Head covered with dense gray dust ; antennae with the two basal 
joints of flagellum more yellow. Thorax, scutellum, and halteres 
as in E. mansueta. Abdomen narrow at base, but becoming 
gradually broader, the sixth segment more than twice as broad 
as the second; abdomen clothed with black hairs; first joint 
entirely black; second yellow, with a black hind border; third 
black, with two narrow yellow crossbands at base; fourth 
black, with a similar band, but narrower; fifth to seventh en- 
tirely black, but with strong violaceous reflections. Genitalia 
yellow, with pale yellowish hairs. Venter black, with yellow 
crossbands on second, third, and fourth segments, that of second 
much broader than the others. Legs with the coxae entirely 
black, but the front femora distinctly yellowish near the base; 
hind legs not thicker than usual. 

Wing pattern as in E. mansueta, but the base narrowly yel- 
lowish ; first vein issuing from the distal cell not forked ; posterior 
cross vein distinctly before the middle of the diseoidal cell; 
auxiliary vein ending opposite the marginal cross vein. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling (Baker). 



114 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

114. Eriocera crassipes sp. nov. 

Closely allied to Eriocera lativentris, but very distinct. 

Male and female. — Length of body (without ovipositor), 9 
to 11 millimeters; of wing, 10 to 13; of ovipositor, about 5. 
Head dull black, with blackish dust. Antenna? entirely black. 
Thorax and scutellum opaque, not at all shining as in E. lati- 
ventris; pleurae black-haired, with some gray dust above. Ab- 
domen broader than in E. mansueta, but narrower than in 
E. lativentris, entirely black in both sexes; last five segments 
shining, but destitute of violaceous reflections. Venter entirely 
dull black; male genitalia opaque, orange-yellow, with yellowish 
hairs; ovipositor orange-yellow, opaque, its terminal lamellae 
very thin and acute, longer than the basal joint. Legs entirely 
black, even at base of the front femora ; hind femora, and espe- 
cially the hind tibiae on the apical half, distinctly incrassate; 
hind tarsi shorter and thicker. Wings as in E. lativentris, but 
subhyaline at base of hind border ; the middle spot broader and 
more whitish than yellowish; first vein issuing from discal cell 
not forked; auxiliary vein ending before the marginal cross 
vein ; posterior cross vein on, or a little after, the middle of the 
discoidal cell. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling {Baker) . 

In the case of the male type the discoidal cell is regularly 
open in both wings, coalescing with the second posterior cell; 
in the female it is quite normal. 

115. Eriocera (Physecrania) mansueta 0. S. 1882. 

Los Bafios and Mount Maquiling. This endemic species is 
closely allied to E. bicolor Macquart and E. cingulata de Meijere. 
There is sometimes a smaller yellow crossband also on fore 
border of the third abdominal segment. The legs are black. 
An immature male specimen from Mount Limay, Bataan Prov- 
ince, Luzon, has the fourth posterior cell divided by a super- 
numerary cross vein regularly in both wings. 

116. Eriocera (Physecrania) perennis 0. S. 1882. 
Los Banos and Mount Maquiling. Endemic. 

117. Conosia irrorata Wied. 1828. 

Specimens of both sexes from Los Banos and Mount Maquiling. 
This characteristic species is widely spread over the Oriental 
Region — New Guinea, Australia, and Japan — as well as over 
the whole Ethiopian Region. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 115 

118. Mongoma pennipes 0. S. 1887. 

One female from Los Banos. This delicate midge was first 
described from Borneo and was subsequently recorded from 
India, Ceylon, and Java. 

119. Trentepohlia pictipennis sp. no v. 

A pretty species, very near T. speiseri Edwards from Ceylon, 
but at once distinguished by the different wing pattern. 

Male. — Length of body, 5 millimeters; of wing, 5.7. Head, 
palpi, and antennae dark brownish, antennae a little paler toward 
the base. Thorax on dorsum dark reddish brown, darker along 
the middle line; scutellum and mesophragma brownish; pleurae 
blackish brown. Halteres pale yellowish, with darker stalk. 
Abdomen entirely black, even on venter, and a little shining; 
male genitalia small and black, terminating with two hooks 
curved upward. Coxae entirely light yellowish, the tarsi dark- 
ened at end; front and middle femora without bristles at base 
beneath. Wings long and narrow, pale yellowish along the 
costa and hyaline, iridescent on the remainder; the brown 
markings are as figured by Edwards for T. speiseri 4 with the 
following differences : The middle brown patch extended over the 
second longitudinal vein and from it a narrow fuscous border 
extending along the veins to the end of the anal cell ; the brown 
apical patch not extended over the first posterior cell, which is 
hyaline in the middle, and has no clear spot in the middle of the 
second marginal cell. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

120. Styringomyia ceylonica Edw. 1911. 

Specimens of both sexes from Los Banos and Mount Ma- 
quiling. This strange insect is recorded from Ceylon, India, and 
Formosa; it is nearly allied to S. didyma Grimshaw from 
Hawaii and Java. 

Key to the Philippine species of the genus Libnotes Westwood. 

The genus Libnotes seems to be very rich in endemic species ; 
those known from the Philippine Islands all have the marginal 
cross vein elongated, with the exception of L. familiaris, which 
is also found in Java ; in this last island the opposite is the usual 
case. No species with punctate or variegated wings occurs in 
the Philippine Islands, so far as is known. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1913), VIII, 12, 204, fig. 2. 



116 The Philippine Journal of Science wi7 

a 1 . Marginal cross vein short, perpendicular, forming a right angle with the 
first longitudinal vein; base of second posterior cell more drawn 
inward than that of third; thorax ochraceous, with a middle, longi- 
tudinal black line; wings hyaline; legs yellowish familiaris 0. S. 

a\ Marginal cross vein long, placed obliquely, seemingly the prolongation 
of the first longitudinal vein incurved toward the second. 
b\ Wings hyaline, with a more or less intensive yellowish tint; body 
entirely ochraceous, without black markings. 
e\ Wings with a very faint yellowish gray tint, only a little more in- 
fuscated at fore border and apex; bases of second and third poste- 
rior cells on the same line _ .. opaca sp. nov. 

c 2 . Wings with an intensive yellow tint and with a brown border around 
the apex; base of third posterior cell more drawn inward than 

that of second marginalis sp. nov. 

b 2 . Wings brown or blackish; body bright orange, with deep black mark- 
ings; bases of second and third posterior cells on the same line; legs 
blackish. 
dr. Wings brown, with a distinctly darker apex; abdomen with only the 

tip black termitina 0. S. 

dr. Wings uniformly blackish; abdomen almost entirely deep velvet- 
black semperi 0. S. 

121. Libnotes opaca sp. nov. 

Entirely opaque orange-yellow, with the genitalia dark brown ; 
wings hyaline, with a pale yellowish tint. 

Male. — Length of body, 10.5 millimeters; of wing, 13. Head 
entirely yellow, with the rostrum brownish; palpi black; anten- 
nae black, the scape and the first joint of flagellum somewhat 
yellowish. Thorax and scutellum uniform bright orange, entirely 
opaque, destitute of any black or brown marking. Halteres 
yellow, with brown knob. Abdomen colored like the thorax, 
even on venter ; forceps brown, with the underplate dark yellow. 
Legs wanting in the type ; coxse and trocanters bright orange. 

Wings with only a light yellowish tinge, with an elongated, 
less distinct, stigmatic grayish spot and the extreme tip a little 
darkened. Marginal cross vein prolonged, seemingly a continua- 
tion of the first longitudinal vein ; discoidal cell much narrower 
at base than at end, hind cross vein placed on its middle ; second 
and third posterior cells of the same length. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) . 

The present species is closely allied to L. familiaris Osten 
Sacken, differing in the prolonged marginal cross vein and in 
the opaque, unstriped thorax. Allied also to L. rufa de Meijere, 
but distinguished by the wings not being infuscated and by the 
base of the third vein not being margined with fuscous. 

122. Libnotes marginalis sp. nov. 

Very near L. opaca, but of greater size and distinguished by 
the wings being yellowish and bordered with black at tips. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 117 

Male. — Length of body, 11.5 millimeters ; of wing, 14.5. Head 
and rostrum yellow ; palpi and antennae as in L. opaca. Thorax, 
scutellum, halteres, and abdomen as in L. opaca. Genitalia 
with yellow, not brown, forceps. Legs wanting in the type. 
Wings with a strong yellowish tinge and a broad black border, 
extended from end of first vein to the base of fourth posterior 
cell; marginal cross vein elongated; discal cell a little shorter 
than in L. opaca; third posterior cell at base longer than the 
second, the veins, therefore, not on the same line as in opaca and 
exactly the opposite of the condition in familiaris. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

123. Libnotes termitina O. S. 1882. 

One male from Mount Maquiling. Endemic. 

124. Geranomyia argentifera de Meij. 1911. 

One female from Mount Maquiling. Know only from Java; 
a very distinct species on account of the hyaline wings and the 
silvery patches on frons and thorax. 

125. Wallacea argentea Dol. 1858. 

Los Bafios. A well-known species, widely distributed over 
the Oriental Region to New Guinea. 

In case the generic name Wallacea Doleschall, 1858, is pre- 
occupied by Wallacea Baly, 1858 (Coleoptera, Hispidse), the 
name Gabaza Walker, 1859, must be employed in its place. 

126. Atherix limbata 0. S. 1882. 

Mount "Maquiling. The undescribed male of this endemic 
species is very much like the female; the eyes are united for a 
long distance ; the antennas and the proboscis are lighter yellow ; 
the palpi are yellow and clothed with a shining white dust. The 
coloration of the abdomen is exactly the same as in the female ; 
the entire last segment and the sides of the penultimate seg- 
ment are reddish; genitalia erected, pale yellowish, whitish at 
end. Legs and wings as in the female. 

127. Atherix fascipennis sp. nov. 

The present species belongs to the oriental group of species 
distinguished by the body being wholly black, at least in the 
female, like A. cincta Brunetti, A. lucens de Meijere, A. cserul- 
escens Brunetti, but it is possible that some unknown males of 
these species have a partly yellow abdomen, as described by me 
for the Formosan specimens of A. cincta. 5 In the present species 
both sexes are completely black. 

5 Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. (1912), 10, 445. 



118 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

Male and female. — Length of body, 10 millimeters in the male 
and 11 to 12 in the female; of wing, 8 in the male and 9.5 to 10.5 
in the female. Head black, with gray dust on the occiput; eyes 
of the male united for a line shorter than in A. limbata; the frons 
in the male white-dusted above the antennae and deep black on 
fore half, in the female narrow, gray-dusted at vertex to the 
ocelli, deep black on middle, white-dusted above the antennae. 
Face white-dusted in both sexes, with the middle bulla more 
developed and more prominent in the female than in the male. 
Antennae entirely black, with long, thin black arista; palpi 
black, white-dusted and black-haired; proboscis wholly black. 
Hairs of the head black on frons and vertex, white on the occiput 
and below. 

Thorax entirely black, even on the humeral calli, in the male 
more intensively black and more shining than in female ; pleurae 
clothed with shining gray dust and with whitish hairs ; the hairs 
on the dorsum entirely black in the male, whitish on the hind 
half in female; above the humeri there is inward a narrow 
velvety black patch, more distinct in female than in male ; meta- 
pleurae with thin and soft white hairs. Scutellum black, in the 
male shining and black-haired, in the female gray-dusted and 
whitish-haired. Mesophragma black, gray-dusted on the sides. 
Halteres black, their stalks yellow at base. 

Abdomen in both sexes entirely black, shining, even on venter ; 
the first two segments in the female gray-dusted, in both sexes 
the two last segments with a broad triangular spot of white 
dust on the upper side; abdominal hairs mainly whitish. Male 
genitalia black and black-haired. Legs with the coxae black; 
middle tibiae dark yellowish; four posterior femora with a 
yellow ring at end, which is narrow and less distinct in the male, 
broader in the female. 

Wings of the male with the basal half faintly yellowish hyaline, 
the apical half infuscated, more intensively infuscated toward 
the middle and thus forming a dark crossband below the stigma, 
which goes below the discoidal cell, the inner angle of the second 
submarginal being hyaline. In the female the wings are hyaline 
on the basal half, being only yellowish along the costal cell, and 
brown on the apical half; from the hyaline inner angle of the 
second submarginal cell begins a hyaline band which ends in the 
fourth posterior cell and, therefore, divides the dark part into 
two bands, united above and below ; in the first basal cell there is 
a dark band before the root of the third longitudinal vein. 
Stigma brownish in both sexes. Venation as in Atherix limbata, 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II H9 

but the cubital fork is distinctly longer and provided with a 
shorter stalk. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling; Tayabas, 
Malinao (Baker) . 

Genus SCHIZELLA novum 

This new genus of the family Rhagionidse (Leptididae) is 
erected for a small fly that shows the general appearance of 
a Chrysopilus, differing in the form of the proboscis and chiefly 
in the extraordinary development of the third antennal joint; 
the latter character is noticeable because of the usual smallness 
of the antennae in Chrysopilus. This elongated third joint is 
besides divided into two branches, forming a fork, a thing not 
rare in the family Tabanidae, but never observed in the Rhagio- 
nidae. The terminal style, which is long in Chrysopilus, is rudi- 
mentary in the new genus. 

The principal characters of the new genus are as follows: 
Head as in Chrysopilus, but distinctly more transverse, facial 
bulla greatly developed and produced below, palpi small; pro- 
boscis with the terminal flaps much dilated, forming a sort of 
blister as great as the facial one, minutely transversely rugulose. 
Antennas with the two basal joints small and short; third joint 
enormously developed, longer than the breadth of head, and di- 
vided into two branches from the root; the upper branch is 
a little shorter, but not narrower than the inferior one, which 
bears at its end a short, almost rudimentary style (Plate I, fig. 1) . 
Eyes of the female without a trace of division; male unknown. 
Thorax, abdomen, and legs as in Chrysopilus ; hind tibiae with 
a single spur at end, the external one. Wings with the venation 
exactly as in Chrysopilus; anal cell 'closed and provided with a 
short stalk. 

Type, Schizella furcicornis sp. nov. 

128. Schizella furcicornis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 1. 

A small dark reddish and brown species with pale legs and 
grayish wings, which are a little spotted toward the middle. 

Female. — Length of body, 5 millimeters; of wing, 4.7; of an- 
tennae, 1.2. Head black, gray-dusted on the occiput and on the 
sides of the frons; facial bulla pale yellowish, white-dusted; 
palpi blackish; proboscis with whitish flaps; antennae with the 
two basal joints yellowish, the third brownish. Thorax dark 
reddish brown, the pleurae paler and clothed with whitish dust; 
it is entirely bare, even on metapleura, but it seems that on the 
hind part there is a short pubescence, with metallic reflections. 



120 27^ Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Scutellum brownish. Halteres pale yellowish. Abdomen black- 
ish, rather shining, unicolorous, with short and few black 
hairs. Coxae and femora pale yellowish; tibiae and tarsi pale 
brownish. 

Wings grayish hyaline, iridescent, with brown veins; stigma 
of greater size, dark brown, filling up completely the end of the 
marginal cell. Below the stigma a short dark band, ending 
on base of the cubital fork; below this band a small dark spot 
at end of the discoidal cell ; besides, the apex of wings is broadly 
but faintly infuscated. Cubital fork very long and narrow, 
gradually broadened toward the end, its upper branch being 
bent at right angles at base and there provided with a short 
stump. Second posterior cell acute at base, narrow, and short, 
not broader and distinctly shorter than the third posterior 
cell; anterior cross vein short, placed near the base of the dis- 
coidal cell. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker), one female. 

129. Chrysopilus luctuosus Brun. 1909. 

Male specimens from Mount Maquiling. They agree with 
the specimens from Formosa, referred by me 6 to the present 
species, described from Assam. 

Of the typical endemic species Chrysopilus correctus, recorded 
in the first century as No. 12, there are also specimens from 
Malinao, Tayabas, and from Butuan, Mindanao. The wing pat- 
tern seems to be variable in shape, remaining, however, of the 
same type ; in the Butuan specimens the wings have a yellow tint, 
which is less developed in other specimens. In the undescribed 
male the thorax and the scutellum are clothed with shining 
metallic tomentum. The eyes are united, but there is no distinct 
differentiation between upper and lower areolets, a character 
somewhat aberrant in Chrysopilus. 

130. Chrysopilus diplostigma sp. nov. 

A small black species, distinguished by the peculiar abdominal 
pattern and by the enlarged stigmatic spot of the wings. 

Male. — Length of body, 5 millimeters; of wing, 5. Head 
black, dark gray-dusted on occiput and face; eyes bisected, 
united on a long line; ocellar tubercle very prominent, bare; 
antennae short, entirely black, with long, rather thick style; 
facial bulla shining black, ovate, gray on the sides; proboscis 
and palpi black, the latter black-haired. Thorax velvety black, 
rather shining, gray-dusted on sides and on the pleurae; a trace 

'Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. (1912), 10, 449. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 121 

of golden tomentum on dorsum ; thorax entirely bare, with some 
black hairs on the metapleura. Scutellum like the thorax ; meso- 
phragma black, gray-dusted, with black hairs on the sides; 
halteres black, the stalk yellowish at the base. Abdomen black 
and black-haired ; strongly shining, even on venter ; the tergites 
have at base a broad velvety black band, which on the terminal 
segments is reduced to a middle spot ; genitalia black and black- 
haired. Coxae black, with black hairs; femora black, with nar- 
rowly yellow tips, and the four posterior ones with yellow 
bases, broadest on the hind pair; tibiae and tarsi long and dark 
yellowish; terminal spurs yellow. 

Wings grayish hyaline, with a faint yellowish tinge ; stigmatic 
spot broad, elongate, dark brown, filling up the entire end of the 
marginal cell; in addition, and in contact with the stigma, the 
end of the subcostal cell is dark brown, beginning at the end of 
the auxiliary vein. The rest of the wing immaculate. Cubital 
fork only a little longer than its stalk, destitute of appendix at 
base; second posterior cell acute at base and longer than the 
third; the last shorter than the discoidal cell. Squama? pellucid 
brown, with pale fringe. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker) . 

131. Mydas fruhstorferi van der Wulp. 1896. 

Mount Maquiling. Two female specimens, which answer 
perfectly to the description of the species from Java. Species 
of the present genus seem to be very scarce in the Oriental 
Region, only two others being known: namely, one from India 
(ruficornis Wiedemann) and one from Celebes and Sumatra 
(basifascia Walker) ; but I have in my collection a species from 
Ceylon that differs from all the others in being entirely black 
with the last three abdominal segments wholly rufous. 

132. Leptogaster princeps 0. S. 1882. 

Specimens from Mount Banahao. A very distinct, endemic 
species, which may be considered as gigantic in its genus. 

133. Saropogon rubricosus sp. nov. 

Very near S. jucundus van der Wulp, 1872 (vertebratus Bigot, 
1878), from Java and Sumatra, but distinguished by the wholly 
rufous abdomen and hind legs. The apical spur of the front 
tibise is very small and easily overlooked; thus van der Wulp 
has described this species as belonging to Habropogon, and Bigot 
placed it in Scylaticus, a fact recently noted by de Meijere, who 
has described another allied species from Java. 



122 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Female. — Length of body, 11 millimeters; of wing, 10. Head 
black, with pale reddish face; the occiput clothed with dense 
whitish dust near the eyes; frons shining on the middle and 
white at the eye borders; face clothed with dense whitish dust 
with a yellowish sheen. Antenna? entirely black, the first two 
joints with black hairs, the third linear, longer than the first 
two together. Mystax formed by only four pale yellowish 
bristles; proboscis and palpi black, the latter with yellowish 
hairs, ocellar bristles black. Thorax and scutellum entirely shin- 
ing reddish, only the humeral calli with a broad shining black 
spot; collar with yellowish bristles and a brown spot on each 
side; macrochaetaa black, those of the dorsocentral rows rather 
long and much produced over the suture; pleurae with scanty 
yellowish tomentum; metapleura with yellow bristles. Scutel- 
lum with two strong black apical macrochaetse ; mesophragma 
reddish, gray-dusted. Halteres yellowish. 

Abdomen cylindric, of the same color as the thorax, shining 
above, opaque on venter, destitute of any dark marking, its 
hairs entirely pale; spines of the ovipositor red. Legs with 
the coxae entirely reddish, only a small ring on the trocanters 
and on the knees being black; their hairs and bristles entirely 
reddish; hind femora with a single long bristle below near the 
base. Terminal spur of front tibiae black, small, curved, distinct 
only at the outer side; claws black, with narrowly red base; 
pulvilli yellow. 

Wings hyaline, with a faint yellowish tinge; veins brown; 
fourth posterior cell widely open at end; anterior cross vein on 
the first third of the discoidal cell ; second longitudinal vein per- 
fectly straight at end. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao {Baker). 

134. Saropogon specularis sp. nov. 

A pretty, variegated species of small size, distinguished by 
the glistening, specular sternopleura. This cannot be the male 
of S. rubricosus, as is shown by the different mystax, different 
spur of front tibiae, and more numerous spines of the hind 
femora. 

Male. — Length of body, 9 to 10 millimeters; of wing, 8.5 to 
9. Head entirely black, clothed with gray dust on the face, on 
the sides of the frons, and on the occiput; ocellar and occipital 
bristles black ; antennae entirely black, the two basal joints with 
black bristles, the third joint linear, almost twice as long as 
the first two together. Mystax formed by eight or nine yellowish 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 123 

bristles, disposed in a single row at the mouth border; palpi 
black and black-haired; proboscis black. 

Thorax black, with the humeral calli narrowly reddish; on 
the collar and on the dorsum clothed by dense dark ochraceous 
tomentum, without denned pattern ; on the pleurae the tomentum 
scantier and light gray, only the sternopleura being glabrous 
and shining black; bristles of the collar black; thoracic macro- 
chaetae black, one prsesutural, one anterior supra-alar, one pos- 
terior supra-alar, the dorsocentrals disposed on a line much 
produced forward, but shorter than in S. rubricosus. Meta- 
pleural bristles yellowish. Scutellum shining black, gray-dusted 
above, yellowish along the hind border, with a pair of strong 
black apical macrochaetae. Mesophragma black, densely gray- 
dusted. Halteres brownish yellow. 

Abdomen distinctly spatulate, shining, with very short, dark 
and pale hairs; first segment black, with a narrow yellowish 
hind border and a strong black bristle on each side; second 
segment yellow, with a broad black basal band, the last pro- 
duced behind on the sides; third segment yellow, with a tri- 
angular black spot at base on each side, sometimes less distinct ; 
fourth to seventh segments black, with a yellow hind border, 
which becomes gradually broader on the last segments ; genitalia 
black, with whitish pubescence; venter black, the second and 
third segments almost entirely yellow, with rather long, pale 
yellowish hairs. Coxae shining yellowish, the posterior four 
with a broad black spot outside and the front pair with long 
whitish hairs; all the trocanters reddish yellow; all the femora 
black, strongly shining, with reddish tips, with some pale hairs, 
and those of the hind pair with four or five strong black 
bristles at end below and before; tibiae yellowish, with long 
black bristles; spur of the f£ont tibiae black, stronger than in 
S. rubricosus, and not curved outward ; tarsi dark reddish, with 
black ends ; claws black, with red bases ; pulvilli yellow. 

Wings grayish hyaline, iridescent, with black veins; fourth 
posterior cell at end as broad as the second ; discoidal cell narrow, 
the anterior cross vein placed near its middle; anal cell very 
narrow at end ; second longitudinal vein distinctly bent forward 
at end. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao. Mindanao, Butuan 
(Baker) . 

135. Damalina semperi 0. S. 1882. 

Mount Banahao. A very peculiar, endemic insect. 

149052 2 



124 The Philippine Journal of Science mi 

136. Xenomyza vitripennis 0. S. 1882. 

Numerous specimens of both sexes from Baguio, Benguet, 
and from Mount Maquiling, Laguna. The species seems to be 
very variable in the color of the legs, which varies from entirely 
black to entirely red or yellowish to variations of these colors. 
It was recently recorded also from Formosa, and the specimens 
from there were also very variable. 

As the type of the genus Damalis was established by Westwood 
to be the South American species D. curvipes Fabricius, the 
name Xenomyza Wiedemann T must be used for the oriental 
species. 

137. Epholchiolaphria vulcanus Wied. 1828. 

Butuan, Mindanao. This species is widely spread over the 
Malay Archipelago and is recorded also from Formosa. It is 
notable that in these Philippine specimens the bristles of the 
mystax are all yellow, instead of black, as they were originally 
described by Wiedemann. I refer them provisionally to the 
present species because of the great variability attributed to it. 8 

138. Epholchiolaphria leueoprocta Wied. 1828. 

Los Banos and Mount Maquiling, Luzon. Even in these speci- 
mens the mystax is yellow instead of black. The present species 
is considered by Hermann to be only a form of E. vulcanus. 
But these Philippine specimens are well distinguished by the 
scutellum and the two basal abdominal segments being clothed 
with argenteous hairs, which in the female are of a golden color ; 
on the second segment these hairs are present only at sides and 
at hind border. . 

139. Epholchiolaphria partialis nom. nov. {partita Walker, 1860, 

not of same author, 1857, Borneo) . 
Numerous specimens from Mount Maquiling, Laguna, and 
Malinao, Tayabas, Luzon, and from Cagayan, Mindanao. De- 
scribed from Celebes, but recorded from the Philippines by 
Osten Sacken. It is very closely allied to Laphria dimidiata 
Macquart, No. 13 of the first eentury, which belongs also to 
Epholchiolaphria Hermann, and of which there are also numerous 
other specimens from Mount Maquiling, Laguna, and Malinao, 
Tayabas, Luzon; and from Dapitan and Butuan, Mindanao. 

7 See Coquillett, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 37, 530. 
6 See Hermann, Entom. Mitteil. (1914), 3, 107. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 125 

140. Epholchiolaphria aurifacies Macq. 1848. 

Los Banos. Widely spread over the Malay Archipelago and 
usually referred to the genus Maira. These specimens answer 
also to the description of azurea Hermann, 1914, from Formosa. 

141. Smeringolaphria alternans Wied. 1828. 

Dapitan, Mindanao. Widely spread over the Oriental Region 
and recorded also from Formosa. 

142. Anisosis phalaris 0. S. 1882. 

Mount Maquiling, Luzon. A very characteristic, endemic 
species. The name Anisosis Hermann, 1914, is preoccupied by 
Anisosis Deyrolle, 1857, in the Coleoptera. 

143. Orthogonis scapularis Wied. 1828. 

Mount Maquiling, Luzon. Widely spread over the Asiatic 
Archipelago to New Guinea. 

144. Pogonosoma cyanogaster sp. nov. 

This new species is closely allied to P. bleekeri Doleschall from 
Amboina and to P. semifuscum van der Wulp from Batjan, but 
is at once distinguished by the cyaneous white-pubescent abdo- 
men. The recently described funebre Hermann from Formosa 
is also largely black and has black pubescence on the abdomen. 

Female. — Length of body, 14 millimeters; of wing, 14. Head 
black, gray-dusted ; ocellar tubercle shining black, with two long 
black bristles; occiput above with some black bristles, below 
with white hairs, which pass to the long white beard. Antennae 
entirely black, the first two joints with long bristles, the third 
joint oval, as long as the first two together. Face with a very 
prominent, oval, shining black tubercle, which bears a mystax 
formed by from ten to twelve long black bristles ; the remaining 
hairs of the face black below the base of the antennae and white 
on the sides beneath. Palpi black, with short black hairs; 
proboscis black, very stout, of the characteristic shape for the 
genus, with long white hairs at the underside of the basal bulb 
and with short yellow pubescence at the end. 

Thorax black, rather opaque, with faint metallic reflections 
and scanty whitish dust, without distinct stripes ; bristles black ; 
hairs black, but white on the sides and behind; collar gray- 
dusted, with numerous black bristles ; pleurae white-haired and 
white-dusted; a strong black bristle on the upper hind corner 
of mesopleura ; metapleural tuft formed by white bristles. Scu- 
tellum like the thorax, but more metallic and with black bristles 



126 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

at hind border ; mesophragma black, gray-dusted. Halteres with 
blackish stalk and yellowish knob. 

Abdomen entirely shining ceruleous, with short white pubes- 
cence; the hind lateral corners of segments two to five bear 
short, spotlike stripes of whitish tomentum; all the segments 
have on the sides rather long white hairs and two or three 
strong black middle bristles. Venter wholly shining ceruleous, 
whitish-dusted and white-haired at base, black-haired at end. 
Ovipositor with the first segment dark ceruleous and with long 
black bristly hairs at end, the second segment black with pale 
yellowish hairs. Legs shining, dark ceruleous, with long white 
hairs and with black bristles; coxag black, densely gray-dusted; 
hind femora thickened, with a single, very strong black bristle 
beyond middle on outer side ; middle femora with a long bristle 
before end on inner side; claws black, pulvilli dark yellowish. 

Wings hyaline from base to middle, fuscous on the apical 
half, the inner border of colored area running from the fore 
margin of wing in front of the anterior cross vein to the hind 
margin at end of fourth posterior cell; the centers of the cells 
around the apex and the hind margin lighter. Discoidal cell 
shorter and narrower than the second posterior cell, the anterior 
cross vein situated on its first third; first posterior cell very 
long and narrow and rather narrowed at end; cross vein at 
end of the fourth posterior cell short and parallel with the pos- 
terior cross vein ; stalk of the anal cell shorter than that of the 
fourth posterior cell. Veins black. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker) . 

145. Promachus forcipatus Schin. 1868. 

Los Banos and Mount Maquiling, Laguna, and Baguio, Ben- 
guet. A common endemic species, very characteristic by the ex- 
traordinary shape of the male genitalia. 

146. Promachus bifasciatus Macq. 1838. 

One female specimen from Cagayan, Mindanao. Known from 
Celebes and Java and new for the Philippines, but it is probably 
the species of which Osten Sacken says : "Resembles bifasciatus 
Macq., but is certainly different." The present specimen belongs 
surely to this species so far as can be judged from females only. 

147. Systropus 9 valdezi sp. nov. 

One female specimen from Baguio, Benguet. Named in honor 
of Julian Valdez y Hernandez, Professor Baker's Cuban collector. 

9 This generic name was misprinted in the first century, This Journal, 
Sec. D (1913), 8, 313. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 127 

Nearly allied to the species that in the first century, No. 17, 
I assumed to be S. sphecoides Walker, but differing in the pat- 
tern of thorax, which shows four yellow spots at the four angles 
of the dorsum, and in the legs being much more yellow. 

Female. — Length of body, 16 millimeters; of wing, 13. Oc> 
ciput black, gray-dusted; ocellar tubercle dark reddish; eyes 
less produced above, united for a distance as long as the frontal 
triangle; the latter blackish, white-dusted on middle, yellow 
below on the antennal tubercle; face pale yellow, with whitish 
hairs; jowls whitish with shining white dust and with hairs; 
mentum yellow, with long whitish beard. Antennae black, the 
first joint narrowly yellow at base, with blackish hairs, more 
than three times as long as the second; third joint wanting in 
the type. Palpi yellowish ; proboscis black, but reddish below on 
the apical half. 

Thorax black, opaque, finely punctulate, with three less dis- 
tinct, broad, longitudinal grayish stripes; humeral calli yellow, 
and above them a broad yellow stripe, which is produced inward, 
reaching almost the middle line of dorsum ; on the postalar calli 
there is a broad, triangular yellow spot; pleurae black, gray- 
dusted, with a yellow stripe from the humeri to the front coxae. 
Metasternum black, with transverse furrows and long and 
dense pale yellowish pubescence. Scutellum like the thorax, 
with whitish pubescence at hind border; mesophragma black, 
with the usual yellow tubercles on each side. Halteres yellowish, 
with the knob black above. Abdomen provided with a long 
stalk, which is formed by the first three segments and besides 
by the basal part of fourth ; it is entirely black, opaque, the four 
basal segments being dark yellow at sides and below. Front 
legs entirely yellow, but their coxae black, like those of the other 
pairs; middle legs with black femora, which have yellow ends, 
and with yellow tibiae and tarsi; hind legs with the femora 
black above, reddish below, and yellow at ends with the tibiae 
yellow, but adorned with a broad black middle ring; praetarsus 
yellow, with black end, the other joints black; tibial spines 8, 
6, 6. Wings uniformly but faintly infuscated, a little more 
intensively at base and fore border ; veins black. 

Luzon, Mountain Province, Baguio (Baker) . 

Note. — The species believed to be S. sphecoides, of which there 
are also specimens from Mount Banahao, differs from S. valdezi 
only in the following points : The eyes are more produced above 
and are united for a line longer than the frontal triangle; the 
head, therefore, seems to be more acute above, viewed from be- 
fore. The yellow stripes in front of the dorsum and the spots on 



128 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

the postalar calli are entirely wanting or only indicated by a 
dark yellowish, less distinct trace ; the metasternum is distinctly 
bluish, more furrowed, and less pubescent. The front legs have 
the femora more broadly blackish toward the base; the hind 
tibiae are black, with narrowly reddish base and yellow tip ; the 
hind tarsi are entirely black, the praetarsi being only narrowly 
yellow at base. The infuscation of the wings is more intensive. 

148. Toxophora zilpa Walk. 1849. 

One female specimen from Mount Maquiling. Described from 
China and not recorded subsequently ; nearly allied to T. javana 
Wiedemann from Java, but it seems to be distinguished by the 
golden, not whitish, abdominal stripes and by the complete 
transverse band of the same color on the last abdominal segment. 

149. Petrorossia fulvula Wied. 1821. 

Numerous specimens of both sexes from Mount Maquiling 
and Malinao, Luzon, and Dapitan, Mindanao. Widely spread 
over the Oriental Region and known to me also from Formosa. 
The species was originally described as an Anthrax and was 
subsequently placed in Argyramozba by de Meijere, but it belongs 
without doubt to the present genus, being closely allied to the 
Ethiopian species fulvipes Loew and gratiosa Bezzi. 

150. Exoprosopa pennipes Wied. 1821. 

Los Banos. A characteristic species, widely spread over the 
Oriental Region, but not yet recorded from the Philippines. 

151. Melanostomus orientale Wied. 1824. 

Baguio, Benguet. This species, as redescribed by de Meijere, 
seems to be the oriental representative of the common M. melli- 
num Linnaeus, and I am not sure if it may be considered as speci- 
fically distinct. 

152. Asarcina eurytaeniata Bezzi. 1908. 

Mount Maquiling. These specimens are the same as my type 
from Malacca. Syrphus striatus of Osten Sacken's paper, page 
115, and therefore Asarcius consequens of my enumeration in 
the first century, are almost certainly the same as the present 
species. 

153. Axona chalcopyga Wied. 1830. 

Dapitan, Mindanao. An immature specimen, in which the 
beautiful blue coloration of the mature insect is not yet developed. 
This is a very characteristic species, more like a Volucella than 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 129 

an Eristalis; it is widely spread over the Malay Archipelago and 
was originally described from Manila, but subsequently has not 
been recorded from the Philippines. 

154. Milesia reinwardtii Wied. 1824. 

Baguio, Benguet. Known from Java, Malacca, and Borneo, 
but new for the Philippine Islands. 

155. Milesia conspicienda Walk. 1860. 

Butuan, Mindanao. The species already recorded from the 
Philippine Islands with doubt by Osten Sacken is without doubt 
the present species, which was described from Celebes. 

156. Milesia bigoti 0. S. 1882. 

Los Banos and Mount Maquiling. An endemic species, very 
different from the last two and belonging to another group. 

157. Tricholyza sorbillans Wied. 1830. 

Mount Maquiling, Luzon; bred by Professor Baker from a 
cocoon of Attacus atlas. It is interesting to find this species 
living also in the Philippines, in as much as it is widely spread 
over the Paleearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental Regions. The 
species has received various names and has been bred from 
different Lepidoptera, being also known as a parasite of the 
silkworm. 

158. Sarcophaga ruiicornis Fabr. 1794. 

Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . The same as Indian 
specimens of this species in my collection, but I have not studied 
the male genitalia. This is a species of economic importance, 
which is known to produce severe forms of myiasis in India. 

159. Rhinia testacea R. D. 1830. 

Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . Corresponding perfectly 
with Ethiopian specimens in my collection ; known in the Oriental 
Region from the Nicobar and Key Islands. 

160. Thelyehseta viridiaurea Wied. 1824. 

LUZON, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling (Baker) ; 
Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain). A beautiful species, originally 
described from India, which seems to be spread over the entire 
Oriental Region. New for the Philippines. 

161. Compsomyia dux Esch. 1822. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling; Benguet, 
Baguio (Baker) ; Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . Common in the 



130 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Orient. Originally described as a Musca and subsequently re- 
ferred to Lucilla, or to Chrysomyia, or to Pycnosoma; but as 
Coquillett states that this species is the type of Compsomyia, 10 
it seems at present better to reserve this generic name for the 
species with enlarged areolets near the eyes of the male. They 
are prevalently oriental. The Ethiopian species of the group 
marginalis can retain the name Pycnosoma, and the Neotropical 
species of the group macellaria can retain that of Chrysomyia. 

162. Philaematomyia crassirostris Stein. 1903. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) ; Rizal, Alabang 
(Mitzmain). A common species, known from India and Java, 
but certainly spread over all the Oriental Region as well as the 
Mediterranean and Ethiopian Regions. 

163. Philaematomyia inferior Stein. 1909. 

Leyte, Tacloban (Baker) ; Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitz- 
main). This species was described from Java; it seems to 
be widely spread in the Orient, like the preceding. It was first 
described in the genus Musca; but according to Patton and 
Cragg, 11 who have redescribed it under the name gurnei, it be- 
longs to the present genus, notwithstanding the form of the 
proboscis, which on macroscopic examination seems to be very 
different from that of the type species. 

164. Stomoxys nigra Macq. 1851. 

Los Baiios. This common Ethiopian blood-sucking fly seems 
to be widely spread in the Oriental Region, being recorded by 
Summers as one of the commoner species at Kuala Lumpur, 
Federated Malay States. 

165. Lyperosia exigua de Meij. 1903. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (Baker) ; Rizal, Alabang (Mitz- 
main) . A common blood-sucking fly of the Orient. 

166. Mydsea duplicata Meig. 1826. 

Numerous specimens of both sexes from Baguio, Benguet. 
The only difference from the European specimens, that I can 
perceive, is that the female is darker and has darker legs and 
a little broader frons. The present species is not to be con- 
founded with M. duplex Stein from New Guinea, which has only 
posterior dorsocentral bristles. 

10 However, Brauer and Bergenstamm claimed, before the time of Co- 
quillett, that the type of Compsomyia was macellaria. 
n Ind. Journ. Med. Res. (1913), 1, 3. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 131 

167. Orchisia costata Meig. 1826. 

Specimens of both sexes from Mount Maquiling, Laguna, and 
from Baguio, Benguet. This species is rare in central Europe, 
more common in southern Europe, and was described as Ccenosia 
marginata by Wiedemann from southern China. It was not 
without emotion that I found in Professor Baker's collection 
specimens of this pretty fly, identical with those which I find 
here in the alpine valley of Susa, near Turin, on swampy places, 
over Mentha and other aromatic herbage. 

It is interesting to note that at Baguio, Benguet, are to be 
found three European flies: namely, Melanostoma mellinum 
(orientate), Mydsea duplicata, and Orchisia costata. 

168. Amphicyphus reticulatus Dol. 1856. 

Mount Maquiling. Identical with specimens from Calcutta, 
India, in my collection; described from Borneo as an Ensima, 
and subsequently recorded from Java. 

169. Campylocera thoracalis Hendel, 1913, var. rufina var. nov. 
Female. — Similar to the type of the species from Maao, Negros 

(C. S. Banks) , in the British Museum, but differing in the color- 
ation of mesonotum. The four shining black longitudinal 
stripes are in the present variety of a shining reddish color, 
which sometimes is only very little darker than the surrounding 
parts, and therefore the stripes are hardly visible. Chsetotaxy 
of head (not distinct in Hendel's type) : Three ocellars, all bent 
forward; one superior frontoorbital, bent forward; one post- 
vertical, diverging outwardly; one inner vertical, directed in- 
wardly ; one outer vertical, smaller and directed outwardly. 
Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Genus TYLOPTERNA novum 

This genus is erected for an aberrant ortalid, which shows a 
very extraordinary appearance, having only a remote resem- 
blance in the shape of head to the Ethiopian genus Pterageno- 
myia Hendel, which is assigned by its author to the tribe 
Trapherinse. 

Head broader than the thorax, truncate anteriorly, being in 
profile view exceedingly narrow, while in front view it has the 
aspect of the specimen figured by Hendel, 12 but it is less produced 
upward. Head broader than high, having more the shape of a 

12 Genera Insectorum, Platystominae, Plate III, fig. 48. 



132 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

rectangle than that of a trapezium. Occiput little convex and 
the neck short, the head, therefore, being close to the thorax. 
Frons broad, slightly concave, placed in the same line with the 
face, lower than the eyes ; the ocelli disposed in a small triangle, 
being very close together, and placed on the middle of the vertical 
keel, almost at equal distances from neck and from face of 
antennas. 

Eyes bare, rather small, twice as high as broad. Face a 
little shorter than the frons, but considerably broader, the eyes 
showing a prominent angle inward on the line of the antennas; 
face concave, not at all prominent even at mouth border, and on 
the sides produced into a short point below the under corner 
of eyes. Lunula linear, concealed. Antennas very short, close 
together at base, inserted at middle of eyes, directed outward, 
the third joint almost circular and as long as the second; second 
with a bristle above at end; arista basal, long, thin, microsco- 
pically pubescent. Antennal furrows horizontal, directed out- 
ward, placed just below the dividing line between frons and 
face, and parallel with this line. Oral opening retreating, con- 
cealed behind the straight edge of mouth ; praslabrum not visible ; 
proboscis proportionally small ; palpi dilated at end. Chsetotaxy 
of head reduced to a single pair of vertical bristles, placed out- 
ward, near the eyes. 

Thorax short, subquadrate, slightly convex; suture slightly 
caudad of middle, broadly interrupted ; humeral calli prominent ; 
pleurae regularly convex. Thoracic chsetotaxy not well distin- 
guishable in the type, only the anterior supra-alar being distinct, 
but rather thin. Scutellum of great size, as long as broad at 
base, flat, simple, with two pairs of bristles near the end. Meso- 
phragma small, less convex, subquadrate. Squamas rudimen- 
tary ; halteres with a large knob. Abdomen short, narrower than 
thorax, and a little constricted toward the base; hypopygium 
ventral, of medium size. Legs of proportional size, simple; 
middle tibias without distinct apical spur. 

Wings of great size, rather obtuse at end, hyaline, with black 
spots formed by rounded chitinous tubercles, and besides with 
a long strong spine (Plate I, fig. 2a) on lower surface in the 
second posterior cell. Veins bare ; auxiliary vein very thin and 
less distinct; second longitudinal vein long, third and fourth 
rather sinuous, fifth very short, sixth wholly wanting; second 
basal and anal cells very narrow, narrowed to the base and 
almost indistinct. 

It is possible that the peculiar chitinous black calli of the 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 133 

wings, or at least the long spine of the underside, are found ex- 
clusively in the male ; the female is at present unknown. 
Type, Tylopterna monstrosum sp. nov. 

170. Tylopterna monstrosum sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 2. 

A curious little fly, of strange aspect and coloration. 

Male. — Length of body, 2.8 millimeters ; of wing, 3 ; breadth of 
wing, 1.2. Posterior part of head shining brownish, with a 
broad, rounded yellow spot beneath the vertex and with a broad 
yellow stripe at eye border, which unites below with the pale 
yellowish lower half of head. Anterior part of head whitish 
yellow, divided into two parts by a broad black horizontal line, 
which divides the frons from the face, and in which are placed 
the black antennae. Arista pale yellowish. Proboscis yellowish, 
palpi whitish. Short pubescence of head whitish ; vertical bris- 
tles black. 

Thorax shining black, smooth, with reddish brown pleurae; 
pubescence whitish, bristles black. Scutellum shining black, with 
the sides and the underside pale yellowish, mesophragma shining 
black ; halteres whitish. Abdomen uniformly shining black, with 
whitish pubescence and rather long whitish hairs on the sides; 
hypopygium black; venter pale yellowish. Legs with the coxse 
and the tarsi pale yellowish, but the hind femora and the hind 
tibiae black, the last with yellowish ends; front and middle 
femora with a subterminal brown streak above; pubescence 
short, whitish. 

Wings grayish hyaline, iridescent, with yellowish veins and 
colorless stigma. End of the marginal cell filled by a large deep 
black spot, which is at least in part callously chitinized. The 
two chitinous calli deep black, rounded, and placed near the 
hind border, the smaller before upper end of second posterior 
cell, the larger at lower inner end of same cell, just at the angle 
between posterior cross vein and last section of fifth vein. On 
the underside of wing a strong, straight, chitinous spine, placed 
on middle of second posteror cell, below the angle of the pos- 
terior cross vein with the fourth longitudinal vein and directed 
inward. This spine is black, but its broadened basal part is 
grayish hyaline, like the wing membrane ; its length is about 0.5 
millimeter. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker), one male. 

171. Antineura sericata 0. S. 1882. 

Cagayan, Mindanao. A beautiful endemic species of great 
size. The ortalid genus Antineura also may be considered as 



134 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

endemic, as the other species are generically different and must 
be placed in Adantineura Hendel. 

172. Xenaspis polistes 0. S. 1882. 

Malinao, Tayabas, Luzon, and Butuan, Mindanao. Another 
endemic and very characteristic species of great size, very much 
like a vespid. 

173. Xenaspis extranea sp. nov. 

This species is not unlike X. polistes Osten Sacken in general 
aspect and coloration, but differs in having the apical cross vein 
of the second basal cell less oblique. This fact is in relation 
with the other that the wings in the present species are not 
susceptible of being folded along the middle line as they are in 
polistes, which gives the latter its wasplike appearance. The 
present new species agrees with polistes also in lacking prsescu- 
tellar bristles, but it has a well-developed mesopleural bristle. 

Female. — Length of body (without ovipositor) , 10 to 12 milli- 
meters; of wing, 8 to 10; of ovipositor, 1.5 to 2. Head entirely 
reddish yellow, rather shining on the occiput, the latter with 
two small black parallel streaks on the middle, extending from 
the neck to the sides of the vertex; frons opaque, darker in the 
middle, with short yellowish pubescence; ocellar dot black; the 
two pairs of vertical bristles, the only macrochaetse of the head, 
black ; face pale yellowish in the middle, reddish on cheeks and 
on the sides below ; antennal grooves with a long black streak at 
lower end. Antennae a little longer than half the face, entirely 
pale yellow. Third joint somewhat attenuated at end, with a 
long, thin basal arista, which is shortly pilose above on the 
basal third. Palpi reddish, with darker base and yellow hairs; 
proboscis thickened and dirty yellowish brown. 

Mesonotum entirely reddish yellow, darker on dorsum and 
with short yellowish pubescence; humeral calli, a longitudinal 
stripe above the notopleural line, a broad and oblique meso- 
pleural stripe ending at the sternopleural suture, and two broad, 
contiguous stripes rounded by propleural spots yellow. Scutel- 
lum entirely yellow, with the base narrowly reddish brown; 
mesophragma shining reddish. Macrochsetse black — two noto- 
pleurals, three supra-alars, one mesopleural, and one scutellar 
apical ; sometimes exterior scapular bristles on one side only, the 
humeral always wanting ; scutellum sometimes with two or three 
more bristles near the end; sometimes also a weak prsescutellar 
bristle on one side only. Halteres yellowish. Abdomen longer 
than thorax, distinctly narrowed at base, but not properly 
stalked ; it is entirely reddish yellow, with short yellowish pubes- 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 135 

cence ; the posterior part of first segment and the two following 
segments almost entirely occupied by a dark brown transverse 
band, which is sometimes interrupted in the middle, forming 
two broad blackish spots on each segment. Ovipositor broad, 
flattened, entirely reddish; venter blackish brown. Legs yel- 
lowish, coxae reddish, tibiae darkened, tarsi blackish at end; 
apical spur of middle tibia? black. 

Wings with a uniform yellowish tinge, which becomes brown- 
ish along the fore border from base to apex, where it is dilated 
to form an elongate spot, which surpasses the third longitudinal 
vein, reaching almost the fourth vein ; third and fourth longitu- 
dinal veins slightly converging toward the end, the first posterior 
cell being, therefore, a little narrowed outwardly ; anterior cross 
vein distinctly before the middle of the very long and narrow 
discoidal cell: apical cross vein of the second basal cell only a 
little more oblique than that of the anal cell, the last being 
perpendicular to the anal vein. Last two sections of the fourth 
longitudinal vein practically of the same length, second section 
considerably shorter than the third. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) . 

174. Elassogaster plagiata sp. nov. 

A species with the facies of a Stenopterina, with complete 
thoracic suture, and with a small, oblique, anterior cross vein 
(almost as in Elassogaster trivittata) , distinct from any other 
species of its genus because of the broad fuscous patch on wings 
in front of .the posterior cross vein. 

Female. — Length of body, 10 millimeters; of wing, 8. Head 
black, opaque, and deep black on frontal band, gray-dusted on 
face, and shining bluish on occiput, which shows a whitish-dusted 
border near the eyes. Vertex gray with two equal parts of 
strong, but short, black bristles; no other bristles on head. 
Frons with short shining yellowish pubescence along the middle 
line and above the antennas. Antennae inserted a little below the 
middle of eyes, shorter than the face; the two basal joints dark 
reddish brown ; the third black, gray-dusted, obtuse at end, with 
a basal dark yellowish arista, which is shortly plumose on the 
basal two thirds. Prselabrum transverse, shining black; palpi 
and proboscis black. 

Thorax and scutellum dull bluish black, the pleurae a little 
shining and a little greenish, the sternopleura and a transverse 
band gray; bristles black, the scutellum with the apical pair 
alone. Mesophragma shining black. Halteres whitish, with 
the stalk black near the base. Abdomen of the same color as 



136 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

thorax, with a soft white pubescence ; the first segment with the 
basal part restricted to form a distinct stalk and black in the 
apical half, ovipositor blackish brown. Legs uniform bluish 
black with short gray dust ; front femora not bristly below ; spur 
of middle tibiae long. 

Wings hyaline, with a faint yellowish tinge and with the veins 
black ; costal cell brownish, subcostal cell black ; at apex a short 
brown apical border, which begins as a very narrow line after 
end of second vein and, becoming gradually broader, ends at 
the fourth vein, where it is truncate and incloses a broad, sub- 
hyaline patch in the apical part of first posterior cell. The 
cross veins not infuscated; in front of and in contact with the 
posterior cross vein a broad fuscous band, which begins near 
the middle of first posterior cell and ends at hind border. Cross 
veins at end of second basal and of anal cell perfectly straight 
and placed on the same right line. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

175. Scelostenopterina femorata Hend. 1914. 

A single male specimen from Mount Banahao seems to belong 
to the present species, which was briefly described by Hendel 
from Sulu Island from a unique mutilated specimen in the 
British Museum. 

Length of body, 9.2 millimeters. Antennas shorter than the 
face and entirely yellow. Abdomen very like that of Stenop- 
terina, shining bluish green, white-pubescent, with two or three 
long, bristly black hairs on middle of the sides of first segment. 
Front coxae reddish, like the fourth anterior femora; all the 
tibiae and the tarsi dull black ; hind femora shining bluish green. 

176. Pseudepicausta chalybea Dol. 1858. 

Dapitan, Mindanao, and Puerto Princesa, Palawan. Widely 
spread over the Malay Archipelago to New Guinea and already re- 
corded from the Philippines as a Stenopterina by Osten Sacken. 

177. Scotinosoma typicum sp. nov. 

Hendel has revised this Loewian genus, which had been with- 
out a type, for an Australian species. But in the present col- 
lection there is a small fly which seems much better to agree 
with Loew's conception, being almost a Rivellia without sinuosity 
of the second section of the fourth longitudinal vein and with 
a very narrow marginal cell. The pattern of wings is the same 
as described by Loew ; but it must be recorded that in the Oriental 
Region there are some species of true Rivellia, like costalis 
Hendel, which show an analogous pattern on wings. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 137 

Female. — Length of body, 3 millimeters; of wing, 3. Head 
entirely black, only the broad frontal stripes being dark reddish 
brown in middle and in front ; f rons narrower than an eye, with 
parallel sides or only a little narrowed near the antennae ; lunula 
deep black ; antennas free, inserted at the middle of eyes, shaped 
as in Rivellia, as long as the face, the third joint becoming 
gradually attenuated, with a basal, microscopically pubescent 
arista. Prselabrum greatly developed, but retracted, shining 
black; palpi and proboscis black. Bristles of head black, two 
pairs of frontoorbitals directed backward, ocellar short, post- 
vertical small, two pairs of strong and long verticals, the inner 
pair converging; frontal hairs scattered. 

Mesonotum longer than broad, little convex, entirely of a 
rather shining greenish color, more black on the pleurae; the 
short hairs along the dorsocentral lines black and extended to 
the fore border; macrochsetse black, one humeral, two notopleu- 
rals, three supra-alars, one dorsocentral, but I cannot perceive 
a trace of mesopleural. Scutellum colored like the dorsum of 
mesonotum, bare, with four long black marginal bristles. 
Mesophragma shining black, with faint metallic reflections. 
Squamse small, white ; halteres yellowish. 

Abdomen a little longer but not broader than the thorax, dis- 
tinctly narrowed at base, scarcely punctulate, entirely shining 
black-aeneous, with a purple band at base of third segment; 
pubescence short and pale ; venter dull black ; ovipositor shining 
black-aeneous, flattened. Legs proportionally long, simple, en- 
tirely black,' only the basal joints of all the tarsi dark reddish 
brown; apical spur of middle tibiae well developed, black. 

Wings hyaline, iridescent with a black fore border which fills 
the costal, subcostal, and the base of the marginal cell, ending 
at the apex of first longitudinal vein ; besides there is an elongate, 
apical brown spot filling the extreme end of submarginal cell and 
extending a little over the third vein, where it ends truncately. 
Veins pale yellowish with the exception of the first three, which 
are blackish ; first vein ending a little before the middle of wing 
and near to the costa; second vein rather short and near to the 
first and to the costa, the marginal cell being thus exceedingly 
narrow, almost linear, not broader than the costal cell; third 
vein long, ending at apex of wing, perfectly straight, the sub- 
marginal cell broader than the first posterior cell, which is 
faintly dilated at end ; fourth vein entirely straight, without any 
curvature in the discoidal cell on its second section; fifth vein 
short, divering; sixth extended to the hind border. Discoidal 
cell very short, of almost triangular shape ; cross veins very close 



138 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

together, the outer one placed after middle of discoidal cell, 
and its distance from the posterior considerably shorter than the 
length of the posterior cross vein itself ; anal cell a little shorter 
than the second basal, its terminal vein a little bent outward in 
the middle. 

Mindanao, Dapitan (Baker). 

178. Rivellia hendeliana sp. nov. 

Nearly allied to the endemic species R. fusca Thomson, but at 
once distinguished by the second dark band of the wings being 
twice as broad, and very like that of the Ethiopian species, 
R. latifascia Hendel, 13 but not reaching the hind border. Named 
in honor of Friedrich Hendel, of Vienna, whose marvellous work 
on the Ortalidae, and chiefly on the Platystominae, has rendered 
possible the determination of the beautiful flies of this family. 

Male and female. — Length of body, 3.8 to 4 millimeters; of 
wing, 3.5 to 3.7. Head entirely black; occiput rather shining, 
with an argenteous border at eyes, which begins near the middle 
with a short horizontal line and is continued below to the chin; 
frons with the broad middle stripe dark reddish brown, more 
distinct in the male than in the female, and with a narrow 
argenteous lateral line, which is continued below on the narrow 
cheeks; face with whitish dust, shining black below; antennae 
, black, only a little dark reddish at base, with a dark, microscop- 
ically pubescent arista; praelabrum shining black; proboscis 
and palpi black, the last with narrow yellowish apical borders; 
bristles black. 

Thorax and scutellum shining black, with faint dark gray 
pollen and black hairs and bristles; pleura? and mesophragma 
shining black. Squamae white; halteres yellowish. Abdomen 
entirely shining black in the female, with the base broadly 
orange reddish in the male; the short pubescence pale; male 
genitalia black with yellow penis; ovipositor dull black. Legs 
black, the tarsi entirely whitish in the male, with the last three 
joints blackish in the female. Wings exactly as in R. fusca, 
only second dark crossband is much broader than the two con- 
tiguous hyaline spaces and passes below the fifth longitudinal 
vein, ending toward the middle of the third posterior cell. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos {Baker). 

179. Loxoneura decora Fabr., 1805, var. bakeri var. nov. 

About the same as small specimens of L. decora, but distin- 
guishable as follows: 

10 Op. cit., Plate II, fig. 30. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Dipt era, II 139 

Male. — Frons slightly but distinctly narrower; third antennal 
joint proportionally shorter and broader; antennae considerably 
shorter than the face; mesonotum without anterior band of 
white dust; pleurae destitute of shining white pollen. Tibiae of 
male with no distinct tubercle above end. 

In the wing pattern there are the two following considerable 
differences : a, the yellow patch at fore border is continuous, not 
at all interrupted by dark and hyaline spots; b, the brown 
pattern around the anal cell is much broader, extending as a 
broad band along the anal vein and reaching the hind border. 

The sexual differences in wing pattern described by Hendel 
from Javan specimens are quite absent; thus the middle of the 
second posterior cell is wholly hyaline, without any oblique dark 
band ; the brown border of the fifth longitudinal vein has below 
toward its middle no dentiform projection. 14 The discoidal cell 
is completely infuscate only in its distal eighth part. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker). 

180. Lamprogaster placida Walk. 1849. 

Female. — A specimen from Butuan, Mindanao, answers rather 
well to the short original description of this endemic species, 
which is the only member of this very large oriental genus as yet 
found in the Islands; but Osten Sacken records another, un- 
named species. The brown wing pattern consists in an irregular 
band at base of the first basal cell, continued below over the 
basal and anal cross veins ; a narrow oblique band, which begin- 
ning at middle of the blackish brown stigma encroaches on the 
anterior cross vein and ends a little distad of the fourth longitu- 
dinal vein ; a narrow, complete border of the posterior cross vein 
and a short streak at fore border just opposite to it ending a 
little before the third longitudinal vein ; a narrow apical border 
which begins at the above-named streak and ends at apex of the 
fourth longitudinal vein. The abdomen is entirely shining me- 
tallic to the base; the legs are entirely black, even on the tarsi. 

181. Scholastes cinctus Guer. 1832. 

Numerous specimens from Los Banos and Mount Banahao. 
Already known from the Islands and very common in the Orient ; 
recorded also from New South Wales. 

Gorgopis cristiventris of the first century, No. 59, is now 
placed in the genus Tropidogastrella Hendel ; there are specimens 
also from Mount Maquiling. 

14 But in the male specimens of typical L. decora from Singapore in my 
collection these sexual characters are also absent. 

149052 3 



140 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

182. Zygaenula paradoxa Dol. 1858. 

Mount Banahao, Luzon, and Butuan, Mindanao. A very 
curious fly, new for the Philippines, and previously known only 
from Amboina. The body is almost quadrate; the present 
specimens measure 5 to 5.5 millimeters in length and 3.6 to 4 
millimeters in breadth. The species seems to be variable in 
coloration ; in some specimens the entire occiput is black, while 
in others it is wholly reddish; the legs have the femora partly 
or entirely reddish yellow, or the four posterior femora are black 
on the basal half; the ovipositor is sometimes black, with bluish 
base. 

183. Naupoda unifasciata sp. nov. 

A small species, closely allied to N. contracta Hendel, from 
Formosa, and different from the typical endemic species N. 
platessa, besides the very different coloration, in having a pair 
of frontoorbital bristles, which are wanting in that species. 

Male. — Length of body, 3 millimeters; of wing, 3.2. Head 
black; frons and face dark reddish brown, shining; frons about 
as broad as long, with parallel sides, with the eye borders very 
narrowly white and continued on the cheeks ; face concave, with 
rather prominent mouth border; antennas entirely reddish yel- 
low, the third joint obtuse at end and shorter than the face, 
with finely pubescent arista; prselabrum short, not prominent, 
yellowish; palpi yellowish; proboscis brown; pubescence of the 
frons yellowish ; bristles black ;• the single pair of f rontoorbitals 
directed backward and weaker than the two pairs of equally 
strong but short verticals, the inner pair converging. 

Thorax stout, as long as broad, shining black, finely and 
scarcely punctulate, with very short dark pubescence; bristles 
black and very short; pleurae convex, smooth, glistening, black. 
Scutellum of great size, colored and punctulate like the dorsum, 
with a pair of very short, stout bristles near the end. Squamae 
small, pellucid, brownish; halteres brownish, the knob blackish 
above. 

Abdomen short, almost triangular, smooth, shining bluish 
black, glistening, with short and soft whitish pubescence; the 
two first segments raised, forming a triangular keel, very acute 
toward the middle. Coxae and femora dark brownish, with short 
dark pubescence ; tibiae paler ; front tarsi blackish, the posterior 
four entirely whitish. 

Wings grayish hyaline, with a faint yellowish tinge; the 
base of the second costal cell in middle, the base of the first 
basal and the whole upper part of the second basal pale brown ; 



xii, v, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 141 

in the middle of wing a single, narrow, curved brown band, 
which begins at end of the first basal cell in front of the an- 
terior cross vein, fills out the end of the discoidal cell, sur- 
rounds the hind cross vein, and ends at apex of the fifth vein; 
the upper half of this band darker than the lower half. A 
short pale brownish streak extends from the end of the first 
longitudinal vein to the middle of the submarginal cell. Ante- 
rior cross vein on the last third of the discoidal cell and near 
the hind cross vein, which is oblique and a little longer than the 
distance between the two transverse veins ; last sections of third 
and fourth veins straight and almost parallel, the first posterior 
cell being only a little broadened at end ; the section of the sixth 
vein after the anal cell longer than the apical cross vein of the 
anal cell. The entire wing surface strongly pubescent, the third 
longitudinal vein covered with long scattered hairs on its whole 
length. Discoidal cell a little longer than the second basal cell. 
Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) . 

Key to the Philippine species of the genus Pterogenia Bigot. 

It seems that this genus, although not yet recorded from these 
Islands, is represented by a great number of peculiar endemic 
species ; at least I have found in Professor Baker's collection no 
less than six species, none of which can be referred to any 
of the twenty-seven oriental species included in Hendel's 
monograph. 

a 1 . Scutellum -entirely black. 

6\ Frons as broad as an eye; mesonotum with yellow stripe on each side 
of dorsum, from suture to scutellum; a very robust species of pro- 
portionally large size, with only banded, not spotted, wings. 

valida sp. nov. 

b 2 . Frons narrower than an eye; mesonotum entirely black or only with 

a notopleural yellow stripe; smaller species, with banded and 

spotted wings. 

c\ Occiput entirely black, even below, or only with a narrow yellow 

stripe on upper part; mesonotum without a yellow notopleural 

stripe tristis sp. nov. 

c 2 . Occiput with a broad yellow postocular border; mesonotum with 

a yellow notopleural stripe parva sp. nov. 

a 2 . Scutellum margined or striped with yellow, at least on sides. 

d 1 . Frons broader than an eye; head broader than high; second abdominal 
segment with a longitudinal keel; legs entirely reddish; wings 
yellowish, not banded, and with numerous dark spots. 

laticeps sp. nov. 
d 2 . Frons narrower than an eye; head higher than broad; second abdom- 
inal segment without keel; leg's mainly black; wings distinctly 
banded. 



142 The Philippine Journal of Science ww 

e 1 . Scutellum black, with a narrow yellow hind border; no yellow 
stripes on dorsum of mesonotum or on sternopleura ; wings dis- 
tinctly yellow at base luteipennis sp. nov. 

e 2 . Scutellum yellow, with a black central spot; dorsum and sterno- 
pleura with yellow stripes; wings without yellow at base. 

centralis sp. nov. 
184. Pterogenia valida sp. nov. 

A stout, short, and broad species, closely allied to the Bornean 
P. dayak Bigot, but easily distinguished by the black legs, the 
shortly plumose arista, and the compressed ovipositor. 

Female. — Length of body, 8 millimeters; of wing, 8; breadth 
of body, 4.2. Head greatly developed, rather fiat, about as high 
as broad, black with yellow markings. Occiput rather concave 
above, glistening black on middle, with a dull deep black border 
and besides with a complete yellow border, which is narrow 
distad of the vertical keel and near the upper eye border, but 
broader on the dilated and produced inferior part. Frons as 
broad as an eye, somewhat shining black on sides at vertex, 
opaque brown on the middle band, with a broad yellow border 
on each side, which is continued over the broad cheeks, ending 
with a point at some distance above the mouth border; face 
concave, black, shining on the antennal grooves, which are 
separated by a flat yellow keel ; epistoma broad, blackish brown, 
prominent; jowls very broad, about one half as broad as the 
vertical diameter of eye, rugulose, black except the terminal 
points of the yellow stripes of cheeks and of occiput. Lunula 
black, dark yellowish on the sides. Antennas short, much 
shorter than the face, entirely black; third joint gradually at- 
tenuated, but obtuse at end, with a basal, shortly plumose 
blackish arista, the total breadth of feathers being equal to the 
breadth of the third joint. Praelabrum very narrow, retracted, 
blackish; proboscis and palpi black, the latter very broad and 
provided with short dark hairs; a single pair of vertical ce- 
phalic bristles, the inner one black; the short and dense frontal 
pubescence black on the middle stripe and whitish on the yellow 
borders. 

Mesonotum and scutellum shining black, but the first on dor- 
sum appears to be less shining on account of the coarse punctula- 
tion; clothed with short black pubescence and provided with 
black bristles; scutellum bordered with about fourteen short 
bristles. A broad, faintly curved yellow stripe on each side of 
dorsum, extending from the suture to the scutellum; a broader, 
but shorter, yellow stripe extending from the small black hum- 
eral calli to the root of the wings. Pleurae and breast entirely 
black, glistening, with rather long and dense black hairs. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 143 

Mesophragma shining black. Squamse broad and long, pellucid 
grayish, with pale yellowish and whitish pilose borders ; halteres 
pale yellowish, proportionally small. 

Abdomen very short and broad, strongly convex in the middle, 
finely punctulate, with short dark pubescence and rather long 
black hairs on the sides; it is shining black, with bluish reflec- 
tions on the sides. Second and third tergites with a narrow, 
but complete, yellow hind border; the third segment with the 
peculiar, triangular area of P. dayak, situated at middle of hind 
border and clothed by a soft, spongy membrane ; fourth segment 
very narrow, entirely bluish ; ovipositor short and black, its basal 
segment compressed, not depressed as usual. Venter black. 
Legs rather stout, entirely black even on the coxse, and with 
black pubescence; femora only a little dark brownish hear the 
base above; the two basal joints of all the tarsi whitish yellow 
and whitish pubescent, the last three joints deep black. 

Wings grayish hyaline, distinctly yellowish along the costal 
cell. An irregular fuscous band extending over the base of the 
first basal cell and over the ends of the second basal and anal 
cells; a second rather broad brown band begins below the 
brown stigma and, passing over the anterior cross vein, ends 
a little after the fifth vein; along the costal border a series of 
three dark spots in the form of three abbreviated bands, which 
surpass only a little the third vein and are placed at the ends of 
the first, second, and third veins; the intermediate one of these 
spots sometimes continued to reach the more or less developed 
fuscous border of the hind cross vein. Anterior cross vein long, 
placed a little before the middle of the discoidal cell; third and 
fourth veins straight and perfectly parallel; anal cell a little 
shorter than second basal cell, its terminal vein being slightly 
curved outward. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Bake?"). Mindanao, Butuan 
(Baker) . 

185. Pterogenia tristis sp. nov. 

Very near P. luctuosa Hendel from Formosa, but at once dis- 
tinguished by the much richer wing pattern. 

Male and female. — Length of body, 5 millimeters ; of wing, 5. 
Head as in P. valida, but the frons distinctly narrower, and the 
vertical diameter longer than the horizontal one, the jowls nar- 
rower. Frons yellow, with two black crossbands, one near the 
vertex including the ocelli and the other a little distad of the 
middle; these two bands dilated on the sides in the form of 
spots and united with a dark middle line ; cheeks yellow and very 



144 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

narrow. Face yellow, with a black middle spot, another smaller 
spot on each side below the black spot, and a narrow black line 
at mouth border; jowls only one third of eye, black, with a 
yellow spot near the eye ; lower orbital border not dilated, black, 
with more or less extensive yellow spots. Antennae much shorter 
than the face, black at base; third joint yellowish, with infus- 
cated apical half; arista more shortly plumose than in P. nivei- 
tarsis, but longer than in P. luctuosa, the breadth of feathers 
being almost equal to the breadth of the third joint. Praalabrum 
narrow and blackish; palpi yellowish, black-haired; proboscis 
brown. 

Mesonotum and scutellum entirely black, opaque, punctulate, 
with short black pubescence; dorsum in front with three less 
distinct longitudinal gray stripes. Mesopleura with a narrow, 
less distinct, longitudinal yellowish stripe. All the bristles 
black; scutellum with a single, long, apical pair, and near this 
four or five other pairs of much shorter bristles. Squamae 
whitish, with pale yellowish border ; halteres yellowish. 

Abdomen shining black, smooth; second, third, and fourth 
segments in the male with a narrow yellow hind border, a 
little dilated toward the middle; male genitalia black. In the 
female the abdomen entirely black, at end only with a broad 
yellowish membranous patch at base of the ovipositor; the last 
with the basal segment depressed, black. Legs black, even on 
the coxae; the four posterior tibiae with a middle yellowish ring 
and yellowish bases, all the tarsi whitish, with blackish ends. 

Wings with numerous dark spots on the basal half, a broad, 
middle brown band from stigma to the hind border interrupted 
on lower half by hyaline spots, and a broad, complete brown 
band from apex of the marginal cell to the middle of the hind 
border of the second posterior cell ; in the hyaline space between 
these two bands a series of spots forming a narrow, irregular 
band united with the narrow fuscous border of the hind cross 
vein ; in the hyaline apical part of wing there are also three or 
four dark spots, forming one or two irregular and shortened 
bands. First posterior cell distinctly dilated outward; anterior 
cross vein on the middle of the discoidal cell; anal cell much 
shorter than the second basal cell, with the terminal vein 
straight. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) . 

186. Pterogenia parva sp. nov. 

Closely allied to P. tristis, but distinguished by the yellow noto- 
pleural stripe, the shining dorsum of mesonotum, and the longer 
plumose arista. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 145 

Female. — Length of body, 4 millimeters ; of wing, 4. Head as 
in P. tristis, but the frons narrower and more elongate, being 
about twice as long as broad, and black with a narrow yellow 
vertical band; a broader yellow supra-antennal band; and two 
yellow spots before the middle. Yellow lower borders of eyes 
broader; face with only two black spots at end of the antennal 
grooves; third antennal joint entirely yellow; feathers of the 
arista twice as broad as the third antennal joint; praelabrum 
yellow; palpi black. Mesonotum and scutellum shining black, 
punctulate, with short black pubescence; humeral calli yellow, 
like a notopleural stripe extending to the root of wings; pleura 
altogether shining black and black-haired. Halteres yellowish. 

Abdomen entirely shining black, even on the base of the ovi- 
positor, smooth; ovipositor black, depressed. Legs black, but 
the hind tibiae almost entirely yellowish, without differently 
colored ring ; tarsi whitish, with blackish ends. 

Wings as in P. tristis, but the dark spots of the basal less 
numerous and with a distinct basal band before the anterior 
cross vein; fuscous border of the hind cross vein broader; the 
spots in the hyaline apical part less developed. Anterior cross 
vein a little beyond middle of the discoidal cell; anal cell much 
shorter than the second basal cell ; cross vein at end of the second 
basal cell shorter than the second section of the fifth vein, 
which makes its lower border. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 

187. Pterpgenia laticeps sp. no v. 

A robust species, which in the form of head and in general 
aspect is very like P. dayak and P. valida, but differs very much 
in coloration of body, legs, and wings; in the shape of the 
second abdominal tergite it shows an affinity with the Bornean 
P. albovittata Rondani. 

Female. — Length of body, 7 millimeters ; of wing, 6.5 ; breadth 
of body, 3. Head broader than high, yellow with black markings. 
Occiput above with a black transverse band between vertex and 
neck; frons broader than eye, as long as broad, with two black 
parallel crossbands, the broader one situated near the vertex 
and including the ocelli, the other narrower and placed distad 
of the middle, united to the preceding band by a black middle 
stripe; the short frontal pubescence black, like the single pair 
of vertical bristles; lunula shining black, frons opaque. Face 
broad, entirely dull yellow, a broad black spot, shining in the 
middle, just below the lunula and forming with it a single 
rounded spot at the root of antennse; a narrow black semicir- 
cular line, interrupted in the middle and dilated in a spot on 



146 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

each end, which divides the broad but flat epistome from the 
jowls. Cheeks yellow and much narrower than in P. dayak; 
jowls as broad as in P. dayak, as long as one half of the vertical 
diameter of eye, lighter yellow than the face, and clothed with 
numerous, short and dense black hairs; on the prominent and 
dilated lower occipital border are two small dark spots near the 
eye, above the inferior angle. Antennae yellow and much shorter 
than the face, the two basal joints with a black spot on interior 
side; arista shortly plumose, the feathers being about as broad 
as the third joint. Praelabrum retreating, narrow, yellow, white- 
dusted; proboscis yellowish brown; palpi broad, yellow, with 
short and scanty blackish hairs. 

Mesonotum and scutellum dull black, punctulate, with short 
black pubescence; on each side of the dorsum, from suture to 
scutellum, a rather narrow shining yellow stripe, curved out- 
ward at end and accompanied inward by a short yellow streak, 
in continuation with that of the scutellum; sutural calli yellow, 
conspicuously cutting into the deep black sides of dorsum ; hum- 
eral calli yellow; a yellow stripe just below the notopleural 
line from humeral calli to the root of the wings. Pleura? deep 
black, smooth, shining only on the posterior half, with dense 
and long black hairs and with a narrow yellow horizontal 
stripe on the lower half of mesopleura parallel with the noto- 
pleural stripe. Scutellum black, shining along the hind border, 
with four longitudinal yellow streaks; two longer, curved out- 
ward at end and situated on middle of the sides; two much 
shorter and paler, placed at apex. Thoracic and scutellar bristles 
black, scutellum with the apical pair alone, placed just in the 
middle of each apical yellow stripe. Squamse whitish, with yellow 
border; halteres yellowish. First abdominal segment black, 
concealed below the very large scutellum; second segment black, 
with a complete reddish yellow stripe along the hind border and 
raised in the middle to form a very sharp keel, which is black 
before and reddish yellow behind ; third segment reddish yellow, 
with narrowly black sides below and with a deep oval fovea in 
the middle, homologous with those of P. dayak and valida; fourth 
segment not visible; ovipositor short, depressed, black; venter 
yellowish on middle, black on sides. 

Abdominal pubescence black on the black parts and golden on 
the reddish yellow parts. Legs stout, entirely reddish yellow; 
the coxse, chiefly those of the front pair, broadly black behind; 
front femora with a brown longitudinal streak outside at base ; all 
the tibiae infuscated at end ; the first joint of all the tarsi whitish, 
the others brown ; the pubescence black. 



xn, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 147 

Wings with a yellow tinge, which is more intense on the basal 
half and along the fore border; they have a few dark spots, 
arranged to form crossbands — a basal, less-defined one, a 
middle one more developed and double, and three others on apical 
part after the hind cross vein, which is narrowly bordered with 
fuscous along the inner side only. Veins yellow; third and 
fourth a little wavy, the first posterior cell dilated at end; an- 
terior cross vein on middle of discoidal cell; second basal cell 
much longer than the anal one, its two apical cross veins being 
of about the same length ; anal cross vein straight. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker). 

188. Pterogenia luteipennis sp. nov. 

A distinct species near P. pectoralis Hendel, from New Guinea, 
but at once distinguished by the yellow base of the wings. 

Male and female.— Length of body, 5.5 to 6 millimeters; of 
wing, 6 to 6.5; breadth of body, 2.8 to 3. Head much higher 
than broad. Occiput black, with a complete yellow border which 
is narrow above and broader on the produced lower part, and 
there with a black spot, situated behind the inferior corner of 
eye. Frons narrow, length more than twice the breadth, opaque, 
dark yellow, with a basal and a middle crossband, united by a 
median longitudinal stripe. Lunula black, with a brown spot 
on each side between antennae and eye. Face short, concave, 
continued below by the very broad epistoma, yellow, with a 
black transverse band at end of antennae ; cheeks narrow, yellow ; 
jowls very broad, as broad as one half of eye, rugulose, yellow, 
with a broad black band, which is in continuation of that of face. 
Prselabrum concealed; palpi black; proboscis brown. Antennae 
short; first joint black, second globular and red, third pale 
yellow; arista long plumose, the feathers twice as broad as 
the third joint. 

Mesonotum and scutellum black, opaque, punctulate, black 
pubescent; three less distinct and irregular cinereous longitu- 
dinal stripes on dorsum, humeral calli yellow like the notopleural 
stripe; mesopleura toward the middle with a narrow yellowish 
stripe, which is cinereous-dusted above. Yellow border of scu- 
tellum complete, but narrow. Squamae and halteres yellowish. 
Abdomen dull black, the second, third, and fourth segments each 
with a narrow yellow hind border, which is a little broadened 
in the middle; second segment without keel; male genitalia 
yellow; ovipositor short, compressed, brownish yellow; venter 
yellowish, black on the sides. Legs and coxae black, the four 
posterior tibiae with the basal half yellowish, and all the tarsi 
with the first joint whitish. 



148 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Wings rather long, with a strong yellow tinge along the fore 
border and on the basal half; on the basal half some dark spots 
and two broader dark bands, one intermediate and complete 
below the stigma, and the other surrounding the posterior cross 
vein; a dark stripe to the fourth vein in the hyaline space be- 
tween the two bands and some uncertain spots in the apical 
hyaline part. Veins yellow, the third and fourth straight and 
parallel to the end ; anterior cross vein a little before the middle 
of the discoidal cell; anal cell not much shorter than the second 
basal cell, with the terminal cross vein straight. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling and Mount Banahao 
(Baker) . 

189. Pterogenia centralis sp. nov. 

Allied to P. luteipennis, but distinguished by the very different 
coloration of mesonotum and scutellum. 

Female. — Length of body, 5.5 millimeters ; of wing, 5.5. Head 
as in P. luteipennis, the shining occipital yellow border without 
black spot in the dilated part; frons yellow, with an elongate, 
double reddish brown spot in the basal part ; face with a rounded 
black spot at end of the antennal grooves and with a narrow 
black line, dividing the epistoma from the jowls without black 
crossband. Antennae as in P. luteipennis, but the second joint 
black and the arista more shortly plumose, the breadth of 
feathers being only equal to the breadth of the third joint. 
Mesonotum and scutellum black, opaque, with dense shining 
yellowish pubescence; on dorsum a yellow stripe from the 
yellow humeri to the suture, curved inward at end, and another 
from the suture to the scutellum, a yellow notopleural stripe, 
and below this two broad, parallel yellow stripes — one on 
mesopleura, the other on upper part of sternopleura ; hairs of 
pleura? whitish and yellowish. 

Scutellum yellow, with a basocentral, rounded black spot. 
Squama? whitish; halteres yellowish. All the bristles black; on 
scutellum a pair of long apical bristles and some other pairs 
of shorter ones. Abdomen as in P. luteipennis, but the yellow 
hind borders of second and third segments broader, and the 
third segment with a middle longitudinal yellowish stripe; 
pubescence black, but yellowish on the yellow parts; ovipositor 
black, depressed; venter black, with black hairs. Coxa? black; 
femora reddish brown with blackish stripes below and behind; 
tibia? yellowish with black ends ; tarsi whitish, with the last three 
joints black. Wings whitish hyaline with only the extreme base 
less distinctly yellowish; three complete fuscous crossbands, 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 149 

the first near base, the second below the stigma and crossing the 
discoidal cell, the third extending from apex of the marginal cell 
to the middle of the second posterior cell; the hind cross vein 
margined with fuscous only below and not included in a band, 
but above it from costa to a little before the fourth vein there 
is a dimidiate crossband in the hyaline space between the 
second and third crossbands; in the apical hyaline space some 7 
fuscous spots, forming one or two irregular crossbands. Veins 
yellowish brown, directed as in P. luteipennis, but the second 
longitudinal vein distinctly a little wavy, not straight ; anal cross 
vein distinctly longer than that at end of the second basal cell. 
Mindanao, Butuan {Baker). 

Key to the Philippine species of the genus Euprosopia Macquart (including 
Notopsila Osten Sacken) . 

The present genus also seems to be productive of endemic 
species in the Philippines. No one of the five species found by 
Professor Baker can be identified with any of the thirty-three 
species already known from the Oriental and Australian Re- 
gions: the group of the species with elongated antennas {lepi- 
dophora, longicornis) seems to be peculiar to the Islands. The 
two species, sexpunctata and curta, described by Osten Sacken 
under the generic name of Notopsila, also belong here, but are 
wanting in the present collection ; Euprosopia curta was recently 
recorded from Formosa by Hendel. 

a 1 . Scutellum emarginate, that is, distinctly hollowed at apex; arista bare; 
•wings spotted. 

ft 1 . Face with six deep black spots sexpunctata 0. S. 

b 2 . Face without black spots curta 0. S. 

a 2 . Scutellum not emarginate, convex at apex; arista shortly plumose; 
wings usually banded. 
c\ Antennae much shorter than the face, as usual. 

d 1 . Mesonotum adorned with three broad longitudinal bands of 
yellowish tomentum, the middle of which is continued on scutel- 
lum and abdomen; front tarsi with yellow bases; wings distinctly 

yellowish, with fuscous spots trivittata sp. nov. 

<f. Mesonotum and abdomen altogether black, without such stripes; 
front tarsi black; wings not yellowish and distinctly banded. 
e 1 . Much larger; abdomen without white scales; front tarsi much 
dilated; wings with the second and third bands united with 
the broad fuscous border of the hind cross vein. 

gigas sp. nov. 

e 2 . Much smaller; abdomen with scattered white scales; front tarsi 

not dilated; wings with only a single distinct band between 

the numerous dark spots....: millepunetata sp. nov. 

c 2 . Antenna? as long as the face, or even a little longer; abdomen with 
scattered white scales; wings conspicuously banded. 



150, The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

f 1 . Antennas red; femora and tibia? entirely and intensively black. 

lepidophora sp. nov. 

f. Antenna? black; femora and tibia? in part reddish brown or 

yellowish longicornis sp. nov. 

190. Euprosopia trivittata sp. nov. 

A very distinct species, suggesting Plagiostenopterina trivit- 
tata Walker by its coloration and seeming to be allied to E. 
tigrina Osten Sacken, from New Guinea, which, however, has a 
very different wing pattern and has no inner frontoorbital 
bristles. 

Male and female. — Length of body, 5 to 6 millimeters; of 
wings, 5 to 6. Head oval, much higher than broad, entirely 
yellow ; occiput with dense gray dust, which becomes paler on the 
dilated lower part; frons once and a half as long as broad, 
broader than an eye, distinctly broader in the middle than at the 
ends, the middle band clothed with short yellow hairs and with a 
narrow white stripe on the sides, with a middle longitudinal 
dark line ; lunula yellow ; two pairs of black vertical bristles ; face 
whitish-dusted, above with a short dark longitudinal band be- 
tween the antennas, and below with two black spots at end of the 
antennal grooves ; cheeks narrow, much narrower than the third 
antennal joint; jowls about one fifth of eye, yellow, with a less 
distinct brown spot. Antenna? entirely yellow, a little longer 
than one half of face ; third joint attenuated, but obtuse at end, 
with a short, basal, plumose arista, the breadth of feathers being 
equal to the breadth of the third joint. Praelabrum convex, 
circular, shining yellow, with a black spot on each side; palpi 
dilated, deep black, the apical border shining whitish and the 
thin base broadly yellow ; proboscis yellowish. 

Alesonotum opaque, black, but almost entirely occupied on 
the dorsum by the three equally broad longitudinal stripes of 
yellowish tomentum; the short pubescence yellow on the yellow 
stripes and black on the black ones; the hind border of dorsum 
with a row of long yellow hairs before the scutellum; bristles 
black; pleura? entirely clothed with yellowish tomentum, sepa- 
rated from the external stripes of the dorsum by the black 
notopleural band ; hairs yellow and very long on the hind border 
of mesopleura and of pteropleura. 

Scutellum black, convex at end, with the broad, middle yellow 
band exactly in continuation of that of dorsum; two pairs of 
apical black bristles, and rather long yellow hairs at hind 
border. Squama? and halteres pale yellowish. 

Abdomen entirelv clothed with yellowish tomentum like the 



jai, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 151 

mesonotum, but with a black longitudinal stripe on each side 
not reaching the hind border, and thus forming the three lon- 
gitudinal yellow stripes, the middle of which is exactly in contin- 
uation of that of scutellum and mesonotum; venter yellow and 
brown, rather shining. Male genitalia black, rounded, retracted, 
with some short black and red appendages below and with a 
very long, spiral, shining reddish penis; ovipositor short, black, 
flattened. Legs yellow, with yellow pubescence; front coxae 
mainly black ; femora and tibiae broadly black at end, sometimes 
the anterior femora and even the middle ones entirely black 
with yellow ends; basal joint of all the tarsi whitish. 
■ Wings with a distinct yellowish tinge at base and fore border ; 
covered with numerous dark spots, which are in part confluent, 
but without forming distinct crossbands; hind cross vein with 
a broad fuscous border, and in continuation with it a subobsolete 
band, interrupted by hyaline spots, which ends at apex of the 
first longitudinal vein. Third and fourth longitudinal veins 
entirely straight and parallel in their last sections; anterior 
cross vein oblique and placed near the middle of the very long 
discoidal cell; second basal cell longer than the anal, which is 
terminated by a straight cross vein. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

191. Euprosopia gigas sp. nov. 

In wing pattern very similar to E. impingens Walker, from 
New Guinea, but distinguished by its different coloration and by 
the presence of two pairs of vertical bristles. 

Female. — Length of body, 12 millimeters ; of wing, 12. Head 
higher than broad, with the frons and the face much produced 
over the eyes, but perhaps only because of an accidental com- 
pression of the type specimen. Occiput hollowed, yellowish, with 
two black stripes; frons narrower than an eye, about twice as 
long as broad, hollowed in the basal half and there yellowish 
red, prominent in the apical part and there black, with narrow 
yellowish sides; bristles black, the inner vertical pair only one 
half as long as the external pair; lunula dark brown; face pale 
yellow, with a black stripe on each side along the antennal 
grooves, which is continued below to the mouth borders, but 
becomes brownish in this part ; cheeks black and brown, a little 
narrower than the third antennal joint; jowls brown, one fifth 
of eye in breadth. Antennae black, the basal joint a little reddish 
outward, not longer than one half of face, with a long arista, 
which is shortly plumose at base, the feathers being as broad 



152 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

as the third joint. Prseiabrum narrow, subquadrate, shining 
yellowish ; palpi less dilated, entirely black, with long black hairs ; 
proboscis dirty yellowish. 

Mesonotum dull black, densely punctulate, with short and 
thick black hairs, only in front of the scutellum with yellow hairs ; 
bristles black, two or three anterior supra-alars; pleura? black, 
gray-dusted, and with numerous rounded black points, with long, 
yellow hairs and some shorter black hairs on anterior part of 
mesopleura, sternopleura, and pteropleura. Scutellum flattened 
above, convex behind, reddish brown, darker at base, entirely 
clothed with shining yellow hairs, which are longer near the 
borders, and with three pairs of strong black apical bristles, 
the smaller, external pair being placed most distant from the 
border. Mesophragma black, smooth, rather shining; squamae 
pellucid brownish with a whitish border; halteres yellowish. 
Abdomen black, finely punctulate, rather shining, with the last 
two segments brownish red; pubescence dark, the hind borders 
of the segments with longer whitish hairs; venter dull black, 
with whitish hairs on the sides; ovipositor black, flattened. 
Legs stout, brownish black, with black pubescence; front tarsi 
much dilated, entirely deep black; the basal joint of the four 
posterior tarsi whitish, with black ends. Wings destitute of 
yellowish tinge at base or fore border ; the dark pattern is very 
like that figured by Hendel, 15 but the first band is much broader ; 
the second and third bands united with each other and with the 
broad border of the hind cross vein from the fourth longitudinal 
vein; the hyaline spaces between first and second bands and 
between second and third bands have in the middle two or three 
elongate brown spots, which form two narrow, interrupted 
stripes; the second posterior cell shows four or five dark spots 
along the hind border. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

192. Euprosopia millepunctata sp. nov. 

A small, dull blackish species, with a white-scaly abdomen and 
with a single dark crossband on the thickly punctuated wings. 

Male. — Length of body, 4 millimeters; of wing, 4. Head 
blackish, a little higher than broad; frons with narrow dark 
yellowish lateral borders and with short yellowish hairs; two 
pairs of black vertical bristles; face dark yellowish on the 
middle, brownish on the sides, with a deep black spot at end 
of each antennal groove; cheeks brown, linear; jowls deeply 
rugose, reddish brown, one sixth of eye. Antennae blackish 

15 Die Art. d. Platyst., Plate II, fig. 38. 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 153 

brown, dark reddish at base, a little produced over the middle of 
face; arista shortly plumose at base, the breadth of feathers 
being less than the third joint. Prselabrum convex, circular, 
shining black ; palpi black, with narrowly yellow base ; proboscis 
dark brown. Meson otum entirely dull black, with short and 
scattered yellow hairs, and in front with the beginning of two 
longitudinal gray lines, which do not reach the suture; pleura? 
gray, with indistinct black points and with rather long yellow 
hairs at hind border of mesopleura. Scutellum like the dorsum 
of mesonotum, convex at end, with two pairs of apical black 
bristles. Squamae brownish pellucid; halteres yellowish. Ab- 
domen entirely dull blackish, the last two segments densely 
gray-dusted and with scattered whitish scales; genitalia, re- 
tracted, black like the venter. Legs stout, black, the femora 
brown toward the base, four posterior tibiae broadly yellowish 
in the middle; front tarsi entirely black, not dilated; basal joints 
of the other four tarsi whitish, with black ends. 

Wings whitish hyaline, no yellow at base, with very numerous 
blackish dots and streaks, which are partly confluent, so that the 
wing may be said to be blackish with whitish hyaline dots; a 
distinct, rather broad crossband, beginning at fore border beyond 
the end of first vein, inclosing there two or three short hyaline 
streaks, crossing the middle of the first posterior cell and sur- 
rounding the hind cross vein, and ending at hind border at apex 
of the fifth longitudinal vein. Last sections of third and fourth 
veins straight and parallel. 

Luzon, T-ayabas, Malinao (Baker) . 

193. Euprosopia lepidophora sp. nov. 

Similar to E. fusifacies Walker, from New Guinea and Aru 
Islands, but distinguished from it and from the other species by 
the elongate antennae, which are produced to the mouth border. 

Male. — Length of body, 7 millimeters; of wing, 7. Head in 
front with a rounded outline, about as broad as high, much 
broader and higher than the mesonotum; occiput black, with 
dense gray dust, whitish on the little-produced lower border; 
frons a little longer than broad, a little but distinctly narrower 
at vertex than in front, its broad middle stripe dark reddish, 
paler on the sides, with a narrow silvery border near the eyes and 
with scattered yellow hairs ; two pairs of black vertical bristles, 
the inner pair only a little shorter than the external one; face 
flattened, much broadened below, in the form of an isosceles 
triangle, white, opaque, the upper angle and the base narrowly 
red. Antennal grooves long, diverging, yellowish white-dusted, 



154 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

spotless; mouth border narrow, less prominent, with a narrow 
but complete blackish crossband; cheeks very narrow, linear, 
blackish ; jowls one fifth of eye, blackish brown in front, whitish 
behind, and there with a very strong black genal bristle. An- 
tennae long, reaching the epistome, entirely red; third joint 
linear, very long; eight to ten times as long as the first two 
joints together; arista long, reddish, shortly plumose on its 
whole length, the feathers about as broad as the third joint. 
Prselabrum circular, convex, shining black ; palpi broad, entirely 
black, with long, scattered black hairs ; proboscis black. 

Mesonotum short, subquadrate, black, dark gray-dusted and 
yellow-pubescent above; bristles long, strong, and black; pleura? 
with dense pale grayish dust and long whitish hairs; on meso- 
pleura a broad perpendicular band of whitish dust, which is 
continued above on the dorsum along the suture in the shape 
of a whitish triangle. Scutellum black, with yellow pubescence 
and with a spot of whitish dust on each side at apex, which is 
convex, not emarginate ; two pairs of strong black apical bristles. 
Squamae whitish; halteres yellowish. Abdomen black, gray- 
dusted; the last three segments provided with scattered, broad 
whitish scales. Venter and genitalia black. Legs deep black, 
with black pubescence, front coxae gray-dusted and white-pubes- 
cent anteriorly; basal joint of all the tarsi whitish. 

Wings not yellow at base, the fuscous pattern about as in 
Hendel's Plate II, fig. 39; a dimidiate band before the middle 
band; the third band prolonged to the hind border, the apex 
of wing appearing entirely fuscous, with two hyaline spots. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao {Baker) . 

194. Euprosopia longicornis sp. nov. 

Closely allied to E. lepidophora, but smaller and differently 
colored. 

Male and female. — Length of body, 5 to 5.5 millimeters; of 
wing, 5 to 5.5. Head exactly as in E. lepidophora, but the 
antennas entirely black, a little dark brownish near the base ; the 
third antennal joint longer, being a little longer than the face; 
the broad facial triangle more yellowish than white and destitute 
of red stripes; epistome without black band; the genal bristle 
much weaker. 

Mesonotum and abdomen entirely as in E. lepidophora, ovi- 
positor short, broad, flattened, black. Legs with the four pos- 
terior tibiae broadly yellowish on the basal half; hind femora 
with long and dense whitish hairs below. 

Wings as in E. lepidophora, but the pattern less dark; the 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 155 

hyaline space between the second and third bands has above near 
the fore border a fuscous triangular spot, prolonged to the 
second longitudinal vein, which is entirely wanting in lepido- 
phora and in fusifacies; the praeapical band is likewise complete, 
but there is no dark spot in the hyaline hind border of the 
second posterior cell. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

195. Tseniaptera nigripes van der Wulp. 1881. 

Los Banos, Mount Maquiling, Luzon. Philippine specimens 
like the present ones have been referred by Osten Sacken to 
this species described from Sumatra, but I think it probable that 
they belong to an undescribed species; the rings on femora are 
white, not reddish as in typical specimens. 

196. Eurybata hexapla 0. S. 1882. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos and Mount Maquiling. A very 
strange and beautiful endemic insect. 

Telostylus niger Bezzi, 1913. — This species, described in the 
first century, 16 seems to be common in the Islands, being also 
represented from Mount Maquiling ; Professor Baker has reared 
it from fallen fruits of Terminalia nitens Presl. 

Male. — The undescribed male is like the female, but is notice- 
ably different in the front legs like the males of other species of 
the genus Telostylus. The front femora are provided below on 
the apical half with two rows of short black spines, those of the 
internal rows being distinctly longer. The basal joint of each 
front tarsus is considerably swollen and spindle-shaped. The 
femora of all the legs, and chiefly those of the intermediate 
pair, are distinctly thickened. The genitalia are prolonged as a 
cylindric protuberance, which is bent below, and in front of 
this there is another yellow prominence. 

197. Nothybus triguttatus sp. nov. 

Very like the typical species, N. longithorax Rondani, from 
Borneo, but differing in the wing pattern. 

Male. — Length of body, 7 millimeters; of wing, 7. Head yel- 
low. Occiput very much hollowed above, the eyes being prom- 
inent on the sides; frons with a deep and broad excavation at 
vertex behind the ocelli, and there with a striking velvety black 
subquadrate spot ; the remainder of frons gently convex, strongly 
glistening, with a broad velvety black spot on each side, in 
contact with the eyes and of triangular shape, prolonged behind 

16 This Journal, Sec. D (1913), 8, 329, No. 85. 

149052 4 



156 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

along the orbits to their middle and in front entirely to cover 
the narrow cheeks. Face elongate, narrower than the frons, 
yellow above, whitish below and there with a prominent, oval, 
strongly glistening blackish brown tubercle, the surrounding 
area shining white; praelabrum prominent, triangular, whitish; 
palpi whitish, narrow, almost bare ; proboscis yellowish. Anten- 
nas short, inserted above the middle of eyes, the two basal joints 
yellow, with some black hairs and a longer bristle above at end 
of the second; third joint rather acute at end, not longer than 
the first two joints together, deep black with narrowly yellow 
base; arista blackish, incrassate at base, very long-plumose to 
the end. Cephalic bristles strong and black; two pairs of 
verticals, bent backward, the inner pair longer and placed more 
forward; two pairs of frontoorbitals, likewise bent backward, 
of equal size, one at level of the ocelli, the other before the 
middle of the frons; no distinct ocellar or postvertical bristles. 
In profile view the head is almost entirely occupied by the eyes, 
which are rounded and of great size ; frons only a little prominent 
above the antennae; ocelli placed just at middle distance be- 
tween the inner vertical and the anterior frontoorbital bristles. 

Mesonotum entirely yellow, a little shining and a little darker 
on dorsum, more orange and opaque on sides and on pleurae; 
conical and exceedingly prolonged in front; on dorsum clothed 
by short black hairs disposed in almost regular longitudinal 
rows; quite bare on pleurae. Bristles black; no humeral; a 
single notopleural, the posterior one, placed apparently on the 
pleura, on account of the peculiar form of mesonotum, and just 
below the very oblique and broadly interrupted suture; one 
anterior and one posterior supra-alar; one pair of dorsocentrals 
very near the scutellum; one mesopleural. Scutellum elongate, 
triangular, with one basal and one apical pair of long bristles; 
postscutellum of a very peculiar form, in shape of an obtuse 
cone, more prominent than the scutellum itself, entirely yellow, 
opaque; mesophragma short, yellow, whitish-dusted. Squamae 
very small, yellowish, with brown border; halteres yellowish, 
with brown knob. 

Abdomen narrower than the thorax, elongate, linear, of equal 
breadth throughout; about as long as the mesonotum, entirely 
yellow, opaque, with short black hairs ; the last segment whitish- 
dusted ; the very small genitalia yellow, whitish-dusted, retracted, 
destitute of appendages. Venter pale yellow, with black hairs 
on the sides. Legs thin, not elongate ; coxae and femora yellow ; 
tibiae and tarsi black, but on these last the elongate praetarsi of 
the front pair whitish; front coxae with some short black hairs 



xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 157 

at end ; middle coxae with a long bristle on the middle of anterior 
side ; apical spur of middle tibiae very long, black. 

Wings spatulate, constricted to form a long and narrow basal 
stalk; uniformly suffused with a pale yellowish tinge and with 
the apical third inf uscated ; the internal limit of this inf uscation 
marked by a narrow, oblique brown band, which begins at fore 
border a little before the end of the marginal cell and, passing 
over the hind cross vein, ends at the fifth longitudinal vein. In 
this fuscous apical part are three distinct, oval, subhyaline spots, 
one in the submarginal, one in the first posterior, and one in 
the second posterior cell. Veins yellowish; the first longitudinal 
very short, ending at end of the stalked part of the wing; sec- 
ond very long, ending before the apex symmetrically with the 
fourth ; while the third ends at the apex itself ; these three veins 
are perfectly straight, placed at equal distances, and slightly 
diverging toward the end. Discoidal cell very long, the anterior 
cross vein placed before its middle; second basal cell a little 
shorter than the anal cell; the basal section of the fourth in- 
terrupted before its end; anal cell rather acute on the lower 
angle, its terminal vein being oblique; last section of the fifth 
longitudinal vein much shorter than the perfectly straight and 
perpendicular hind cross vein. 

Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 

198. Stylogaster bakeri sp. nov. 

This new species is a very important addition to the oriental 
fauna, being the first species of this genus known from the 
Orient. It is named in honor of Professor Baker. It seems to 
be allied to the recently described S. frontalis Krober, 1914, 
from Belgian Congo; but it is distinct from that and from 
any other at present known by the peculiar brush of hairs at 
the base of the hind femora in the male. 

Male and female. — Length of body (without antennae and 
without ovipositor), 6.5 to 7.5 millimeters; of wings, 6 to 6,5. 
Head broader than the thorax, of almost circular outline in front 
view; occiput flat, a little hollowed above behind the vertex, 
black, densely gray-dusted, with few whitish hairs and a row of 
short, bristly white hairs at some distance from the eye border. 
Eyes reddish brown, about two and a half times higher than 
broad in profile, with the central interior areolets much dilated ; 
frons much narrower than an eye, a little narrowed from vertex 
to antennae, pale yellowish opaque, with a very broad shining 
black ocellar plate, which with its obtuse fore angle is in con- 
tact with the lunula, leaving free only a narrow line on sides at 



158 The Philippine Journal of Science v.ni 

the vertex; ocelli placed near the base of this plate, but a little 
removed from the vertical keel; in the female the frons is dis- 
tinctly narrower than in the male and entirely occupied by the 
shining black plate. Face pale yellowish, white-shining, much 
narrower than the frons, strongly raised toward the middle, in 
the shape of a longitudinal keel, entirely bare; jowls rather 
prominent, colored like the face ; mouth opening triangular ; chin 
short, with whitish hairs. Proboscis thin, much longer than 
body when exserted, black, with narrowly yellow base and 
broadly yellow end of lips; no distinct palpi; antennae porrect, 
first joint very short, whitish, bare; second joint reddish yellow, 
longer than the first, produced in a lobe on inner side of the 
third, with short black hairs ; third joint reddish yellow, darkened 
along the upper border, about as long as the first two joints 
together, broad, obtuse at end with a rather thick, subapical, 
bare black arista, the two basal joints of which are small but 
distinct. Of cephalic bristles there is only one pair of strong, 
long, black, parallel or slightly converging, inner verticals; the 
sides of frons near the base have two or three short, bristly 
black hairs directed forward ; the rest of the frons is quite bare 
like the ocellar plate. 

Mesonotum subquadrate, as long as broad, strongly convex, 
dark yellowish, red, or black, with two approximate, longitudinal 
brown stripes which are prolonged behind a little over the 
middle and with two broader but less distinct stripes on sides 
not prolonged over the suture in front; pleurae and breast pale 
yellowish, almost whitish ; humeral calli rounded, very prominent, 
pale yellowish. Dorsum clothed with short and scanty black 
hairs; bristles black, long, and strong; three posterior noto- 
pleurals, approximate ; three to five supra-alars ; one dorsocentral 
near the scutellum; one very long and strong pteropleural. 
Scutellum small, convex, rounded, reddish brown above, yellowish 
on sides and below, with one apical pair of long, diverging 
black bristles. Postscutellum convex, prominent, dark brownish 
in the middle; mesophragma narrow, yellowish. Squamae yel- 
lowish, with black border; halteres yellowish. Abdomen elon- 
gate, with parallel sides, a little narrower than, and about three 
times as long as, the thorax; entirely reddish yellow, rather 
shining, the hind borders of segments two to five with a blackish 
transverse band above, which is not prolonged to the sides. 
Second segment on sides with five or six long, bristly black 
hairs, the rest with short black hairs ; venter pale yellow. Male 
genitalia subglobose, yellow, with two brown spots above near 
the base, shining yellow below and with some short black ap- 



i xii, d, 3 Bezzi: Studies in Philippine Diptera, II 159 

pendages; in middle there are two long pale yellowish cerci 
with short black hairs; the last abdominal sternite is in the 
shape of a prominent, obtuse pale yellowish point, directed for- 
ward. Ovipositor as long as the abdomen, strongly compressed, 
with the first segment yellow, the second black. 

Legs long, the four anterior tarsi longer than their tibia? ; hind 
legs distinctly stronger than the others, with rather thickened 
femora; the four front pairs and their coxae entirely pale yel- 
lowish, with the last three tarsal joints blackish ; coxae with some 
short and pale yellowish hairs. Hind legs with swollen reddish 
brown coxae ; femora yellowish, with a more or less broad brown 
ring near the middle; tibiae and tarsi black, the tibiae with a 
broad whitish ring below the middle. In the male the hind 
femora have on the inner side near the base a conspicuous brush 
formed by some rows of rather long black hairs, the ends of 
which are curved below. 

Wings dark grayish hyaline, strongly iridescent with black 
veins. Venation normal; the first posterior cell rather broad, 
the bend of the fourth longitudinal vein being rounded but 
strong. 

LUZON, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

199. Hippobosca equina Linn. 1758. 

Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . This is the first time 
that this common insect is recorded from the extreme Orient ; it 
has been imported into Australia and into some of the Polynesian 
Islands. .Probably a recent introduction in the Philippines. 

200. Hippobosca maculata Leach. 1817. 

Luzon, Rizal, Alabang (Mitzmain) . This species is common 
in India and Ceylon and is probably spread over the entire 
Oriental Region. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Head of Schizella furcicornis g. et sp. nov., from above, x 27. 

2. Wing of Tylopterna monstrosum g. et sp. nov.; a, the spine of the 
underside. About X 23. 

161 



Bezzi: Philippine Diptera : II.] 



[Phil. Joukn. Sci., XII, D, No. 3. 




Fig. 1. Head of Schizella furcicornis a- et sp. nov., from above, x 27. 




Fig. 2. Wing of Tylopterna monstrosum g. et sp. nov.; a, the spine of the underside 

About X 23. 



PLATE I. 



PHILIPPINE AND ASIATIC PSYLLID^ 

By D. L. Crawford 
(Pomona College, Claremont, California) 

ONE PLATE 

Since my last paper on Psyllida? of the Orient l was written, 
several small collections have been received from Professor C. 
F. Baker, that most indefatigable collector. Another collection 
of considerable interest, from the Pusa Research Institute, in- 
cludes specimens from various parts of India and Ceylon, ac- 
cumulated by Mr. T. B. Fletcher. In the former collection are 
two new genera and several very interesting new species. In 
the latter collection there is only one new species, but the collec- 
tion is a valuable one in that new distribution records are estab- 
lished for known species. 

Pauropsylla brevicephala sp. no v. Plate I, fig. 11. 

Length of body, 1.3 millimeters ; length of f orewing, 2.0 ; width, 
0.9; width of head, 0.65. General color brown with orange or 
yellow markings on dorsum and pleurum of thorax; antennae 
mostly light brown, apex black; wings hyaline with five black 
marginal spots, one at end of each of four furcal veins and of 
radius. Body medium to small, robust. Dorsum of head and 
thorax shagreened. 

Head not as broad as thorax, very short, much deflexed so 
that it appears to be situated almost beneath the prothorax. 
Vertex much broader than long, uniformly rounded forward and 
downward, front ocellus beneath. Gense scarcely swollen; 
labrum not very large. Antennas very short, not as long as width 
of vertex between eyes. 

Thorax strongly arched, broad. Legs short. Wings a little 
more than twice as long as broad, hyaline and very slightly 
fumate, rounded at apex, venation somewhat resembling that of 
Paurocephala psylloptera. 

Abdomen short. Female genital segment small, short; dorsal 
valve with a rounded hirsute hump midway dorsad and the apex 
acute and curved upward; ventral valve very small and its apex 
turned downward. 

Mindanao, Davao {Baker), 2 females. 

1 This Journal, Sec. D (1915), 10, 257-269. 

163 



164 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Homctoma bilineata sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 1. 

Length of body, 2.3 millimeters; length of forewing, 2.9; 
width, 1.2; width of head, 0.67. General color black; forewings 
hyaline with two prominent black stripes joined at base and 
diverging in a V-shape. 

Head short, as broad as thorax, deeply cleft in front, with 
eyes large and prominent ; vertex about twice as broad as long, 
shining black and sparsely hairy; gense very slightly swollen, 
but not wholly covering frons; antennse not quite as long as 
body without wings, nearly four times as long as width of head, 
very thick and conspicuously hairy, with several very finely 
serrated carina? on each segment; two basal segments large and 
thick. 

Thorax not arched, relatively narrow and not robust, sparsely 
covered with long hairs. Legs moderately thick, but not very 
long. Forewings- rhomboidal in shape, about two and a half 
times as long as broad, hyaline, with a black spot in clavus and 
a black stripe beginning at base of basal vein, dividing at junction 
point of cubitus and media into two stripes and the two extending 
and diverging toward apex of wing. 

Abdomen long and slender. Male genital segment relatively 
small; forceps arched, about as long as anal valve, broadest 
subapically, and rounded at tip, somewhat hairy. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker), 1 male. 

In general aspects this species resembles Homotoma paciftca 
Crawford ; but in the shorter antennse, in wing shape, and in wing 
markings it is quite distinct. 

Genus CARSIDAROEDA novum 

Head much less deeply cleft in front than in Carsidara; vertex 
large, more or less quadrate, flattened ; gense covering frons and 
meeting vertex above antennal bases, with anterior ocellus at 
junction point and appearing to be in middle of vertex because 
of obscurity of suture between vertex and gense; gense swollen 
beneath antennal sockets, but without genal cones. Antennse 
long and slender. Labium very long and slender and prominent. 

Thorax not much arched, broad; pronotum long. Legs long 
and large; hind tibise with a spur at base and spines at apex. 
Forewings long, venation similar to that of species of Carsidara; 
with a callus (pseudovein) connecting medial and radial veins 
as in Tenaphalara and in Carsidara. 

Type of genus: Carsidaroida heterocephala sp. nov. 

Although this species differs from species of Carsidara in 
having the head less cleft in front, yet the position of the anterior 



xii, d, 3 Crawford: Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidse 1(35 

ocellus, the shape and the venation of the wing, the armed hind 
legs, the long labium, and the swollen gense all point to a close 
affinity with the subfamily Carsidarinae and, especially, with the 
genus Carsidara. 

Carsidaroida heterocephala sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 7. 

Length of body, 2.6 millimeters; length of forewing, 4.8; 
width, 1.7 ; width of head, 0.8. General color brownish ; thorax 
with alternating orange and brown or blackish stripes; head 
light brown or with a yellowish tinge; eyes black; abdomen 
darker than thorax. Body large. 

Head not as broad as thorax, scarcely deflexed; vertex rela- 
tively small, more than half as long as broad, with a conspicu- 
ously raised margin extending between vertex and each eye 
and along posterior margin, but the posterior ocelli outside of 
this elevated rim; within the rim the vertex is rather flat, pre- 
senting the appearance of a saucer with perpendicular sides; 
front ocellus situated a little anterior of the center of this saucer, 
at obscure junction point of vertex and gense. Gense produced 
in front into a pair of very large, diverging, antennal sockets 
to the ends of which the antenna? attach, without genal cones 
except two exceedingly small ones far back under head just in 
front of labrum; antennal-socket enlargements of gense very 
large and prominent beneath head, extending back toward labrum 
as a pair of parallel half -cylinders. Antennae not quite as long 
as body without wings, nearly four times as long as width of 
head with eyes, slender, black at tip. Eyes relatively large. 
Labium very long. 

Thorax large, not strongly arched; pronotum with a small 
epiphysis in front at center; legs long, rather large; hind tibise 
with a large spur at base and five large black spines at apex, 
one larger than the other four; other tibise with a fine comb of 
slender spines at apex. Forewings long, about three times as 
long as broad, hyaline with a faint smoky tinge, with several 
brown or black spots scattered about in apical portion; ptero- 
stigma rather large ; with a callus (pseudovein) connecting radius 
and media and another connecting the radius and pterostigmal 
vein. 

Abdomen very long and slender, tapering gradually to genital 
segment. Male genital segment rather small; anal valve with 
a broad, apically rounded erect portion and a horizontal prolonga- 
tion, triangular in shape, reaching backward ; forceps as long as 
anal valve, curved inward and forward, broadly rounded at apex ; 
with a second and smaller pair of forceps cephalad of principal 



166 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

pair. Female genital segment about one third as long as rest 
of abdomen, acutely pointed at apex, dorsal valve a little longer 
than ventral. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio {Baker), 1 male and 1 female. 
Rhinopsylla distincta sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 6. 

Length of body, 2.9 millimeters ; length of f orewing, 4.8 ; width, 
1.8; width of head, 0.7. General color light reddish brown to 
brown ; eyes dark ; parts of dorsum reddish ; antennae brown. 

Head nearly as broad as thorax, scarcely deflexed, deeply cleft 
in front, covered sparsely with long hairs; posterior ocelli con- 
spicuously elevated. Gense swollen beneath into a pair of blunt 
processes (genal cones) projecting vertically downward and 
situated far back under the head near labrum. In some of the 
other species of this genus the gense are swollen, but not into 
conical processes as in this species. Antennae very slender, four 
times as long as width of head, large at base. 

Thorax not broad, scarcely arched ; pronotum short and much 
depressed below level of head and mesonotum ; legs long, rather 
slender, hairy; hind tibiae with a spur at base. Forewings very 
long, reaching more than half their length beyond abdomen, 
hyaline, acute at apex ; first marginal cell larger than second. 

Abdomen slender, rather small. Female genital segment about 
as long as rest of abdomen, both valves tapering to an acute end, 
the dorsal valve a little longer than ventral, sparsely hairy. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio {Baker), 1 female. 
Genus STROGYLOCEPHALA novum 

Head short, not deflexed, very uniformly rounded in front, the 
eyes and vertex together forming almost a hemisphere; ocelli 
not elevated ; f rons not wholly covered by gense, visible as a small 
sclerite between gense with front ocellus at its apex; gense not 
swollen into cones ; labrum small ; labium short. Antennae short, 
a little longer than width of head. Thorax not arched ; pronotum 
relatively long and with prsescutum forming somewhat of a 
"neck." Legs short and not large. Forewings slender, acute 
at apex, with pterostigma. 

Type of genus : Strogylocephala fascipennis sp. nov. 

This genus is a member of the subfamily Pauropsyllinse re- 
sembling Pauropsylla in some head characters, as the visible 
frons and rounded vertex, but differing from most others of 
this subfamily in the unarched thorax and slender wings. In 
the latter characters there is some resemblance to the Carsi- 
darinse. The aspect of the type species is suggestive of 
Tenaphalara. 



xii, d, 3 Crawford: Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidss 1(37 

Strogylocephala fascipennis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 12. 

Length of body, 1.3 millimeters ; length of forewing, 1.8 ; width, 
0.55 ; width of head, 0.4. General color dark brown or reddish ; 
abdomen light brown ; legs and antennas yellow, the latter black 
at tip ; wings with a brown band along posterior margin. Body 
small, slender. 

Head almost hemispherical, not deflexed; vertex roundly 
convex, without depressions, finely punctate, posterior ocelli not 
elevated. Frons a narrow sclerite about one half to one third as 
broad as long. Genas not at all swollen, except at attachment 
of antennas and there only a little swollen, covering basal portion 
of frons. Antennas about one half longer than width of head, 
slender, with rather long, terminal setae. 

Thorax scarcely elevated, not broad. Legs short, not armed. 
Forewings nearly three times as long as broad, very slender, 
acutely pointed, with first marginal cell very small; a broken 
and irregular brown band extends along posterior margin from 
base to apex, usually with a break about midway. 

Abdomen slender. Male genital segment small ; forceps short, 
small, almost as long as anal valve, inner surface toothed, pointed 
at apex, outer surface arcuate; anal valve small, erect, simple. 
Female genital segment small and short; dorsal valve rounded 
apically with a sharp, pointed prolongation at end ; ventral valve 
shorter, more acute at apex. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos {Baker), 2 males and 1 female. 

Epipsylla forcipata sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 2. 

Length of body, 2.8 millimeters ; length of forewing, 3.4 ; width, 
1.3; width of head, 0.84. General color light orange to lemon 
yellow; eyes and tips of antennas black. Body a little larger 
than that of Epipsylla pulchra and lighter colored, without the 
conspicuous notal stripes of the latter. 

Head not quite as broad as thorax, somewhat deflexed ; vertex 
about three fourths as long as broad between eyes, with two 
large, shallow depressions between ocelli; front ocellus visible 
from above. Genal cones very long and slender, about one third 
longer than vertex, very little or not at all divergent, subacute. 
Antennas about as long as body without wings, seldom longer, 
slender. 

Thorax not strongly arched, broad ; pronotum long, flat. Hind 
tibias with small spur at base and four back spines at apex. 
Wings hyaline, with an orange tinge, acutely rounded at apex, 
about two and one-half times as long as broad, pterostigma 
present. 



168 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Abdomen moderately long, not large. Male anal valve a little 
broader than forceps, truncate at apex with a slender prolonga- 
tion reaching upward and backward toward forceps. Forceps 
as long as anal valve, stout, arched, with a row of about six 
black spines at apex and about six or seven on inner surface near 
apex pointing backward and interlocking with the corresponding 
spines of the opposite side; these are apparently a great aid in 
holding the female genital segment during copulation. Female 
genital segment nearly as long as the remainder of abdomen, 
tapering to the subacute apex ; dorsal valve a little longer than 
ventral. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker), 3 males and 5 females. 

Epipsylla pulchra Crawford. 2 

The female genital segment, not described in the original 
description of the species, is very similar to that of E. forcipata. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker), 3 males and 2 females. 

Euphalerus citri (Kuwayama). 

Euphalerus citri (Kuwayama), Crawford, Rec. Ind. Mus. (1912), 7, 
424, PI. 35, fig. D. 

This is a widely distributed species throughout the Orient, 
from India through China to the Philippines. Additional speci- 
mens are before me now showing some slight variations from 
the typical forms in wing coloration — as might well be expected 
in such a widely distributed species — collected at Coimbatore, 
South India, by "T. V. R." on Cardia, August 4, 1913; others 
from the same locality on August 22, 1913, collected by "C. N." 
on Cardia car data; others collected at Poona, Bombay, by T. B. 
Fletcher, Sept. 8, 1911. 
Arytaina variabilis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 3. 

Length of body, 2.1 millimeters ; length of forewing, 2.4 ; width, 
1.3; width of head, 0.85. General color greenish yellow; eyes 
black ; wings darker, with a brown apical and anterior, marginal 
band sometimes with darker spots scattered through the band. 
Body very robust, surface covered with stiff pubescence. 

Head nearly or quite as broad as thorax, rather strongly de- 
flexed. Vertex a little more than half as long as broad, surface 
irregular, with a transverse depression between posterior ocelli 
and from there roundly convex and sloping downward toward 
front ocellus; posterior ocelli scarcely elevated; anterior ocellus 

- This Journal, Sec. D (1913), 8, 297. 



xii, d, 3 Crawford: Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidse 169 

easily visible from above. Genal cones large and broad, not 
divergent, rounded at apex, continuing in same plane with vertex, 
but separated therefrom by a deep furrow, about as long as 
breadth at base, with short stiff pubescence. Antennae about 
as long as body without wings, very slender. 

Thorax broad and robust, hairy. Legs short and stout; 
hind tibia? with spur at base. Forewings broad, scarcely twice 
as long as broad, membrane scarcely hyaline, apex broadly 
rounded or a little angulate, veins setose; a darker band, often 
with black spots scattered through it, extends from first cubital 
vein around apex of wing to base of pterostigma ; central portion 
light brown; second marginal cell differing in shape among in- 
dividuals of the species. 

Abdomen relatively short and thick. Male genital segment 
moderately large; forceps large, broad, spatulate, very broad at 
apex, apical margin rounded, broadly and finely toothed; anal 
valve longer than forceps, tapering to a small end. Female 
genital segment not as long as rest of abdomen, much smaller, 
tapering to acute end, dorsal valve a little longer than ventral. 

Mindanao, Butuan {Baker), 1 male; Davao {Baker), 1 male: 
Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao {Baker), 1 female. A fourth speci- 
men, a female, from Mount Banahao, Laguna, Luzon {Baker), 
shows the venational characteristics of the Butuan male, but is 
destitute of the wing coloration present in all the other specimens. 
Whether this is a constant variation — a subspecies — or a chance 
individual not wholly developed is impossible to judge from the 
one specimen at hand. It appears that in this species there is 
a considerable variation in wing color and body color and in 
minor venational characters. 

Arytaina tuberculata sp. no v. Plate I, fig. 8. 

Length of body, 3.8 millimeters ; length of forewing, 3.5 ; width, 
1.8; width of head, 1.0. General color orange to tawny brown; 
eyes black ; abdomen dark brown ; antennas dark over apical half ; 
wings brownish. Body large, robust, surface covered with short, 
stiff pubescence. 

Head nearly as broad as thorax, large, strongly deflexed. 
Vertex large, about half as long as breadth between eyes, each 
half roughly triangular in shape with the two discal depressions 
meeting at midline and forming one larger cavity, with a pro- 
minent wartlike tubercle on each side between posterior ocellus 
and antennal base; posterior ocelli elevated; anterior ocellus 
in notched front margin of vertex. Genal cones large, as long 



170 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

as or slightly longer than basal width, extending forward in same 
plane with vertex, but separated therefrom by a deep furrow; 
broadly rounded at apex, a little divergent, hairy. Antenna? 
nearly as long as body without wings. 

Thorax broad and large, strongly arched, hairy. Pronotum 
long. Legs large and stout ; hind tibiae with a prominent spur at 
base and the apical spines large. Forewings broad, about half 
as wide as long, light brownish and partially transparent, rounded 
broadly at apex; veins not setigerous. 

Abdomen large, short. Female genital segment not as long 
as rest of abdomen, much smaller, acute at apex, dorsal valve 
a little longer than ventral. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker), 1 female. 

Arytaina punctipennis Crawford. 

Psyllopa punctipennis Crawford, Rec. Ind. Mus. (1912), 7, 431. 
PI. 34, figs. K, 0, PI. 35, fig. U. 

This interesting species was described originally as a Psyllopa, 
but this genus has subsequently been merged by the author with 
the older genus Arytaina. This species is a pest of indigo in the 
Orient and probably is the same as Buckton's Psylla isitis, but 
this identity has not been fully established. Several specimens 
are before me from Peradeniya, Ceylon, collected by T. B. Fletcher 
on Indigofera, April 14-17, 1914. 

Psylla colorada sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 13. 

Length of body, 1.6 millimeters ; length of forewing, 2.1 ; width, 
0.87; width of head, 0.55. General color bright red throughout, 
except antennal tips and eyes brown or black. 

Head about as broad as thorax, well deflexed. Vertex about 
half as long as broad ; posterior ocelli elevated on small pedicels ; 
genal cones a little longer than vertex, strongly divergent, 
narrowly rounded at apex, sparsely clothed with long hairs. 
Antennse scarcely two and one-half times as long as width of 
head, slender. 

Thorax strongly arched. Legs small. Forewings hyaline, 
veins reddish, membrane uncolored; pterostigma rather large. 
Abdomen short. Male genital segment short, small; forceps 
spatulate, truncate, somewhat toothed at apex, arched ; anal valve 
a little longer than forceps, long and narrow in profile, tapering 
to apex. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker), 5 males. 

This species resembles somewhat Psylla coccinea Kuwayama, 



xii, d, 3 Crawford: Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidse 171 

of Japan, but differs in head characters of some importance as 
well as in coloration, although both species are bright red in 
general color. 

Psylla crenata sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 9. 

Length of body, 3.0 millimeters ; length of forewing, 3.6 ; width, 
1.5; width of head, 1.1. General color dark brown, with light 
brown patches on vertex and both thoracic and abdominal 
dorsum; wings with yellowish tinge and a prominent dark band 
on apical margin. Body large and very robust. 

Head large and broad, but not quite as broad as thorax, 
strongly deflexed. Vertex about half as long as broad, each half 
strongly triangular, converging toward front ocellus, posterior 
ocelli large and somewhat elevated; between each posterior 
ocellus and antennal base is a wartlike prominence. Genae very 
large, prominent around antennal bases and conspicuous between 
vertex and eyes; genal cones large, as long as vertex, a little 
divergent, subacute at apex, pubescent. Antennae very long and 
slender, fully as long as entire body to tip of wings or about 
four times as long as width of head. 

Thorax very broad and large, strongly arched; pronotum 
sinuate or crenate on dorsal surface, with three rounded con- 
vexities. Legs large, hairy; hind tibias with a prominent spur 
at base. Forewings large, broad, broadly rounded at apex, with 
a broad brown or black band with indefinite margin extending 
around apex of wing from tip of claval suture to middle of radial 
cell ; membrane of wing f umate or light brown. 

Abdomen very large. Female genital segment large, as long as 
or longer than rest of abdomen, converging to acute apex, dorsal 
valve longer than ventral. 

Mindanao, Butuan {Baker), 1 female. 

Trioza eugenioides sp. nov. 

Length of body, 1.9 millimeters; length of forewing, 3.8; 
width, 1.4; width of head, 0.7. General color brown to dark 
brown, with lighter tawny stripes along dorsum and patches 
of the same color on pleura and abdomen. 

Mindanao, Butuan {Baker) , 3 females ; no data on food habits 
given. 

The general appearance and structure are similar to Trioza 
eugenise Crawford 3 and Trioza asiatica Crawford, 3 but the 

' This Journal, Sec. D (1915), 10, 265, PI. I, fig. e, 266. 

149052 5 



172 The Philippine Journal of Science ion 

species differs from both in color, wing venation, and a few 
other characters. These differences may be summarized as 
follows : 

1. Thorax smooth, shining, black; wings very narrow, about three times 

as long as broad; second marginal cell about twice as long as greatest 
width; fourth f ureal (M 1 + 2) terminating in wing apex; male anal 
valve almost quadrate; genal cones about one third as long as vertex. 

Trioza asiatica Crawf. 

2. Thorax punctate or rugulose, not smooth ; light green or yellowish green ; 

wings about three times as long as broad; second marginal cell about 
two and one-half times as long as greatest width; fourth f ureal 
M 1 + 2) , extending to apex or near it. Male anal valve triangular. 
Genal cones half as long as vertex. Trioza eugeuise Crawf. 

3. Thorax punctate and brown with light stripes and blotches; wings 

about two and three-fourths times as long as broad; second marginal 
cell only a little longer than greatest width; fourth f ureal (M 1 -(- 2) 
terminating in front of apex with apex within second marginal cell. 
Genal cones strongly decurrent, fully one half as long as vertex or more. 

Trioza eugenioides sp. nov. 

All three of these species are probably gall-forming, as men- 
tioned in the paper cited in the footnote. One very large female 
in the collection, from Mount Banahao, Luzon {Baker), seems 
to belong to a fourth species of this group, but I am deferring its 
description until more specimens appear. 

Trioza divisa sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 5. 

Length of body, 2.1 millimeters; length of forewing, 3.7; 
width, 1.5; width of head, 0.8. One half black and one half 
light; head, thorax, base of abdomen, and legs dark brown or 
black ; caudal half of abdomen white ; basal third of wings black, 
remainder hyaline, the hyaline portion beginning at the white 
portion of abdomen, thus dividing insect into anterior dark half 
and posterior light half. Body robust; surface covered with 
long slender hairs. 

Head strongly deflexed, not as broad as thorax. Vertex 
distinctly longer than half its width, somewhat irregularly 
convex, sparsely covered with long hairs, posterior ocelli not 
elevated. Genal cones nearly as long as vertex, extending nearly 
parallel to plane of vertex but below it. Eyes large. Antennae 
about one and one-half times as long as width of head, whitish 
except black at tip, with several very long hairs on each segment. 

Thorax robust, broad, large, arched; pronotum short and de- 
pressed. Legs hairy, rather stout ; hind tibiae with small spur at 
base and three thick spines at apex. Forewings about two and 



xii, d, 3 Crawford: Philippine and Asiatic Psyllidse 173 

one-half times as long as broad, black and opaque on basal third, 
hyaline or slightly fumate on remainder; veins with very long 
hairs; with a tendency toward a cubital petiole, but otherwise 
not related to Ceropsylla. 

Abdomen (of male) very short. Male genital segment small 
and whitish or yellow; anal valve small, hood-shaped, profile 
narrow and longer than forceps, subacute at apex; forceps 
relatively broad, arched, apex truncate. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker), 2 males. 

Trioza luzonensis sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 10. 

Length of body, 2.3 millimeters ; length of forewing, 3.2 ; width, 
1.3 ; width of head, 0.75. General color light orange to reddish 
or to yellowish; apical third of antennae black. Body surface 
sparsely hairy. 

Head not much deflexed; vertex fully half as long as broad, 
with a prominent elevation at each posterior ocellus and a pro- 
minent convexity on each side of median line, with a deep sulcus 
between each ocellus and medial convexity. Genal cones small, 
scarcely half as long as vertex, divergent, rounded or subacute, 
well below plane of vertex. Antennae a little more than twice as 
long as width of head. 

Thorax well arched. Legs somewhat hairy. Forewings 
hyaline, with setigerous veins. Male genital segment moderately 
large ; anal valve large, triangular in profile, with posterior angle 
acute ; forceps about as long as anal valve, slender, arched, acute 
at apex. Female genital segment less than half as long as rest 
of abdomen, both valves acute and about equal in length. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker), 1 male and 4 
females; Benguet, Baguio (Baker), 1 male. 

Trioza fletcheri Crawford. 

Trioza fletcheri Crawford, Rec. Ind. Mus. (1912), 7, 434, PI. 34, 
fig. V, PI. 35, fig. Q. 
Two imperfect specimens from Coimbatore, South India, seem 
to belong to this species, though it is impossible to make any 
conclusive statement because of the poor condition of the speci- 
mens. They were collecteded by "Y. R." in galls of Trewia sp., 
December 9, 1913. 

Trioza jambolanae sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 4. 

Length of body, 2.0 millimeters ; length of forewing, 3.5 ; width, 
1.4; width of head, 0.8. General color reddish brown, abdomen 



174 The Philippine Journal of Science 

darker; antennae and legs a little lighter brown; antennae black 
at tip. 

Head not quite as broad as thorax, deflexed. Vertex about half 
as long as broad, with a deep furrow down median line and a 
convexity on each side and a deep furrow on each side of these 
convexities and the much elevated posterior ocelli. Genal cones 
as long as vertex, divergent, somewhat decurrent, hairy, sub- 
acute. Antennae about one and one-half times as long as width 
of head, slender. 

Thorax well arched, broad ; pronotum short, depressed. Fore- 
wings about two and one-half times as long as broad, hyaline, 
with a black spot in middle of clavus, rather acute at apex. 

Abdomen large. Female genital segment very short, dorsal 
valve longer than ventral, both acute. 

Bengal, Pusa (C. S. Misra) , 2 females, on Eugenia jambolana, 
Feb. 3, 1915. 

Type specimen deposited in British Museum, London. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I. Forewings of new Psyllid^e 

Fig. 1. Homotoma bilineata sp. nov. 

2. Epipsylla forcipata sp. nov. 

3. Arytaina variabilis sp. nov. 

4. Trioza jambolanse sp. nov. 

5. Trioza divisa sp. nov. 

6. Rhinopsylla distincta sp. nov. 

7. Carsidaroida heterocephala g. et sp. nov. 

8. Arytaina tuberculata sp. nov. 

9. Psylla crenata sp. nov. 

10. Trioza luzonensis sp. nov. 

11. Pauropsylla brevicephala sp. nov. 

12. Strogylocephala fascipennis g. et sp. nov. 

13. Psylla colorada sp. nov. 

175 



Crawford : Psyllhwe.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 3. 




PLATE I. FOREWINGS OF NEW PSYLLIDjE. 



THE MOSQUITO FISH, GAMBUSIA AFFINIS (BAIRD AND 
GIRARD), IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By Alvin Seale 

(From the Section of Fisheries, Biological Laboratory, 

Bureau of Science, Manila) 

ONE TEXT FIGURE 

In 1905 I was commissioned by the Hawaiian Government to 
secure and transport to the Hawaiian Islands a shipment of 
fish that would live in areas infested by mosquitoes and feed 
on the larva? and eggs of these pests. 

At that time practically nothing was known regarding any 
species that might fill these requirements, nor was it known 
if such a fish, when found, could be successfully transported a 
great distance. Helpful suggestions were received from various 
friends, and I proceeded to Seabrook, Texas, to look for the 
desired fishes. 

At that place I noticed a number of small top-minnows, or 
killifishes, feeding on mosquito larvae. An examination was 
made of the stomach contents of several species in order to 
ascertain which had eaten the greatest number of mosquitoes. 
This resulted in Gambusia affinis being selected, and there has 
been no reason to regret the choice. This species is now known 
throughout the Orient as the "mosquito fish." 

About 400 specimens of this species were transported in 
ordinary 10-gallon milk cans and landed at Honolulu September 
15, 1905. When the fish were liberated in small breeding ponds, 
which were stocked with mosquito larvae, they at once made 
a vigorous attack upon these pests, suggesting a pack of wolves 
ravaging a flock of helpless sheep. 

Two years later Dr. D. L. Van Dine, entomologist for the 
Hawaiian Government, wrote as follows regarding these fish : x 

They have multiplied rapidly and from the few hundred introduced, 
several hundred thousand have been bred and distributed. Where they 
occur they effectively clear the water of mosquito larvse, feeding likewise 
on the eggmasses of Culex pipiens on the surface. 

At the present time (1916) there are millions of these fish 
in the Hawaiian Islands, and two men of the health department 

1 Press Bull. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. (1907), No. 20, 10. 

177 



178 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



are kept busy distributing them to various parts of the Islands. 
The decrease in the number of mosquitoes is very noticeable, 
and the Governor of the Islands writes : 

The top-minnows have been a decided success. Where ponds have 
swarmed with larvae of mosquitoes, the top-minnows have entirely cleaned 
them out in a few days. 

Letters from other persons in the Islands have been to the 
same effect. 

When returning to the Philippine Islands from the United 
States in 1913 I secured two dozen mosquito fish at Honolulu, 
placed them in a glass jar in my stateroom, and brought them 
to Manila. The offspring of these fish now number many 
thousands and are being widely distributed throughout the 
Philippine Islands and the Orient, as will be seen in the follow- 
ing report. 2 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MOSQUITO FISH 

The mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard), is 
very small. The female when full-grown is about 5 centimeters 
(2 inches) in length; the male is smaller. The general color 
is light olive, with the belly silvery. The female has a distinct 
blackish spot on each side of the belly. There is one small fin 
on the back (dorsal) which has seven rays, three fins on the 
belly (ventrals and anal), and one fin on each side (pectorals). 

In this species the sex is easily 
distinguished by the shape of 
the anal fin; in the male this 
fin is long and slender and the 
anterior rays are modified to 
form an intromittent organ. In 
the female the anal fin is large 
and normal in shape, with ten 
rays. The mouth is small. The 
eye is large. These fish usually 
swim near the top of the water. 
It seems to matter very little 
whether the water is fresh or 
brackish, clear or muddy, warm 
or cold. They thrive in all sorts 
of places. 





Fig. 1. Top minnow, or mosquito fish, Gam- 
busia affinis Baird and Girard ; a, male ; 
b, female. About actual size. 



1 An additional shipment of mosquito fish was ordered from Honolulu, 
but the fish received proved to be Melinesia latipinnis, and so were not 
liberated. 



xii, d, s Seale: The Mosquito Fish 179 

BIRTH OF THE YOUNG FISH 

. The mosquito fish does not lay eggs, but gives birth to fully 
formed and very active young. The exact procedure of each 
parent in this important function is given below, being described 
from observations of the actions of a half -grown female mos- 
quito fish, length, 34 millimeters, and of a young male, length, 
23 millimeters, which were placed in a small glass jar on my 
study table where they could be observed perfectly. Obser- 
vations began December 8, 1915. 

As soon as the male saw the female, he became greatly 
excited, as was indicated in the swift change of color to a 
beautiful opalescent blue on the head and the sides. He at 
once made swift dashes at the female, and acted as if he intended 
to bite her on the lower abdomen. He made no attempt to 
copulate with her. The female strongly resented these actions 
and tried to escape. The male continued the swift dashes and 
attacks upon the female for ten minutes. The female finally 
became quiet near the bottom of the jar and gave birth 
instantly to a young fish, which came out head first and shot 
to the surface of the water, where it swam about vigorously. 

The male fish in the meantime had become perfectly quiet, 
resting about 2 centimeters directly behind the female. His 
great interest and excitement, however, were well shown in the 
rapid working of his gills, the quick vibration of his caudal fin, 
and the beautiful play of iridescent blue over his body. 

As soon as the young fish was born the female swam away, 
but she was again vigorously and continuously attacked by the 
male until she again became quiet and gave birth to another fish. 
This one appeared tail first and was delivered with great dif- 
ficulty. The operation lasted eight minutes. During this time 
the female left her position repeatedly, but each time was driven 
back by the male, who exhibited the most intense excitement, 
except when the female became quiet and attended strictly to her 
business, at which time he also became quiet and refrained from 
any attack upon her. 

This female gave birth to 21 young fish, all but 2 coming into 
the world head first, which may be assumed as their normal 
manner of birth. The time consumed in the entire operation 
was twenty-five minutes. 

Within one hour after the young were born, the mother made 
a fierce attack upon her offspring and succeeded in catching 
and eating two. These were hard to catch, and I believe that in 



180 The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



an unconfined space they could almost always escape. The male 
took no part in this canibalistic feast. 

The female was then removed to a separate jar, and the male 
was left alone with the young for twenty-four hours without 
food. He showed absolutely no disposition to attack or eat the 
young, although he must have been very hungry. 

In old females the young shoot out without difficulty, and I 
have seen them give birth to five young in as many seconds. 
The first instinct of the young fish is to get away from the vicinity 
of its parents, but after swimming about for a few minutes, it 
settles upon the bottom or upon the leaves of the pond weeds 
to rest. 

COPULATION AND PERIOD OF GESTATION 

The following day (December 9, 1915) this male was again 
placed in the jar with this female. It was at once apparent 
that the relation between the two had entirely changed, for the 
female at once attacked the male and bit him viciously and 
chased him about the jar. The male very evidently was afraid 
of her. However, this did not prevent the male from making 
repeated successful attempts to copulate with the female. These 
attempts were always made by stealth and without the consent 
of the female. 

The exact method of copulation was as follows: The male 
would get behind and a little below the female ; then if she was 
not watching he would suddenly dart forward, at the same time 
turning forward the large modified anal fin, which functions 
as an intromittent organ, and would attempt to insert this organ 
in the cloaca of the female, who would at once turn and fiercely 
attack her would-be mate. These exchanges continued irreg- 
ularly for about three days and were gradually given over by the 
male. 

Eight weeks later (February 3, 1916) this female showed 
decided signs of pregnancy, and three weeks later (February 25, 
1916) the male was seen to be making passes at the female and 
biting at her lower abdomen. He seemed to have lost all fear 
of her, while apparently she sought only to escape. This change 
of attitude of the sexes seems to be an unfailing sign that the 
spawning time has arrived. In one hour this female gave birth 
to 48 young. The methods followed and the actions of the adult 
fish were the same as previously described for this pair of 
fish on December 8, 1915. This second spawning establishes the 
fact that the period of gestation for this species is not more than 
seventy-nine days. During this period this pair of fish ate 5,041 
mosquito larvse by actual count. 



XII, D, 3 



Seale: The Mosquito Fish 



181 



On April 6, 1916, forty-three days after the last spawning, 
this female gave birth to 49 young. 

During this spawning the male fish was removed to another 
jar. The young fish were born without difficulty and in record 
time. Therefore, while it might seem that the presence of the 
male was essential to the spawning, it is evidently not so. This 
female was kept under close observation for six months, during 
which time she gave birth to six broods of young as follows : 

Table I. — Number of young and dates of six broods of mosquito fish. 
Total, 233 fish in less than six months. 



Brood. 


Young. 


Date of birth. 


First 


21 
48 
49 
36 
40 
39 


Dec. 8, 1915. 
Feb. 25. 1916. 
Apr. 6, 1916. 
Apr. 27, 1916. 
May 30, 1916. 
June 23, 1916. 




Third 


Fourth 


Fifth 


Sixth 


Total 


233 







EMBRYOLOGY 

The embryology and morphology of the reproductive organs 
of the mosquito fish have been worked out by Kuntz, 3 and a brief 
summary of his paper follows. 

The ovary of Gambusia affinis is a paired tubular organ without a distinct 
median wall, which opens directly into the urogenital sinus. Each ovum is 
contained in a separate cellular follicle in which fertilization takes place 
and the embryo is developed. At the completion of development the ovarian 
follicles, which are attached to the central rachis by a slender stalk, are 
ruptured and the young fish are extruded directly through the urogenital 
aperture. 

The modified anal fin of the male, which functions as an intromittent 
organ, is controlled by a powerful muscle, which is inserted on the proximal 
end of the anal fin rays and has its origin on a bony process projecting 
ventrally from the fourth to the last abdominal vertebra, and the modified 
haemal spines of the first three caudal vertebras. The third, fourth, and 
fifth rays of the anal fin are enlarged, greatly elongated, curved, and bear 
short spines on the distal portion. The interhasmal, which articulates with 
the third ray, is enlarged and joins with the two anterior processes on which 
the muscles controlling the anal fin has its origin. 

The testis, like the ovary, is a paired tubular organ. The spermatozoa 
are contained in the spermatophores and are probably transmitted from the 
male to the female in these bodies. 

The formation of the blastoderm and the differentiation of the embryo 
take place in the manner that is quite typical for all the bony fishes. 

3 Kuntz, Albert, Bull. U. S. Bur. Fisheries (1913), 33, 181-189. 



182 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

As development advances, the ovarian follicles become highly vascular, 
increase in size, and fill with a transparent fluid in which the embryo is 
constantly bathed. This fluid is aerated by follicular circulation. The gills 
of the developing embryo become functional comparatively early. During 
the later stages of the intro-ovarian life, rythmatical breathing movements 
of the embryo can be observed. 

The young are born in an advanced stage of development and show nearly 
all of the diagnostic characters of the species. They undergo no marked 
metamorphic changes after birth. 

RATE OF GROWTH AND FEEDING HABITS OF THE MOSQUITO FISH 

The young fish when born is from 3 to 5 millimeters in length, 
is very active, and begins to feed soon after leaving the mother. 

From the brood of 21 fish, previously mentioned as born 
on December 8, 1915, two were selected and placed in balanced 
aquaria. Each of these measured 5 millimeters at the time 
and were 21 hours old. Ten very young mosquito larva? were 
selected by means of a pipette and placed in each aquarium with 
the young fish. I saw one of these fish, while less than a day 
old, catch and eat 8 of these mosquito larvae in less than five 
minutes. The next day 40 larva? were added to each aquarium. 
The fish were not able to handle the adult larval mosquitoes 
as yet, although one fish was observed to catch a big larva by its 
head, the larva? being fully as long as the fish. There was a 
fierce struggle in which the fish was thrown from side to side; 
however, it hung on and in the end succeeding in killing the 
larva. 

A careful count was made of all the mosquito larva? fed to 
each of the young fish, a net being placed over the aquaria so 
that should any of the mosquitoes become adult they could 
not escaped. 

On February 8, 1916, exactly two months after their birth, 
the fish were carefully measured. I was able to distinguish at 
this time that one was a male and the other a female. The 
male was 20 millimeters in length, the female was only 19 milli- 
meters. The male had gained 15 millimeters and the female 
but 14 millimeters during the first eight weeks of their life. 
During this period the male ate 886 mosquito larva? ; the female 
ate 825. 

Two weeks later, March 22, the male was 23 millimeters in 
length and had eaten 1,663 mosquito larvae. The female was 26 
millimeters in length and had eaten 1,547 mosquito larvae. 

When the fish were 10 weeks old, the male was placed in the 
aquarium with the female. He at once copulated with her. 



xii, d, 3 Seale: The Mosquito Fish 183 

She seemed greatly astonished and settled to the bottom, 
apparently to keep the male away, but he at once chased her 
and copulated with her repeatedly. After three hours the male 
was replaced in his own aquarium. 

Eighteen days later, April 8, the male died. At that time 
he was 4 months old, measured 25 millimeters in length, and 
had eaten 3,520 mosquito larvse. The young female at that 
date measured 33 millimeters and had eaten 3,929 mosquito 
larvae. This fish showed decided signs of pregnancy, and on 
April 21 she gave birth to six young, which completed the cycle 
and made the original female we started with a grandmother 
in the short period of four months and thirteen days. Thirty 
days is probably the normal period of gestation for this species, 
and it matures, sexually, in from three to five months. 

An experiment was made to ascertain the comparative value 
of the common goldfish and the mosquito fish in mosquito de- 
struction. A goldfish was placed in an aquarium that contained 
1 liter of water and 500 mosquito larva?, and an adult mosquito 
fish was placed in a similar aquarium containing the same 
amount of water and the same number of mosquito larvae. At 
the end of twelve hours the goldfish was dead and there were 
still left 273 larvae in its jar, the fish having eaten 227 larvae. 
The mosquito fish was still alive and well and at the end of 
twenty-four hours had eaten the entire 500 larvae and was ready 
for more. The chief difficulty in the use of goldfish lies in the 
fact that,, if they can get vegetation to eat, they neglect the 
mosquitoes. The mosquito fish not only will not feed on vege- 
tation, but actually prefer the mosquitoes as shown by the 
following experiment. 

Twenty live mosquito larvae were mixed with an equal number 
of larval water boatmen of about the same size as the larval 
mosquitoes and were fed to a pair of mosquito fish in aquarium 
A. All of the mosquito larvae were eaten greedily, while none 
of the water boatmen were eaten until eight hours later and it 
was the following day before all of them had been devoured. 
This experiment was repeated, using the young of dragon-flies 
and mosquito larvae. While the preference was not so marked 
in this case, it was quite evident that the mosquito larvae were 
the favorite food. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH MOSQUITO FISH UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS 

While the facts recorded in the previous pages may be inter- 
esting and illustrate what mosquito fish will do in aquaria, they 



184 The Philippine Journal of Science vsn 

cannot be regarded as conclusive, as the fish might act very 
differently under natural conditions. Therefore the following 
experiments conducted in open ponds are probably of greater 
value. 

Located near the Bureau of Science are five fresh-water ponds 
used for fish cultural work. They range in size from 2 by 12 
to 29 by 39 meters and from 0.5 to 1 meter in depth. Grass 
and sedges grow along the margins. 

Two hundred mosquito fish were placed in the large pond. 
This pond was already well stocked with adult black bass, Mi- 
crop terus salmonoides Linnaeus and also contained a number 
of native fishes, such as dalag (Ophiocephalus striatus Bloch) 
and ayungin (Therapon argenteus Cuvier and Valenciens). 
The object of the experiment was to ascertain if mosquito fish 
could maintain themselves and multiply in a body of water 
stocked with these voracious fishes. 

The results have been most satisfactory, for the mosquito 
fish not only maintained themselves and kept the pond free from 
mosquitoes, but during the past two years have increased to 
many thousands. Two thousand five hundred mosquito fish have 
been taken from this pond and planted in streams and swamps 
in the vicinity of Manila, without making any appreciable in- 
road on the supply. 

One of the small ponds, kept as a control without any mosquito 
fish, soon became infested with larvae. 

From the original stock of 24 mosquito fish, brought to Manila 
in 1912, the Bureau of Science has distributed over 7,610 mos- 
quito fish in the streams and swamps of the Philippines. While 
the fish are as yet too few to make any appreciable difference 
in the number of mosquitoes, there can be but little doubt that 
in a few years they will materially decrease the number of these 
pests and greatly assist in eliminating malaria from the Islands. 

SHORT REVIEWS OF THE LITERATURE ON MOSQUITO DESTRUCTION 
EXAMINED BY THE AUTHOR 

Howard, Leland Ossian. Notes on the mosquitoes of the United States 
giving some account of their structure and biology, with remarks on 
remedies. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. new. ser. (1900), No. 25. 
This publication gives an account of the structure, life histories, and 
distribution of the mosquitoes of the United States and Alaska. Various 
methods for the destruction of these pests are given. The author recom- 
mends the introduction of fishes into their breeding places. 
Idem. Mosquitoes; how they live; how they carry disease; how they are 
classified; how they may be destroyed. New York, McClure, Phillips 
& Co. (1902). 



xii, d, 3 Seale: The Mosquito Fish 185 

In this work Doctor Howard writes, "By far the most effective natural 
enemy of the mosquito larvae and pupae are fish." Among the fishes 
mentioned are top-minnows, sticklebacks, and sunfish. Regarding the mos- 
quito-fish (Gambusia affinis) he quotes Dr. H. F. Moore, of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, as follows : "It feeds largely on vegetable matter 
but also on insects." Moore is undoubtedly misinformed on this subject, as 
I have examined hundreds of stomachs of Gambusia affinis and have kept 
individuals of this species under close observation for more than two years, 
but have never seen the slightest indication that they would feed on vegeta- 
tion even under the starvation test. Doctor Howard also lists the western 
salamander (Diemytylus) , dragon-flies, predatory aquatic insects, and 
tadpoles as active enemies of the mosquito. 

Idem. Remedies and preventives against mosquitoes. Farm. Bull. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. (1911), No. 444. 

Gives a list of protective liquids and recommends: Oil of citronella, 1 
ounce; spirits of camphor, 1 ounce; oil of cedar, h ounce. This paper also 
gives methods of screening, smudging, and fumigating, recommending for 
this purpose pyrethrum powder. The irritation caused by the bite of the 
mosquito may be relieved by applying a cake of moist soap to the bite. In 
regard to the destruction of mosquito larvas by natural enemies, this paper 
contains the following statement: "The common goldfish and silverfish 
destroy mosquito larvae and should be put in artificial ponds. Top-minnows 
of several species have been introduced successfully in several localities and 
are great feeders upon mosquito larvae. Certain species introduced from 
Texas into Hawaii have been successful; and a small top-minnow of the 
genus Girardinus, known in the Barbados as 'millions,' has been carried 
with success to others of the British West India Islands. In Rio de Janeiro 
another top-minnow has been used by the public health service for placing 
in tanks and boxes where it was impossible to use petroleum." 
Idem. Some facts about malaria. Farm. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. (1911), 
No. 450'. 

Contains descriptions and figures of the malarial mosquitoes. Suggests 
that protection may be secured by the use of nets, by screening, and by the 
destruction of mosquitoes. Quininization of people in malarial districts is 
also suggested. 

Kuntz, Albert. Notes on the habits, morphology of the reproductive 
organs, and embryology of the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis. Bull. 
U. S. Bur. Fish. (1913), 33, Doc. No. 806. 
This is an excellent paper on the mosquito fish. 
LePrince, Joseph Albert Augustin. Impounded waters. A study of 
such waters on the Coosa River in Shelby, Chilton, Talladega, and Coosa 
Counties, Ala., to determine the extent to which they affect the pro- 
duction of anophelines, and of the particular conditions which increase 
or decrease their propagation. Reprint No. 257 from the U. S. Public 
Health Reports (1915), 30. 
A study of certain impounded waters in Alabama that were found to 
contain malarial and other mosquitoes. The debris, floating pine needles, 
branches, and logs were found to furnish resting and breeding places for the 
larvae of Anopheles. Regarding the destruction of these by natural enemies, 
LePrince states (p. 11) : "Where small top-feeding minnows are present in 
numbers in the absence of debris, the number of Anopheles larva? found at 



186 The Philippine Journal of Science xn, d, 3 

the sides of floating logs are few, and they are frequently absent in such 
localities. The scarcity of small fish in the lake during the present year is 
the reason why many larva? and pupas of Anopheles punctipennis were 
present at some of the inlets examined." This scarcity of top-minnows was 
due to the presence of large predatory fishes. In Shraders Mill Pond, which 
is well stocked with top-feeding minnows, but which otherwise is ideal for 
the production of mosquitoes, there being plenty of floating pine needles and 
debris, no mosquito larvae were found. "The top-feeding minnows were 
apparently able to dispose and did dispose of all larvae and prevented devel- 
opment of Anopheles in this area." (p. 9.) 

Idem. Control of malaria. Oiling as an antimosquito measure. Reprint 
No. 260 from the U. S. Public Health Reports (1915), 30. 
Comments on the value of oil as used in the fight against mosquitoes and 
says, "Oiling was largely used in maintaining the force of 50,000 men on the 
Isthmus of Panama sufficiently free from malaria to construct the canal." 
Ludlow, Clara Southmayd. Disease-bearing mosquitoes of North and 
Central America, the West Indies, and the Philippine Islands. Bull. 
U. S. Army Med. Dept. (1913), No. 4. [Imprint dated 1914.] 
This paper gives descriptions and figures of the mosquitoes found in the 
above regions. Certain desirable lines of investigation are suggested, and 
as a remedy for these pests, ditching, filling, cleaning, and larvicides are 
recommended. The introduction of mosquito fish (top-minnows) into ponds 
and open basins of water is urged. 

Ross, Edward Halford. The reduction of the domestic mosquitoes. In- 
structions for the use of municipalities, town councils, health officers, 
sanitary inspectors, and residents in warm climates. London, J. Mur- 
ray (1911). 
This writer gives the results of his experience gained as health officer at 
Port Said and in the Suez Canal district. The book contains valuable 
suggestions. 

Seal, William P. Fishes in their relation to the mosquito problem. Bull. 
U. S. Bur. Fish. (1910), 28, 831-38. 
This author advocates the use of several kinds of fishes, such as, top- 
minnows of several species, sunfish, goldfish, the roach, and the pirate perch. 
Regarding the mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, he says: "As a destroyer of 
Anopheles the writer has for several years advocated the use of Gambusia, 
affinis." [See also Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington (1911), 24, 91.] 
Sewell, R. B. Seymour, and Chaudhuri, B. L. Indian fish of proved 
utility as mosquito-destroyers. Calcutta, Printed by order of the 
Trustees of the Indian Museum . . . (1912). 
This paper gives a list of ten Indian fishes that are regarded as of value 
in the destruction of mosquito larvae. These fishes are of the following 
genera: Haplochilus, Lebias, Ambassis, Trichogaster, Badis, Anabas, Barbus, 
and Nuria. 

Stiles, Charles Wardell. Mosquitoes and malaria. Report on a short 
trip in eastern North Carolina. Reprint No. 217 from the U. S. Public 
Health Reports (1914), 29. 
An account of the locations in which malarial mosquitoes were found, with 
a list of the species collected. 



xii. d, 3 Seale: The Mosquito Fish 187 

Tower, Winthrop Vose. A study of mosquitoes in San Juan, Porto Rico. 
Circular Porto Rico Agr. Exp. Sta. (1912), No. 14. 
This paper gives a list of the mosquitoes of Porto Rico, their breeding 
places, the methods followed in mosquito work, and the ordinances recom- 
mended with the view of ridding the city of the pest. Ordinance D was as 
follows (p. 19) : "All water in fountains shall be treated with oil or with 
mosquito feeding fish." Regarding" the destruction of mosquitoes by natural 
enemies this paper states (p. 7) : "A number of fish have been under 
observation, being kept in a large tank. They are very fond of mosquito 
larva? and have been seen eating the egg masses of the common house 
mosquito of the Tropics. The presence of these fish in streams may account 
for the scarcity of the malarial bearing mosquitoes and therefore the small 
amount of malaria on the island." 

149052 6 



ILLUSTRATION 

TEXT FIGURE 

Fig. 1. Top-minnow, or mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). 
a, male; b, female. (Redrawn in the Bureau of Science from 
Press Bulletin No. 20, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, 
after the United States Fish Commission.) 

189 



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THE PHILIPPINE 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



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SEA PRODUCTS OF MINDANAO AND SULU, III: SPONGES, 
TORTOISE SHELL, CORALS, AND TREPANG 

By Alvin Seale 

{From the Section of Fisheries, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of 

Science, Manila) 

FOUR PLATES 

SPONGE FISHERIES 

There are several good sponge beds in the Sulu Archipelago, 
and as there has been but little prospecting for sponges, it 
is probable that many beds remain to be discovered among 
the numerous islands that constitute the southern part of the 
Philippine Islands. 

LOCATION OF THE PHILIPPINE SPONGE BEDS 

The Sitanki beds. — In 1907 two Americans, Messrs. Johnson 
and Byersdoff , discovered near Sitanki Island the first bed of com- 
mercial sponges known in the Philippine Islands. They shipped 
to markets in the United States and Europe about 3,000 kilo- 
grams of sponges. 

These beds are in shallow water and practically cover the 
great Sitanki reef. Several varieties of grass sponges are ex- 
ceedingly abundant on these beds, and a canoe load can be 
gathered in an hour. These are fragile and of little value. On 
the edge of the reef in deeper water a much better kind of sponge 
is found. This is a variety of wool sponge, which I have named 
the Sulu Sea bath sponge. It is a large, tough-fibered, coarse 
sponge and is unknown to the American trade, there being 
nothing like it on the Florida or the Bahama beds. It is ex- 
cellent for ordinary work about boats or stables and for persons 

149382 191 



192 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

who like a vigorous bath. I have found that it will outlast the 
ordinary Florida wool sponge for such uses. All of the sponges 
from these beds have been secured by wading or by employing 
naked Moro divers, who were not very familiar with sponges. 
It is probable that if these beds were properly prospected with 
a diving outfit sponges of greater value would be found. 

The Tawi Tawi beds. — The Tawi Tawi sponge beds are scat- 
tered over a wide area. The great majority of the numerous 
reefs and islets near Tawi Tawi Island have sponges of various 
kinds growing about them. The reef surrounding Tijitiji Islets 
and extending as far north as Bilatan is a prolific portion of 
this bed. At Banaran, Secundum, Latuan, Tundubas, South 
Ubian, and Kinapusan Islands some very good sheep's-wool 
sponges have been secured. The deeper waters about these 
islands have not been prospected with diving outfits. A spong- 
ing concession at Kinapusan Island was granted to Mr. Bruen 
for the Philippine Sponge Company in December, 1915. I have 
examined some excellent sheep's-wool sponges taken from this 
concession. A peculiar sheep's-wool sponge that is dark red on 
the inside is taken in the channel between Latuan and Manta-- 
buan Islands. 

Sponging operations on the Tawi Tawi beds consist in hiring 
Moros to wade over the reefs and gather shallow-water sponges 
in baskets. They are paid very little for their work, and most 
of the sponges they secure are fragile and of a very inferior 
grade. Sponges taken from deeper water are of much greater 
value. 

The Siasi beds. — The first genuine sheep's-wool sponge found 
in the Philippines was secured by me at Sitanki Island in 1907. 
Some years later this sponge was shown to Doctor Moore, sponge 
expert of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, and he pro- 
nounced it "an imported Florida wool sponge." More than 
1,000 kilograms of the same or a better grade of sheep's-wool 
were taken from the Philippine beds during 1915. Siasi is 
the operating center of the Philippine Sponge Company, of which 
Mr. McGrath, of Manila, is president. The field operations are 
directed by four Americans, who are without previous experience 
in sponging. They have expended about 25,000 pesos. 1 Their 
plant consists of storehouses, cleaning vats, corrals, boats, and 
wharf. They have exported 3,080 kilograms of sponges with a 
declared customs value of 43,000 pesos. 

1 One peso Philippine currency equals 100 centavcs, equals 50 cents 
United States currency. 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 193 

I understand that a large portion of these sponges were shallow- 
water varieties gathered by the Moros wading on the reef. A 
much better grade of sponges could be secured in water of from 
5 to 10 fathoms. An excellent grade of sheep's-wool sponge can 
be secured on the Siasi beds. 

Basilan beds. — There are extensive beds of elephant's-ear 
sponges on the reefs of Bihintinusa Island, south of Basilan; 
at Takela and Tengolan Islands; and near the lighthouse on 
Malamaui Island. There has been very little systematic pros- 
pecting of the Basilan sponge beds, and our knowledge of them 
is very fragmentary. 

Zamboanga beds. — The Zamboanga sponge beds were dis- 
covered by the Greek diver on the Bureau of Science sponge 
boat leased for a short time during the present investigation. 
This bed is in water from 5 to 20 fathoms deep and extends 
from near the mouth of Honda River seaward into deeper water, 
then northward to a point offshore from the constabulary 
quarters. The sponges on this bed are honeycomb wool of a 
good grade and a thick, tough elephant's-ear. This bed has 
never been worked and would repay exploitation. 

Sacol Island beds. — The Sacol Island beds, which are located 
in from 6 to 18 fathoms of water on the southwest side of Sacol 
Island, were discovered by a company of eight experienced 
Greek spongers, of which Mr. P. I. Pipinos is the head. This 
company has secured 800 kilograms of sponges from this bed, 
all of the, honeycomb wool variety and of excellent size and 
grade. 

VARIETIES AND VALUES OF PHILIPPINE SPONGES 

There are three well-marked classes of commercial sponges 
found in the Philippines. These are the wool, the grass, and 
the elephant's-ear. Of the wool sponges the following varieties 
occur : 

The sheep's-wool sponge. — This sponge (Plate II, fig. 4) is 
in every respect similar and equal to the well-known sheep's- 
wool sponge of Florida and grows to the same' size. I have 
examined specimens 20 centimeters in diameter, although the 
average size is much less. This sponge has a strong, soft, 
elastic fiber. It is found in large quantities on the Tawi Tawi 
and the Siasi beds and grows best in water of from 6 to 10 
fathoms. It is valued at from 10 to 30 pesos per kilogram. 

The honeycomb sponge. — The honeycomb sponge (Plate II, 
fig. 3) is a variety of wool sponge with a somewhat coarser fiber 
than the sheep's-wool and with the canals resembling honey- 



194 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

comb. It is a strong sponge and for ordinary use is very serv- 
iceable. It holds water well, is elastic, and is very durable. 
This sponge. is known only from the Sacol and the Zamboanga 
beds, where it is abundant in waters of from 6 to 18 fathoms. 
The experienced Greek spongers pronounced this an excellent 
sponge and have exported several hundred kilograms; quota- 
tions received were 5 pesos per kilogram. 

The Sulu Sea bath sponge. — The Sulu Sea bath sponge (Plate 
II, fig. 2) is another variety of the wool sponge. It has an 
extremely long, coarse fiber and is probably the most durable 
sponge found in Philippine waters. I have been using sponges 
of this kind for the last eight years and find them most satis- 
factory. This sponge is only known from the Sitanki beds. 
It is little known to the American trade, and I am unable to 
give any quotations of value. 

Philippine zimocca sponge. — There is considerable doubt as 
to the classification of the Philippine zimocca sponge (Plate II, 
fig. 5), which is unknown to the American trade. Some ex- 
perts say that it is intermediate between the wool and the grass 
sponges, while some experienced spongers say that it is most 
nearly related to the European zimocca. It is very tough and 
has a fine, closely knit fiber. It is usually flat and measures 
from 15 to 20 centimeters in diameter. It is found on the Tawi 
Tawi, the Sitanki, and the Siasi beds on rocky bottom and in 
shallow water. It is not very abundant; the only quotations 
received placed its value at from 6 to 10 pesos per kilogram. 

The following varieties of the grass sponge of commercial 
value occur in Philippine waters: 

The common grass sponge. — The common grass sponge (Plate 
II, fig. 6) is a soft-textured, moderately fragile, nicely shaped 
sponge from 20 to 30 centimeters in diameter. The best grades 
of this sponge are found in water of from 3 to 5 fathoms. It 
is common on the reefs of practically all the sponge beds. The 
best selected grades of this sponge are worth from 2 to 6 pesos 
per kilogram. , 

The Philippine reef sponge, or glove sponge. — This is a va- 
riety of grass sponge. It is a very soft and beautiful sponge, 
but unfortunately it is fragile and, therefore, can be used only 
a short time. It is. found in shallow water on almost all reefs 
in the Sulu Archipelago, It is of little commercial value. 

The Philippine silk sponge. — This is a small variety of grass 
sponge with a beautiful, soft, silky texture. It is usually from 
10 to 15 centimeters in diameter and may be the young of the 



xii, d, i Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 195 

common grass sponge. It is not so fragile as the ordinary reef 
sponge. 

Elephant' s-ear sponges. — Of the elephant's-ear, or cup, sponge 
there seem to be but two varieties in the Philippines. One of 
these is a very fragile, shallow-water form of very thin, rough 
texture, of white or greenish color, and of no value. The other is 
the genuine commercial elephant's-ear similar in all respects to 
the elephant's-ear found in the Mediterranean Sea. This sponge 
is pink when fresh from the water ; the walls are soft and very 
tough and are from 1 to 1.5 centimeters thick. The Valuable 
variety of elephant's-ear sponge is found only in water of from 
6 to 20 fathoms and is very common on the Basilan, the Zam- 
boanga, and the Sacol beds. It is also probably common on 
other beds, but no deep-water divers have yet prospected for 
it in other places. 

Mr. P. I. Pipinos, of the Greek Sponge Company operating 
from Zamboanga, who is an experienced Mediterranean sponge 
dealer, has cured and exported these sponges, and he pro- 
nounces them equal to the elephant's-ear of the Mediterranean. 
This sponge is practically unknown to the American trade. 
Mr. Pipinos gives its value at about 24 pesos per kilogram. The 
market is wholly European. 

This sponge is used for the most expensive grades of padding 
for helmets, racing saddles, etc. It is also used by glaziers in 
finishing their products. 

OCCURRENCE AND GROWTH OF SPONGES 

Commercial sponges in their natural state have very little 
resemblance to the cured and bleached specimens seen in the 
druggest's window. When first taken from the water, sponges 
are soft, slimy, irregular, and unattractive. In color they are 
black, brown, gray, or green. 

The living sponge is covered with a thin skin, and its body 
is traversed by irregular canals, which open to the surface by 
large pores. Usually there are many fragments of coral, shell, 
and other foreign material embedded in the sponge body. 

Sponges grow best on a sandy bottom that is well overgrow 
with eelgrass or algse. On a rocky bottom they are apt to be 
of poor shape. Sponges are hermaphroditic and reproduce 
by two methods: namely, by budding and sexually. After fer- 
tilization the eggs rapidly attain the free-swimming stage are 
expelled from the body, and are carried far and wide by the 
tides. After a short period they settle to the bottom, attach 



196 The Philippine Journal of Science 19" 

themselves to rocks or shells, and grow. A sponge attains 
marketable size within two or three years. 

Sponges have been successfully cultivated in several countries, 
the method being as follows: The sponge is held under sea 
water and with a sharp knife is cut into suitable pieces, usually 
from 5 to 10 centimeters square. It is best not to remove the 
sponge from the water at any time. The cuttings are strung 
on rattan, bamboo, or copper or tin wire, or are fastened to a 
smooth tile or to a cement base, and are replaced in a conven- 
ient bed in the sea and left to grow. They should be planted 
in the same depth of water as their original home, as sponges 
from deep water do not grow well in shallow water, and those 
from shallow water do not thrive in deep water. The Australian 
Government has experimented with sponge growing for six 
years with considerable success, and some experiments have been 
conducted by the United States Bureau of Fisheries on the 
Florida beds. 

METHODS OF CURING, GRADING, AND MARKETING SPONGES 

There are several methods of preparing sponges for the 
market, and the treatment must be adapted to the class of 
sponge; for example, the fragile grass sponge should not be 
given the same treatment as the tough Sulu Sea bath or the 
honeycomb sponge. 

The experienced Greek spongers, who conducted their work 
with a 5-ton boat equipped with diving outfit, air pump, and 
crew of six men, used the following method in handling their 
wool sponges : As soon as caught, the sponges were placed right 
side up on deck; after four or five hours they were trampled 
by the feet and strung on strong cords about 2 meters in length. 
These strings of sponges were hung over the sides of the boat 
in the water. As time would permit within the next twenty- 
four hours, a string at a time was taken on deck and squeezed 
and washed again, until the skin and other soft organic matter 
were removed. The clean sponges were hung in the rigging to 
dry, after which they were stored on board until the boat came 
in from her cruise. As soon as the sponges were landed, they 
were spread out in the warehouse and were carefully gone over 
one by one, all of them being beaten with a smooth, rounded club 
against a solid log to remove all shells, sand, and other foreign 
matter. The sponges were next passed to the trimmers, who 
trimmed them into good shapes with sheep shears. After this 



xii, d, 4 Seals: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 197 

the sponges were sorted into grade and sizes, thoroughly dried, 
baled into sacks, and stored until shipped. 

This method has the advantage that the sponges are allowed 
to remain in the water only a short time after being gathered 
and so are not rotted as is often the case when sponges are 
placed in corrals. The elephant's-ear sponges were treated in the 
same manner, but were not pounded and so required less time 
to clean. 

The common method of cleaning sponges — a necessary one 
where great quantities of sponges are handled — is as follows: 
The sponges are gathered and placed upright on shore until 
dead — from a few hours to a day usually being required. They 
are then placed in a bamboo corral, which is built in shallow 
water. The corral should have a bottom of bamboo, boards, or 
rocks to keep the sponges off the ground. The sides should be of 
stakes, wire net, or bamboo, so that the water can circulate 
freely over the sponges. The attendant must go over the sponges 
continually, squeezing out the dead matter and cleaning them. 
Some spongers leave the sponges in this corral two or three days, 
but I am convinced that this is too long and rots the tissues. 
The sponges should be cleaned as soon as possible. If they 
remain but a few hours in the water, so much the better for the 
sponges; in fact, the fragile reef and grass sponges should be 
washed out at once. If these instructions are followed, a more 
durable quality of grass sponge will result. When clean the 
sponges should be beaten with a smooth, rounded club, and all 
shell, coral, and sand should be removed. They should then be 
trimmed, sorted, graded, and thoroughly dried, after which they 
may be packed and shipped. Sponges should at all times be 
kept off the ground; otherwise they rot. They also heat and 
rot if left uncleaned in a boat for several days. A boat working 
more than one day distant from the corrals should follow the 
Greek method of curing on ship board. If sponges are left in 
water or are exposed to rain, they turn red or bright yellow and 
rot. Lack of care in handling and cleaning has gone far toward 
spoiling the American market for Philippine sponges, as can 
be seen by the following letter from a large wholesale house in 
Chicago ; 

The small silk sponge which is very close grain and soft is taken from 
water which is so shallow that the sponge falls to pieces when being 
bleached and is practically of no value. We also have something which 
looks like a Sheepswool sponge but it is not properly cleaned, the sponge 
life still remains in the sponge making it heavy. Now, if your people would 



198 The Philippine Journal of Science i9n 

fish in 20 or 30 feet of water, trim their sponges with shears until they 
are smooth all around, sort them into hales in accordance with size, packing 
goods about as follows: 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 10, 10 to 16 and 16 to 20 pieces to 
the pound and separate the different grades and varieties, we would then 
be able to handle them to much better advantage. Labor is quite an item 
on these goods over here but of course it would not amount to so much there. 

The whole perfect sponge is called a "form," those with crab 
holes and other imperfections are called "seconds," while cut 
pieces are known as "cuts." The sizes "are named from the 
number of pieces required to make up a pound, being "ones, twos, 
2-3, 3-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-16, 16-20." Rings through 
which the sponges are passed are sometimes used to determine 
the exact sizes. 

I would advise the following method in grading sponges, which 
is employed in the sponge fisheries of the United States: Sort 
as to kinds — these may be sheep's-wool, honeycomb wool, zimocca, 
Sulu Sea bath, grass, or elephant's-ear — and pack according to 
sizes. Select a reliable house to handle the goods in the American 
or foreign markets. There has been much complaint among the 
Philippine spongers that their goods are not handled in a satis- 
factory manner by American sponge houses, but it can scarcely 
be expected that an American sponge house with a large stock 
of Florida and Bahama sponges on hand will exert much effort 
in marketing Philippine sponges, unless there is some special 
reason for such exertion. 

RECENT SPONGING ACTIVITY 

During an inspection trip to the southern islands in December, 
1915, considerable new information regarding the Philippine 
sponge fisheries was secured. 

The Philippine Sponge Company had entered the field and 
expended about 20,000 pesos on a plant for the proper cleaning, 
curing, and storing of sponges, and had shipped 2,000 kilograms 
of sponges to the United States market — chiefly sheep's-wool. 

A company under the direction of Mr. Pipinos, an experienced 
sponger, was operating successfully with diving outfits in the 
waters near Zamboanga. In waters of from 10 to 14 fathoms 
it secured about 1,800 kilograms of an excellent grade of honey- 
comb and elephant's-ear sponges. Several individuals were en- 
gaged in gathering from the reefs quantities of shallow-water 
sponges of no great value. 

At the request of Governor Carpenter, a bill was drafted for 
the proper regulation and control of the sponge fisheries. This 
act was passed and became effective February 5, 1916. 



xn, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 199 

THIRD PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE. 

Fourth session. • ■ 

A. B. No. 1571. 

[No. 2584.] 

AN ACT REGULATING SPONGE FISHERIES IN THE PHILIPPINE 

ISLANDS. 

By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Philippine 
Legislature, that: 

Section 1. Except as provided in this Act, it shall be unlawful to fish, 
collect, or gather sponges from the sea bottom or reefs within a radius of 
three marine leagues from any land within the territorial limits of the 
Philippine Islands. 

Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Interior may grant concessions for the 
fishing for, collecting or gathering of sponges in any waters of the Philip- 
pine Islands, to the following: 

(a) Citizens of the United States or of the Philippine Islands. 

(b) Honorably discharged soldiers or sailors of the Army or Navy of the 
United States. 

(c) Corporations duly organized under the laws of the Philippine Islands. 

(d) Persons who have under and by virtue of the Treaty of Paris ac- 
quired the political rights of natives of the Philippine Islands. 

Sec. 3. All applications for concessions shall be made to the Secretary 
of the Interior and be accompanied by a description giving latitude and 
longitude indicated upon a chart of the region desired, the latest published 
charts of the United States Geodetic Survey being taken as the basis of the 
plot. Such applicants must take oath in proper form that the said area 
does not conflict" in any way with any concession already granted or oc- 
cupied. If the Secretary of the Interior should become satisfied of the 
financial responsibility of the applicant, the concession may be granted, 
subject to the proper erection and location of marks and buoys. All con- 
cessions must be marked at each corner with properly anchored buoys, and 
in shallow water, description of boundary marks must be submitted. 

All persons working under a concession or permit must at all times 
carry in their possession copy of such concession or permit ready to exhibit 
the same upon demand by any peace officer or other persons designated by 
the Secretary of the Interior to enforce the provisions of this Act. 

Sec. 4. The annual concession fee shall be twenty-five pesos per square 
kilometer. Concessions granted in accordance with this Act shall be for the 
sponging privilege exclusively, shall run for a period of not to exceed ten 
years, and shall not interfere with the free passage over the area under 
concession of boats or vessels, nor in any way prevent the unrestricted 
fishing, by other persons over the said area, for marine forms other than 
sponges : Provided, however, That, subject to confirmation by the Secretary 
of the Interior, the Director of Education or his authorized representatives 
may select from any concession, without charge, adequate areas of foreshore 
and waters for the cultivation of sponges or other marine forms for the 
purpose of any government school or schools located on or adjacent to any 
concession. 

Sec. 5. The Collector of Internal Revenue shall collect the fees and 
charges fixed by virtue of the provisions of this Act. The annual con- 



200 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

cession fees shall be due on the first of January of each year and, if 
tendered in quarterly installments, on or before the twentieth of January, 
April, July, and October, or on or before the last days of said months in 
remote provinces, in the discretion of the Collector of Internal Eevenue, 
shall be received without penalty; but any person first beginning to fish, 
collect, or gather sponges under a concession, shall pay the first quarterly 
installment before his concession shall be valid. If the fee due on any 
concession is not paid within the period in which the payment may be 
received without penalty, the amount of same shall be increased by ten 
per centum, the increment to be a part of the fee. Should the concession 
fee remain delinquent fifty days after the same becomes due, the concession 
shall be canceled, without prejudice to criminal proceedings against the 
delinquent concessionaire under section twelve hereof. 

Of the sums collected under and by virtue of this Act, twenty per centum 
shall accrue to the Insular Treasury and forty per centum to the province 
and municipality, respectively, in which the concession is located. In case 
a concession should be included within two or more provinces or munic- 
ipalities, the distribution between the different provinces and municipalities 
shall be made in proportion to the areas of the concession included within 
the respective municipalities and provinces as aforesaid. 

Sec. 6. A temporary written permit to prospect for sponges in any 
waters of the Philippine Islands, not under concession, may be granted by 
any provincial treasurer with the concurrence of and countersigned by 
the provincial governor, upon payment of a fee of five pesos. This 
temporary prospector's permit shall not be valid for a longer period of 
time than three months from date it is issued, and shall not be subject to 
renewal. Such permit may be issued to any person or corporation subject 
to the provisions of section two hereof. 

Under no circumstances shall more than fifty kilos of cleaned sponges 
be gathered under such temporary permit. Should any such temporary 
prospector's permits be found with defaced, erased, or illegible date of 
issue, they shall be taken up at once by the first peace officer who becomes 
aware of this fact. At the end of the period for which these temporary 
prospector's permits are issued, they shall be returned to the issuing treas- 
urers, who shall keep the same on file marked "canceled." 

Sec. 7. Holders of a sponge concession shall have the privilege of erect- 
ing the necessary plant for the development and exploitation of the sponge 
industry such as houses, drying racks, corrals, landings, etc., on the shore 
convenient to the concession for the proper curing of sponges: Provided, 
hovjever, That the previous approval of the Secretary of Commerce and 
Police should be had in accordance with the provisions of Act Numbered 
Sixteen hundred and fifty-four before erecting structures herein referred 
to. 

Sec. 8. All sponges shipped from the Philippine Islands shall be graded 
as to variety and size and such grades must be placed in separate sacks 
and truthfully marked. It shall be the duty of the Insular Collector of 
Customs to enforce the provisions of this section in accordance with rules 
and regulations issued under this Act. 

Sec. 9. Under penalty of the forfeiture of the concession and confis- 
cation by the Government of the entire shipment in which found, no com- 
mercial sponge of less than ten centimeters through any diameter shall be 
taken from the waters of the Philippine Islands except for purposes of 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 201 

sponge culture within Philippine waters. This penalty shall be imposed by 
the Secretary of the Interior after such investigation as he may deem 
necessary in each case, without prejudice to any punishment that may be 
imposed by the Court in accordance with the provisions of section twelve 
of this Act. 

Sec. 10. The Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to make and prescribe, and from time to time to change, such 
rules and regulations as may be required to carry out the provisions of 
this Act, other than those fixing the manner for the collection of the fees 
and charges prescribed hereunder, and otherwise to conserve and promote 
the sponge industry in the Philippine Islands. Such rules and regulations 
when approved by the Governor- General shall have the force of law and any 
violation thereof shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of 
this Act. 

Sec. 11. It is hereby prohibited and declared unlawful: 

(a) To transfer any concession or permit granted or issued under the 
provisions of this Act, except with the consent of the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

(6) To fish, collect, or gather any sponges growing on the sea bottom 
or reefs within the boundary of a concession occupied by another person, 
and granted under the provisions of this Act, or by a concessionaire outside 
the boundary of his concession. 

(c) To engage in the practice of "loading" or impregnating sponges 
with foreign substance of any sort or character whatsoever for the purpose 
of increasing the apparent weight of said sponges and thereby deceiving 
purchasers of said sponges as to their true weight. 

(d) To ship from or attempt to ship from the Philippine Islands any 
sponges taken from the waters thereof except through the Customhouse 
at one of the ports of entry of the Philippine Islands. 

(e) To possess Philippine commercial sponges, unless holding a con- 
cession or permit in accordance with this Act or a bill of sale traceable 
from a concessionaire. 

(/) To remove, deface, destroy, or in any way interfere with the location 
marks of any concession granted under the provisions of this Act. 

(g) To possess undersized sponges, or sponges less than ten centimeters 
through any diameter. 

(h) To take from the waters of the Philippine Islands any commercial 
sponge by the use of any dredge or "gaangara" except in waters of more 
than thirty fathoms in depth. 

Sec. 12. Any person violating the provisions of this Act or any regula- 
tions issued by the Secretary of the Interior as provided for in this Act 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty pesos and not more than 
five hundred pesos for each offense, or by imprisonment not exceeding six 
months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the 
court. 

In case any association or corporation shall violate or cause to be 
violated any provision of this Act, such association or corporation, upon 
conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred 
pesos and not more than one thousand pesos for each offense, and any 
person, member, or employee of any association or corporation who shall 
violate or cause to be violated any provision of this Act, or shall aid, abet, 
or assist in such violation, or shall voluntarily permit the same, upon 



202 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five hun- 
dred pesos for each offense, or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, 
or by both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 13. Violations of this Act may be prosecuted in any Court of First 
Instance of any province, but the court first lawfully taking cognizance 
thereof shall have jurisdiction of the same to the exclusion of all other 
courts. 

Sec. 14. The Governor-General may, by executive order, designate the 
Governor of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu to perform the duties 
and powers devolving upon the Secretary of the Interior under this Act 
within the territorial limits of said Department. 

Sec. 15. Act Numbered Two hundred nine of the former Legislative 
Council, entitled "An Act for the preservation and regulation of the 
sponge fisheries of the Moro Province, and for other purposes," is hereby 
repealed: Provided, however, That nothing in this Act provided shall be 
construed to impair any right or obligation acquired or imposed under the 
provisions of said Act numbered Two hundred nine for sponge concessions 
existing at the time of the passage of this Act 

All records carried by the Government of the Department of Mindanao 
and Sulu under the provisions of said Act Numbered Two hundred nine 
are hereby transferred to the office of the Secretary of the Interior. 

Sec. 16. The provisions of this Act shall not apply to persons gathering 
sponges outside of the limits of the concessions, provided the daily amount 
of sponges gathered by them does not exceed five kilograms. 

Sec. 17. This Act shall take effect on its passage. 

Enacted, February 4, 1916. 

TORTOISE SHELL FISHERIES 

Amount and value of the shell. — During 1914, 2,296 kilograms 
of tortoise shell, valued at 34,947 pesos, were exported from the 
Department of Mindanao and Sulu. The value of the shell de- 
pends largely upon the marking and ranges from 4 pesos per 
kilogram for the small shell to 167 pesos per kilogram for the 
first grade. It is sold by the catty, which is about equal to 1.4 
pounds or 0.63 kilogram. The style in tortoise shell changes 
frequently; just now dark shell with but few spots is preferred. 

Kinds of sea turtles. — There are three species of sea turtles 
that are of considerable commercial importance in the Philip- 
pines. These are the hawksbill, the loggerhead, and the green 
turtle. The hawksbill produces the thick tortoise shell of com- 
merce. This turtle has a hooked bill, and its back is made up of 
13 larger plates, which overlap each other, and 25 smaller plates, 
which form the margin. The loggerhead turtle also has a hooked 
bill, but is distinguished by having 15 plates on the back and 
27 around the margin. The flesh is usually tainted with a 
fishy odor. The green turtle has a straight bill, and the plates 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 203 

of the back are smooth and do not overlap. The green turtle 
is valued chiefly as food, the shell being thin and of no use ex- 
cept for veneer. Green turtles are very common, easily domes- 
ticated, and form a valuable food supply. In Spain an industry 
of importance consists of canning the meat and soup of the 
green turtle. Such an industry would be possible in Mindanao. 

Breeding places and habits of the sea turtles. — The small out- 
lying islands of the Sulu Archipelago, such as Bancoran, Lum- 
bucan, the Pearl Banks, and several islets near Sibutu, are 
famous turtle resorts. The turtles come ashore on the sandy 
beaches to deposit their eggs. At this time they are captured 
by the turtle hunters. On one small sandy islet I counted twenty- 
four heads of turtles that had been recently killed. 

The food of the hawksbill turtle consists almost exclusively 
of crabs, shrimps, and mollusks. A specimen that I kept 
in captivity for one year would not eat fish, dead or alive, under 
any condition. The green turtle will eat fish to a limited extent, 
but seems to prefer shellfish and sea weeds. The loggerhead 
lives exclusively on fish. 

The sea turtles thrive in captivity with but little attention. 
Many of the inclosed lagoons of the Sulu Sea would make ideal 
turtle farms. Some of the Moros in the vicinity of Siasi and 
South Ubian capture young turtles and confine them in corrals 
or in pens until they are adult. This plan could be easily enlarged 
upon by closing the entrance of a small lagoon, thus forming a 
turtle farm similar to the famous one on Ascension Island. 

Uses for tortoise shell. — The manufacturing of combs, jewel 
boxes, brush backs, and various ornaments from tortoise shell 
is an established industry in almost every civilized country. 
About 8,000 kilograms of tortoise shell valued at 100,000 pesos 
are gathered in the Philippine Islands each year. A manufac- 
turing establishment to use this supply of shell could be located 
at Zamboanga or Jolo. Such a factory would require but little 
capital, probably not over 5,000 pesos. The manufactured arti- 
cles would have free entry into the United States, thus avoiding 
the 50 per cent duty. 

At the present time practically all Philippine tortoise shell 
is shipped to Japan, where it is manufacture into combs 
and other articles, which pay 50 per cent duty into the United 
States and are sold at a profit. 

If private capital is not forthcoming for this work, it might 
be desirable to send an intelligent student to Japan to work in 
a tortoise-shell factory and learn the business. 



204 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

COMMERCIAL CORALS 

The most abundant coral in the Archipelago is the common 
Porites, or massive reef -building coral, that forms the greater 
portion of all reefs. Large blocks of this are sometimes used 
for building purposes ; it is also used in road making and is fre- 
quently burned for lime. 

Several other genera produce coral used for ornamental pur- 
poses, but this has little commercial value. Some of these are 
Prodobacia, which usually grows in the shape of a vase ; Herpe- 
tolitha, which resembles a pickle dish; Madrepora, which grows 
like a great mushroom with its head covered with a crown of 
spikes; Caeloria, the brain coral; Heliopora, the blue coral; and 
Tubipora, the beautiful red organ-pipe coral. Two or three 
small pieces of the precious red coral have been found in this 
Archipelago, but no systematic search for the bed has ever 
been made. 

The most valuable coral found in these waters is the black 
coral, Antipathes abies. This occurs in two forms; one, called 
hay ten by the Chinese, resembles a coiled wire and is un- 
branched, the other, called thie chew by the Chinese, is branched 
and when first taken from the water resembles a Christmas 
tree. It takes a beautiful polish and can be easily straightened 
by the use of dry heat. 

The black coral is found in great abundance directly in front 
of the town of Jolo in Jolo Channel. It is also found in many 
other places, especially near Siasi and Sitanki; the principal 
fishery, however, is at Jolo. 

There is a small local market for this coral after it has been 
made into canes, swagger sticks, and bracelets. China, however, 
is the principal market. The coral is usually cut into proper 
lengths for bracelets ; these are made into bundles, each contain- 
ing two dozen pieces. These bundles sell for 5 pesos each. The 
long sticks, which can be used for canes, sell at the rate of about 
24 pesos for thirty sticks. I believe a market for this black 
coral could be found in Japan or Europe. At present, the amount 
exported is unimportant. 

TREPANG FISHERIES 
LOCATION OP PRINCIPAL FISHERIES 

There is scarcely a reef or an island in the entire Sulu Archi- 
pelago where trepang (beche de mer) does not abound. 

The chief fisheries, however, are in the vicinity of Jolo, Siasi, 
Bongao, and Sitanki, not because there is more trepang near 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 205 

these islands, but because the Samals, or water Moros, who do 
most of the fishing, live near these places. There is more trepang 
in Davao Gulf than in any other place I have visited, but there 
is no trepang fishery at that place, because there are no fisher- 
men who understand the gathering and preparing of trepang. 

The revenues derived from the trepang fisheries could be con- 
siderably increased by the spread of a little information that 
would lead to the opening of additional fisheries and to the im- 
proving of the methods of preparation. 

This information could be disseminated in the most practical 
manner through certain schools. The students could be easily 
taught to recognize, cure, and market the various grades, thus 
providing a small income for themselves and at the same time 
improving the quality of the prepared grades of trepang. 

Trepang from the Philippine Islands is put on the market 
in the poorest condition and brings the lowest price of any tre- 
pang — almost a third lower than the price obtained for Celebes 
and Australian trepang, although the species are the same. The 
need for more careful preparation of this product is obvious. 

LOCAL NAMES, VARIETIES, AND VALUES OF TREPANG 

Trepang (Malay, tripang) is a commercial product consisting 
of the dried bodies of various species of echinoderms of the family 
Holothuriidse. The name is also applied to the living animal. 
Trepang is widely known under the name beche de mer. The 
English names for the animal are sea cucumber and cotton-spin- 
ner. The Moro name is hot. There are many other local names, 
such as balat, balatan, balate namaco, hi sam, and munsang. 2 

There are about sixteen principal varieties and forty-seven 
commercial grades in the Philippines. In color they range from 
white to black. Some are smooth ; others are covered with prick- 
les. In life their length is from 12.5 to 45 centimeters or more, 
but when dry they are seldom more than 20 centimeters in length 
and from 2.5 to 8 centimeters in diameter. When properly 
cured, they look like a bologna sausage and should be dry enough 
to "rattle like walnuts in a bag." 

Each species of commercial trepang is divided into three 
grades: namely, large (toa) , medium (tiong), and small (How), 
with their corresponding values. Thus the three grades of the 
oh nyeow are toa oh nyeow sam, valued at 150 pesos per picul; 
tiong oh nyeow sam, valued at 100 pesos per picul; and How oh 

2 A check list of Philippine holothurians will be found in This Journal, 
Sec. D (1911), 6, 312. 



206 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

nyeow sam, valued at 75 pesos per picul. The following com- 
mercial varieties and grades are recognized by the merchants 
in Zamboanga and Jolo: 

Oh nyeow sam (Plate IV, fig. 1). — Great black trepang, hot 
uac of the Zamboanga Moros. This is a large, comparatively 
smooth trepang, without prickles or teats. When dry, large 
specimens measure from 15 to 20 centimeters in length by about 
7 centimeters in diameter. They are found on sandy bottoms 
near reefs in water 15 fathoms or less in depth. This is the 
most valuable of all Philippine trepang, selling for as much as 
1.50 pesos for a single specimen. 

Thang nyeow sam, {Plate IV, fig. 3). — Sandy-bellied black tre- 
pang, hot calang. This trepang resembles the oh nyeow sam, 
but is easily distinguished by the fact that the belly is roughened 
as if covered with coarse black sand ; the back is also more cor- 
rugated and the body more nearly oval than the oh nyeow sam. 
This species is found in' shallow water near reefs throughout the 
Archipelago. It prefers a sandy bottom. The following prices 
are paid for this trepang: Large (toa), 90 pesos per picul; me- 
dium (tiong), 75 pesos per picul; and small (Kow), 50 pesos 
per picul. 

Buoy hwah sam {Plate IV, fig. 2). — Long-prickled trepang, 
hot calang. It is almost impossible to distinguish this form 
from the che sam, except that it is smaller and the prickles, 
which cover the entire body except the belly, are longer. The 
body when dry is black, the prickles are long, and there may be 
from three to five prickles from one base. The dry specimen 
is from 4 to 14 centimeters long. This ranks second in value 
among Philippine trepang, being worth as much as 1 peso a 
specimen. The following values are quoted for the different 
grades : Large, 120 pesos per picul ; medium, 70 pesos per picul ; 
small, 50 pesos per picul. 

Gan sam (Plate IV, fig. 4). — Great teat trepang, or great oval 
brown trepang, hot bato. This is one of the commonest Phil- 
ippine trepang. It is easily distinguished by the two rows of 
teats on each side of the body. The body wall of this species is 
very thick. ■ The adults are from 11 to 18 centimeters in length. 
They live in water from 1 to 10 meters in depth and are most 
often found among scattered rocks on a sandy bottom. The ani- 
mals of this variety are always split open, and cross sticks are 
inserted to facilitate the drying. The large size sells for 70 
pesos per picul ; medium, 50 pesos per picul ; small, 35 pesos per 
picul. 

Oe sam (Plate IV, fig. 5). — Great smooth black trepang, hot 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 207 

longa, hot hunas. This is a rather common form of trepang 
throughout the Archipelago. It is black, and the skin is smooth, 
without teats or prickles. It is more pointed and oval than the 
oh nyeow sam, which it most nearly resembles. The length of 
the dried adult is from 5 to 11 centimeters. It is found in com- 
paratively shallow water near the shore on a sandy bottom. 
In Manila this species is quoted as being the most desirable of 
all the trepang; the price paid, however, will scarcely bear this 
out. The large size is valued at 45 pesos per picul; medium, 
30 pesos per picul ; small, 18 pesos per picul. 

Che sam (Plate IV, fig. 7) . — Great prickle trepang, moi whar 
che, hot ista. This trepang closely resembles the buoy hwoh sam,' 
but is considerably larger. It is uniform black when dry, and 
with the exception of the belly it is entirely covered with long 
prickles. This is a common form and is found in shallow water 
near reefs, usually on a sandy bottom. The adults, when dry, 
are from 6 to 19 centimeters long. In life this species is more 
or less pink. Its maximum length is about 46 centimeters. It 
is distinguished by the long prickles, which cover the back and 
sides and are frequently joined at the base, forming starlike 
rosettes with from three to five points. Only the most ex- 
perienced traders can distinguish between this form and the 
expensive buoy huah sam ; therefore trepang with the long black 
prickles is usually classed as che sam, the value of which is as 
follows: Large, 45 pesos per picul; medium, 30 pesos per picul; 
small, 20 pesos per picul. 

Ang thoot sam (Plate IV, fig. 6). — Smooth red trepang, hot 
bantaivan. This is a small, very smooth dull red trepang. It is 
from 3 to 10 centimeters long. It is very common in shallow 
water and commands the following prices: Large, 30 pesos per 
picul ; medium, 20 pesos per picul ; small, 15 pesos per picul. 

Peh thoot sam (Plate IV, fig. 18). — White trepang. While 
this form is of little value, it is important because of its abun- 
dance. It lives in shallow water and is gathered by men wading 
along the reef. It is from 3 to 9 centimeters long and uniform 
white when dry. Its value is from 7 to 18 pesos per picul. 

Twa bing thoot sam (Plate IV, fig. 15). — Brown and white 
trepang. This trepang is found in very shallow water along the 
reef. It is of medium size — from 3 to 11 centimeters long — and 
is valued at from 10 to 20 pesos per picul. 

Bing thoot sam (Plate IV, fig. 16). — Red and white trepang. 
This small trepang is rather smooth with a slight trace of red; 
its length is from 2 to 9 centimeters. It is found in shallow 
water. Its value is from 7 to 14 pesos per picul. 

149382 2 



208 The Philippine Journal of Science nn 

Bah sam, or che bah sam (Plate IV, fig. 8). — The convoluted 
trepang, hot gamat. This form is light brown, of moderate 
size, and greatly convoluted when dry. It is found in shallow 
water and is of comparatively little value, being worth only from 
10 to 12 pesos per picul. 

Choo bah sam (Plate IV, fig. 12). — Also called bot gamat. 
This is a third-class trepang with the skin considerably rough- 
ened with spicules. It is of medium size, light brown below, 
darker above, and is valued at from 7 to 16 pesos per picul, 
depending chiefly upon the size. 

An tiow sam (Plate IV, fig. 11). — This is a name often applied 
to all of the third-grade trepang and includes a number of spe- 
cies. The name, however, is more properly applied to the rough, 
spiculate brown trepang shown in figs. 10 and 12. This species 
is very common and is often used to adulterate the shipments of 
better grades of trepang. Its value is from 8 to 9 pesos per 
picul. 

Thoot sam (Plate IV, fig. 13) . — The skin of the thoot sam is 
white and is covered with numerous chalky spicules. It is a 
common shallow-water trepang of the third class and is valued 
at about 10 pesos per picul. 

Thoot ah sam (Plate IV, fig. 1U). — This is a very small tre- 
pang ; it is dark or brown above and white below. It is common 
on almost all reefs in the Sulu Sea and is valued at 8 pesos per 
picul. 

Thang sam (Plate IV, fig. 9). — Bot jadish. This is a long 
black trepang, of little value because of its thin body walls. It 
is used chiefly to adulterate shipments of better grades. It is 
a very common shallow-water form, valued at from 6 to 10 pesos 
per picul. 

METHODS OF PREPARING TREPANG 

Trepang are gathered at low tide. The fisherman usually 
walks along the reef, carrying a single-pronged spear with which 
he transfixes the animals. In deeper water it is necessary to 
dive for them. The best grades are usually in water from 3.5 
to 6 meters deep or even deeper. In some places small dredges 
could be operated with advantage. 

After the trepang are gathered, they are taken to the curing 
station and cared for promptly; otherwise they become a blub- 
bery, unsavory mess within a few hours. They are first placed 
in a pot or caldron of water (an oil tin would answer the purpose) 
and boiled for twenty minutes (some require less time). When 
taken out of the boiling water, they should be hard and elastic 



xii, d, 4 Seale: Sea Products of Mindanao and Sulu 209 

and should dry quickly like a hard-boiled egg. They are slit 
open with a sharp-pointed knife, and the entrails are removed. 3 
They are next placed in the sun and left until almost dry and 
then transferred to a smoke house 4 and smoked for about twenty- 
four hours. The smoked trepang are spread on a mat in the 
sun until perfectly dry. Finally they are packed in bags. Tre- 
pang are prone to collect moisture, and if kept for three or four 
weeks they must be again spread out and dried in the sun to 
prevent molding. I found that if a small amount of sulphur 
was burned in the smoke house a short time before the smoking 
process was finished it prevented this mold from making its 
appearance for a long time. However, we have yet to learn if 
the slight sulphur flavor would affect the price. 

Numerous complaints have been received from Hongkong and 
Singapore dealers that the Philippine trepang was not well pre- 
pared and that it was for the most part a third-grade product, 
which brought a third-grade price. The remedy for this lies 
in following the instructions given above and in securing more 
of the better varieties of trepang. The Moros do not exercise 
enough care in curing this product, and as the better varieties 
are in deep water and more difficult to collect, they are content 
to gather such trepang as come easily to hand. The Moros cure 
the trepang by drying and smoking it on a stick thrust through 
the body of the animal. When scarcely more than half cured, 
it is offered for sale. 

A wholesome soup can be prepared from trepang as follows: 
Clean, wash, and mince fine ; soak in cold water five hours ; boil 
for one hour ; add salt, pepper, butter, and some beef or chicken 
stock. Serve hot or iced. 

HABITS AND FOOD OF TREPANG AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF CULTIVATING THEM 

Trepang are very sedentary animals, moving very slowly and 
for but short distances. Some species prefer the lagoons 
of coral reefs, others live on the sandy bottom just outside the 
reef, while a few kinds are found only in deep water. The food 
of the trepang consists of small larvae and animals, chiefly Foram- 
inifera, or of sea plants, which it abstracts from the prodi- 
gious quantity of sand that passes through its alimentary 
canal. Some species secure in this manner great quantities of 

3 Small trepang are seldom gutted in the Philippines. 

4 A packing box, a barrel, or a smoke house made with mat sides will 
answer the purpose. The trepang must be placed at a distance from the 
fire, which should never burn brightly but simply smoulder. 



210 The Philippine Journal of Science 

larval Crustacea. The tufted arms, or tentacles, are constantly- 
gathering food, which is thrust into the mouth of the animal. 

The animal becomes of adult size in two years. It spawns 
in its third year. Some specimens, which I believed to be but 
two years old, contained many eggs. The young animals are 
white and transparent. They attach themselves to roots of sea 
plants or seek the safety of rocky crevices. I have found quan- 
tities of the young under rocks near shore. 

The Japanese make use of this habit of the young in their 
sea farming by .placing convenient rock piles in shallow water 
in order to attract the young. Japan has also set aside certain 
localities as breeding reserves for trepang, and in this way they 
conserve this valued sea product. 

Considering that certain of these trepang are valued at more 
than 1.50 pesos each, that they can be grown on a comparatively 
restricted area of the reef, and that they are ready for the market 
in two years, it is rather surprising that no work on the culti- 
vation of some of the best varieties has been undertaken. The 
trepang exported from the Department of Mindanao and Sulu 
during 1913 weighed 90,786 kilograms, valued at 35,107 pesos. 
During the first four months of 1914 there were exported 48,502 
kilograms, valued at 15,626 pesos. This amount could be at 
least doubled by a little systematic work. 

Australia exports trepang valued at 300,000 pesos each year. 
Japan consumes a large part of her own supply and exports 
90,000 pesos' worth of trepang. The Philippine Islands, which 
occupy the most favorable position and have hundreds of miles 
of reef with an abundance of trepang, fall far below either Aus- 
tralia or Japan in their production of prepared trepang. There 
is an opportunity for canning and packing companies to enter 
this field and to supply trepang soup to the unlimited market 
of China. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Map, showing the location of sponge beds of Mindanao and Sulu. (Drawn 
in the Bureau of Science from Coast and Geodetic Survey charts 4200 
and 4722.) 

Plate II. Philippine Sponges 

Fig. 1. Elephant's-ear sponge. 

2. Sulu Sea bath sponge. 

3. Honeycomb sponge. 

4. Sheep's- wool sponge. 

5. Philippine zimocca sponge. 

6. Grass sponge. 

Plate III. Three Species of Philippine Turtles 

Fig. 1. Head of the loggerhead turtle (Thalassochelys caretta Linn.). 

2. Carapace of the loggerhead turtle. 

3. Head of the hawksbill turtle (Chelone imbricata Linn.). 

4. Carapace of the hawksbill turtle. 

5. Head of the green turtle (Chelone mydas Linn.). 

6. Carapace of the green turtle. 

Plate IV. Philippine Commercial Trepang 

Fig. 1. Oh nyeow sam; great black trepang. 

2. Buoy hwah sam; long-prickled trepang. 

3. Thang nyeow sam; sandy-bellied black trepang. 

4. Gan sam; great teat trepang, or oval brown trepang. 

5. Oe sam; great smooth black trepang. 

6. Ang thoot sam; smooth red trepang. 

7. Che sam, or moi whar che; great prickled trepang. 

8. Bah sam, or che bah sam; convoluted trepang. 

9. Thang sam; long black trepang. \i 

10. Choo bah sam; brown trepang. 

11. An tiow sam; spiculated trepang. 

12. Choo bah sam; brown trepang. 

13. Thoot sam; white spiculated trepang. 

14. Thoot ah sam; common trepang. 

15. Twa bing thoot sam; brown and white trepang. 

16. Bing thoot sam; red and white trepang. 

17. Liow thoot ah sam; yellow and brown trepang. 

18. Peh thoot sam; white trepang. 

211 








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Seale: Sponges, etc., of Mindanao and Sulu.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 4. 




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Fig. 1. Elephant's-ear sponge. 2. Sulu Sea bath sponge. 3. Honeycomb sponge. 4. Sheep's-wool 
sponge. 5. Philippine zimocca sponge. 6. Grass sponge. 

PLATE II. 



Seale : Sponges, etc., of Mindanao and Sulu.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 4. 




I I : l I: i hi- 



PLATE !V. PHILIPPINE COMMERCIAL TREPANG. 



A PHILIPPINE APHRASTOBRACON 

By C. F. Baker 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines) 

In 1896 * W. H. Ashmead described a very remarkable hymen- 
opterous parasite of the family Braconidae, from Ceylon, under 
the name Aphrastobracon flavipennis. It had been bred by Mr. 
E. E. Green from a culture of a lac insect, Tachardia albizzise, 
but probably came from a lepidopterous insect feeding on the 
Tachardia. In the structure of the head and the submedian cell 
in the wings it differed from all known members of this family, 
and as a consequence, Ashmead founded for it not only a new 
genus, but a new tribe in the subfamily Braconinse. Briefly it 
is a cyclostomatous braconid with immargined occiput, having 
a linear face, greatly enlarged eyes but small ocelli, and the sub- 
median cell much shorter than the median on the median vein. 

Among the Rhogadinae of the Philippine Islands there are sev- 
eral genera related to Gyroneuron of Kokujew, described 2 from 
Assam, all of which present remarkable venational characters, 
accompanied by other unique structural details. Had Ashmead 
known Gyroneuron, he would not have passed without remark 
certain very similar venational features in Aphrastobracon. On 
account of this unique venation, I had accidentally placed a fine 
Philippine representative of Aphrastobracon with the Rhogadinae, 
from which, however, it is excluded by the immargined occiput. 
Even from Ashmead's very incomplete description it is apparent 
that the Philippine species is entirely distinct from Aphrasto- 
bracon flavipennis. 

Aphrastobracon philippinensis sp. nov. 

Thorax and legs pale ochraceous, abdomen sordid ochraceous; 
antenna? brownish black, paler apically. Wings faintly smoky, 
base of first cubital cell dark smoky, the costa above it black- 
spotted; veins pale ochraceous, paler on distal half of wing. 
Body clothed with whitish pubescence, heavier on legs, abdominal 
dorsum, and costa. 

Male. — Head cubical, viewed from above with eyes little bulging 

'Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1895), 18, 646. 
2 Rev. Russe Ent. (1901), 1, 232. 

213 



214 The Philippine Journal of Science mi 

beyond the head outline, but deeply entering the head, the 
distance between them at the ocelli about equaling the length of 
cheek margin behind eyes; vertex behind ocelli broadly convex, 
smooth and shining, the distance from ocelli to occipital margin 
being about twice the shortest distance between eyes; ocelli 
small, distance between the two posterior a little less than dis- 
tance from them to eyes; anterior ocellus remote from the two 
others, separated from them by twice the distance between eyes 
and posterior ocelli; surface between ocelli and eyes with very. 
shallow wrinkles. 

Face very narrow at middle, the outline that of a dumb-bell, 
broadened above by the deeply emarginated eyes, the width at 
antennas and at clypeal margin being nearly twice that at the 
middle ; surface with a short, poorly defined median carina below 
antennas, and throughout finely, obscurely, irregularly rugose; 
clypeus narrowly semilunate, the clypeal pits separated from the 
eyes by their own diameter ; mouth opening subcircular. 

Head as viewed from side with margin of face parallel to 
eye margin ; malar space nearly obsolete ; cheek about one fourth 
as wide as the greatest eye diameter, its outer margin parallel 
to eye margin; eye very large, short subelliptical, broadest on 
lower half; third and fourth joints of maxillary palpi long, 
subequal. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobed, smooth and shining, the notauli 
deeply impressed anteriorly, noncrenulate, and running straight 
backward to lateral angles of scutellum; posteromedian area 
broadly, evenly, shallow depressed. Scutellum triangular, large, 
evenly convex, smooth and shining.; anteriorly^ with a deeply 
impressed, straight-margined, transverse, crenulate groove. 
Metanotum smooth and shining; spiracle large, subcircular, 
raised on a slight prominence, the surface before it slightly de- 
pressed, beneath it a fine, slightly impressed, longitudinal fur- 
row. Pleura smooth and shining, the mesopleura without discal 
impressions; a deep furrow separating pro- and mesopleura 
above. 

Abdomen sessile, longer than head and thorax together, 
spindle-shaped, broadest at fourth segment, seven segments being 
fully exposed; first segment a half longer than wide at apex, 
the second, the third, and the fourth subequal in length and a 
little shorter than the first; the second as long as wide at apex, 
the remainder wider than long; midlateral arese of first and 
second segments with broad, shallow, longitudinal impressions, 
these being parallel with outer margins of segments, and leaving 
subtriangular, median, raised arese ; there are rudiments of such 



xii, d, 4 Baker: Philippine Aphrastobracon 215 

impressions at lateral bases of third and fourth segments; the 
impressions on first and second segments are centrally, minutely 
carinate, and those on second, third, and fourth are minutely, 
irregularly rugose within; remainder of surface of all tergites 
smooth and shining ; first suture normal ; second suture medially, 
deeply impressed and crenulate obsolete at sides; a crenulate 
transverse groove occurs some distance behind the normal third 
suture ; fourth suture impressed and crenulate. Hind tibise with 
two stout, straight, pubescent spines, the inner a little the longer. 

Wing surface very uneven by reason of several sharp folds 
in its membrane, one passing through median cell into second 
discoidal and another thence along cubitus. Stigma very large, 
broad, broadly rounded below, four times as long as wide, the 
radius inserted nearly at center. First abscissa of radius a 
little less than half the length of second; second cubital cell 
nearly three times as long as wide, a little narrowed apically, 
the first transverse cubital vein straight and very oblique, the 
second vertical and decolored; recurrent vein inserted near apex 
of first cubital cell, the intervening vein decolored ; first abscissa 
of cubitus very strongly upcurved, making the first cubital cell 
very narrow. The transverse median vein is very oblique and 
is carried proximad to a distance before the basal vein equal to 
the apical width of median cell, the intervening portion of me- 
dian vein and the postmedian vein greatly enlarged, the latter 
strongly curved ; the second discoidal cell is thus of unusual size, 
twice as long as wide, long oval in outline, and broadly rounded 
apically; the parallel vein is interstitial, the juncture of the 
veins being greatly enlarged; the posterior vein, also, is un- 
usually heavy. 

Length, 7 millimeters. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

This new species differs from Aphrastobracon flavipennis 
Ashmead in the greater size, scape two times as long as wide 
(three times in flavipennis) ; flagellar joints longer than wide 
("wider than long" in flavipennis) ; face more coarsely sculp- 
tured ("finely shagreened" in flavipennis) ; and wings black- 
spotted at middle of fore margin (not so in flavipennis) . Doubt- 
less more fundamentally important differences will be recognized 
when A. flavipennis shall have been properly described. 



A NEW GENUS OF DERBID^E FROM BORNEO 



By Frederick Muir 
(Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Honolulu, Hawaii) 

ONE TEXT FIGURE 

Genus MONOCHORHYNCHUS novum 

Head narrower than thorax; vertex quadrate, width of base 
greater than length, apex about half of base, base obtuse-angu- 
larly emarginate, carinas along base and sides fading out toward 
apex, basal area depressed, rising to apex, elevation at base of face 
making apex look angular; face narrow, lateral carinas nearly- 
touching in middle, basal half with lateral carinas small and a 
fine median suture except at base 
where face is subtumid, apical half 
of face with deep lateral carinas; 
clypeus much longer than face, 
strongly tricarinate ; rostrum as long 
as clypeus, reaching to beyond the 
middle of abdomen, last segment 
short, greatly enlarged at apex so that 
it forms a suckerlike pad; eyes reni- 
form, not reaching beyond the middle 
of the face; antennas about half the 
length of face, terete, second joint 
slightly diminishing at base, flagellum 
at apex. Pronotum deeply and an- 
gularly emarginate on hind margin; 
mesonotum longer than broad, later- 
al angles behind middle, tricarinate, 
the lateral carinas being sutures with 
fine carinas on the outer edge. Teg- 
mina with six median sectors, the third furcate; cubitus with 
two veins with the first median sector approximate; clavus 
small, open. 

The tegmen in this genus is similar to that in Paraprontista, 
to which genus it is related, but the vertex, the face, and the 
apical joint of rostrum easily distinguish the two genera. 

Type, Monochorhynchus wahri Muir. 

217 




Fig. 1. Monochorhynchus wahri g. et 
sp. nov., a, face, front view ; b, 
vertex and pronotum, dorsal view ; 
c, genitalia, lateral view ; d, ros- 
trum, lateral view. 



218 The Philippine Journal of Science 

Monochorhynchus wahri sp. no v. 

Male. — Light brown, darker between carinse of mesonotum, 
across lateral portions of pronotum, end of rostrum, and over 
abdominal tergites. Tegmina hyaline, slightly tinged with 
brown, clearer spots on basal half along costal and radial cells; 
wings half the length of tegmina, hyaline with brown veins. 

Pygophor very short, ventral edge slightly and angularly 
produced to middle; anal segment longer than wide, anus near 
base, lateral margins gradually converging beyond anus to the 
rounded apex; genital style subquadrate, apex wider than base, 
dorsal edge with a small rim, dorsoapical corner forming a small, 
round knob with a small spine on it, apical edge with two small, 
strong spines on the inner margin. 

Length, 4.3 millimeters; tegmen, 10.5. 

Female unknown. 

Borneo {J.E.A. Wahr) . Type, No. 13123, Bureau of Science 
collection. 



ILLUSTRATION 

TEXT FIGURE 

Fig. 1. Monochorhynchus ivahri g. et sp. nov., a, face, front view; b, vertex 
and pronotum, dorsal view; c, genitalia, lateral view; d, rostrum, 
lateral view. 

219 



NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF TERMITES FROM LUZON, 
OBTAINED BY R. C. MCGREGOR 

By Masamitsu Oshima 
(Of the Government Institute of Science, Formosa) 

ONE TEXT FIGURE 

In 1916 Mr. R. C. McGregor, of the Bureau of Science, Manila, 
made a small collection of termites in and near Manila, Luzon, 
which he very kindly forwarded to me for examination. In the 
present paper is given a record of this collection, with descrip- 
tions of three new species : namely, Calotermes malatensis, Euter- 
mes luzonensis, and Eutermes balintaitacensis. 

Calotermes (Neotermes) malatensis sp. nov. 

Imago. — Head reddish brown, pronotum, labial palpi, and an- 
tennae somewhat paler; mesonotum, metanotum, and abdominal 
tergites yellowish brown ; legs pale yellowish brown. Head spar- 
ingly pilose; long spiny hairs mingled with shorter ones on the 
pronotum; abdominal tergites beset with delicate hairs and pro- 
vided with a series of long spiny hairs. 

Head round; antennse 19-jointed, second joint nearly as long 
as third, fourth joint shorter than third; eye large, prominent; 
ocellus in contact with eye; postclypeus indistinctly separated 
from forehead ; anteclypeus trapezoidal, its anterior border nearly 
straight; labrum tongue-shaped, slightly longer than broad; 
pronotum quadrilateral, vaulted above, anterior border nearly 
straight, posterior border arcuate and slightly curved at middle, 
anterolateral corners depressed; mesonotum and metanotum 
narrower than pronotum, their posterior borders nearly straight ; 
anterior wing stumps very much larger than the posterior, reach- 
ing beyond the middle of the latter ; wings hyaline, veins yellowish 
brown ; subcostal nerve of the anterior wing short, radius reach- 
ing to the basal third of costal margin, radius sector with 
six branches, median nerve runs near and parallel to the former, 
bending slightly at the base, cubitus reaches to tip of wing, with 
about ten branches, of which the proximal six are stronger ; sub- 
costal nerve absent in the posterior wing, radius reaching to 
the costal margin beyond the middle, radius sector with four 

221 



222 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

branches ; median nerve starts from the middle of radius, cubitus 
with about nine branches. 

mm. 

Length of body with wings 15.50 

Length of body without wings 7.50-9.00 

Length of anterior wing 11.00 • 

Length of head 1.56 

Width of head 1.50 

Width of pronotum 1.78-1.87 

Length of pronotum 1.09-1.18 

Soldier. — Head reddish brown; anteclypeus yellow; antennae 
reddish brown, paler anteriorly ; mandibles blackish brown ; pro- 
notum pale yellow ; mesonotum, metanotum, and abdomen straw- 
colored, the latter mottled with milky spots. Head sparingly 
pilose; sternites moderately pilose; on the abdominal tergites 
long spiny hairs mingled with shorter hairs. 

Head cylindrical, sides slightly converging anteriorly, posterior 
border rounded ; antennas 15-jointed, second joint incurved, cone- 
shaped, and nearly as long as third, fourth 
and fifth joints subequal, much shorter than 
third; upper border of antennal fossa pro- 
jecting laterally, overhanging the proximal 
joint of antennae; rudimentary eye oVal, 
situated behind the antennal fossa; no fon- 
tanels ; postclypeus not separated from fore- 
head, a series of spiny hairs along its 
anterior border; anteclypeus quadrilateral, 

Fig. 1. Calotermes mala- 

tensis sp. nov., soldier's anterolateral corners rounded ; labrum 
mandibles, a, left; b, tongue-shaped, slightly broader than long, 
with a cluster of long hairs at the tip ; man- 
dibles stout, with piercing incurved tip, right mandible with two 
subequal, triangular teeth, left mandible with three teeth, the 
apical one pointed, the second and the third broad; pronotum 
quadrilateral and vaulted above, anterior border nearly straight, 
lateral borders convex, posterior border slightly curved at middle ; 
mesonotum and metanotum much narrower than pronotum, with 
rounded posterior borders. 

mm. 

Length of body 13.00 

Length of head with mandible 5.33 

Length of head without mandible 3.53 

Width of head . 2.33 

Width of pronotum „ 2.61 

Length of pronotum 1.56 

Locality. — Luzon, Manila, Malate, October 15, 1916, from a 
decayed limb of a small tree, Samanea saman Merrill. 




xii, d, 4 Oshima: Termites from Luzon 223 

Coptotermes travians (Haviland). 

Soldier. — Head yellow; mandibles brown; abdomen whitish. 
Head sparingly pilose ; abdominal tergites densely provided with 
subequal hairs. 

Head oval, slightly vaulted dorsally, sides converging ante- 
riorly ; f ontanelle tube-shaped, large, its orifice directed forward, 
reaching beyond postclypeus; postclypeus very short; labrum 
triangular, tip hyaline, reaching to middle of mandibles ; antennse 
14-jointed, third joint as long as second; submentum very weakly 
contracted at middle; pronotum slightly longer than half the 
width, anterior border distinctly indented at middle, posterior 
border weakly curved at middle. 

mm. 

Length of body 4.50-5.00 

Length of head with mandibles 1.97-2.03 

Length of head without mandibles 1.34-1.40 

Width of head 1.09 

Width of pronotum 0.71-0.81 

Length of pronotum 0.40-0.43 

Locality. — Luzon, Manila, Malate, July, 1916, from tunnels in 
a telephone pole. Imago and worker were not collected. 

Remarks. — The present species is here recorded for the first 
time from the Philippine Islands. 

Termes (Macrotermes) philippinensis Oshima. 
Soldier {the larger form). — 

mm. 

Length of body 9.00-9.50 

Length of head with mandibles 4.63-5.00 

Length of head without mandibles 3.33-3.53 

■ Width of head 2.53-2.80 

Width of pronotum 2.20-2.33 

Length of pronotum 1.20-1.33 

Soldier {the smaller form). — 

mm. 

Length of body 5.00 

Length of head with mandibles 3.49 

Length of head without mandibles 2.03 

Width of head 1.53 

Width of pronotum 1.31 

Length of pronotum 0.62 

Locality. — Luzon, Manila, Malate, May, 1910. 

Eutermes (Hospitalitermes) luzonensis sp. nov. 

Eutermes {Hospitalitermes) hospitalis Oshima, Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. 
D (1916), 11, 360, PI. II, figs. 12-14. 

149382 3 



224 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Soldier. — 

< mm. 

Length of body 3.00-3.50 

Length of head with rostrum 1.71-1.74 

Length of head without rostrum 1.25-1.28 

Width of head 1.00-1.03 

Width of pronotum 0.56-0.59 

Locality. — Luzon, Balintauac, near Manila, August 6, 1916. 

Remarks. — In my previous paper I identified the present 
species with Eutermes hospitalis Haviland. However, after close 
examination of a vast number of specimens I have recently come 
to the conclusion that it is reasonable to separate the two. There 
are two forms of worker in Eutermes luzonensis, instead of one 
as in the other, and the soldier's head is much smaller. 

Eutermes (Eutermes) balintauacensis sp. nov. 

Imago. — Unknown. 

Soldier. — Head yellow, tip of rostrum becoming yellowish 
brown; antennae yellow; thorax and abdomen yellowish white; 
legs straw-colored. Head very sparingly pilose; sternites 
smooth; abdominal tergites densely beset with microscopically 
minute hairs. 

Head ovoid, with slender conical rostrum, upper surface slight- 
ly, incurved at junction of rostrum; antennas 12-jointed, third 
joint the smallest, second joint longer than third, fourth joint 
slightly longer than second; pronotum saddle-shaped, anterior 
border rounded. 

mm. 
Length of body 3.00-3.20 

Length of head with rostrum 1.34-1.43 

Length of head without rostrum 0.74—0.81 

Width of head 0.81-0.84 

Width of pnonotum 0.37-0.40 

Worker. — Head yellow, Y-sutures distinct, whitish ; thorax and 
abdomen white. Head sparingly pilose; abdominal tergites 
densely provided with delicate hairs. 

Head round; postclypeus swollen, less than half as long as 
broad; antennae 13-jointed, second joint slightly shorter than 
fourth, third joint the smallest and shorter than second ; prono- 
tum saddle-shaped, anterior border indented at middle. 

mm. 
Length of body 3.50 

Width of head 0.93 

Width of pronotum 0.50 



xii, d, 4 Oshima: Termites from Luzon 225 

Locality. — Luzon, Balintauac, near Manila, August 6, 1916, 
from a covered tunnel on a small tree, Caesalpinia sappan Linn. 

Remarks. — The present species is closely allied to Eutermes 
minutus Oshima. However, it differs from the latter in having 
a shorter and narrower head in the soldier. 

Eutermes minutus Oshima. 

Locality. — Luzon, Rizal Province, Las Pifias, near Manila, 
August 27, 1916 ; from the inside of an old log. 

Microcerotermes los-banosensis Oshima. 

Locality. — Luzon, Manila, Malate, July 30, 1916, from a fence 
post. 



ILLUSTRATION 



TEXT FIGURE 



FlG. 1. Calotermes (Neotermes) malatensis sp. nov., soldier's mandibles, a, 
left; b, right. 

227 



NOTES ON JAPANESE LEPIDOPTERA AND THEIR LARVAE: 

PART IV J 

By A. E. Wileman 
(London, England) 

TWO COLORED PLATES 

HETEROCERA 

AGARISTIDiE 

Genus CHELONOMORPHA Motschulsky 

Chelonomorpha Motschulsky, Etud. d'Ent. (1860), 9, 30. 

Chelonomorpha japona Motschulsky. 

Plate I, fig. 1, larva.; fig. 2, food plant. 
Japanese name, toraga. 2 
Chelonomorpha japona Motschulsky, Etud. d'Ent. (1860), 30; Leech, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1899), 212, No. 681; Hampson, Cat. Lep. 

Phal. (1901), 3, 529; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 112, 

No. 969; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 30; Jordan, Seitz's Macrolep. 

Faun. Pal. (1906), 3, 6, PI. I b; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of 

Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1910), suppl. 2, 69, PI. 23, 

fig. 1," <?. 
Eusemia villicoides Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1875), IV, 15, 

141, PI. 13, fig. 2 (= japona Motsch.). 
Eusemia japana Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 613, No. 163. 
Chelonomorpha austeni Moore, Lep. Atk. (1879), 11; Hampson, Moths 

India (1894), 2, 154; Cat. Lep. Phal. (1901), 3, 529, fig. 231, $; 

Jordan, Seitz's Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1906), 3, 6, PI. I b. 

The larva figured (Plate I, fig. 1) was taken in September 
(figured September 15), 1902, at Hakodate, Oshima Province, 
Hokkaido, on shiode (Smilax herbacea Linn. var. nipponica 
Maxim.), and I bred a female imago from it July 7, 1903. 

1 The first paper of this series was printed in This Journal, Sec. D 
(1914), 9, 247-268, 3 pis.; Part II, in (1915), 10, 281-306, 3 pis.; Part III, 
in (1915), 10, 345-364, 3 pis. 

5 In his Catalogus Insectorum Japonicum [sic] (1905), 112, Matsumura 
gives the Japanese name of toraga to Mimeusemia persimilis Butl., and 
in his Nihon Senchu Dzukai (1910), 69, he gives the same name to Che- 
lonomorpha japona Motsch. 

229 



230' The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

The following description is taken from my original figure : 

Larva. — Bluish white, marked with many irregular black 
spots and dashes; head black; legs, prolegs, and claspers black; 
segment 2 (head counting as segment 1) orange with transverse 
series of small black spots ; segment 12 dorsally orange with four 
black spots; anal shield black; a faint suprapedal orange stripe 
from segment 3 to 12, more conspicuous over prolegs on segments 
7, 8, 9, and 10. 

Local distribution. — Hokkaido (Yezo) : Hakodate, Oshima 
Province, May, July (Leech, Wileman) . Honshu : Nikko, 
Shimotsuke Province, July (Wileman). 

Chelonomorpha japona seems to be a mountain species, as I 
have never met with it in the plains except in Hokkaido. Matsu- 
mura records it fcom Hokkaido and Honshu. 

Time of appearance. — Larva, September ; imago, June and July. 

General distribution'. — Central and northern Japan in June 
and July; western and central China; northern India (Hampson, 
Jordan) . 

v ARCTIIDiE 

NOLIN^E 

Genus ROESELIA Hubner 

Roeselia Hubner, Verz. (1827), 397. 

Roeselia mauds churiana Oberthiir. 

Plate I, fig. 3, larva; fig. 4, food plant; fig. 5, head and dorsal process. 
Japanese name, Hakodate, kobuga.' 
Erastria mands churiana Oberthur, Etud. d'Ent. (1880), 5, 83, PI. 2, 

fig. 9; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 371; Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (1881), V, 7, 236; Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 

609, No. 140; Stgr., Rom. Mem. Lep. (1892), 6, 257; Leech, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. London (1899), 210, No. 676; Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. 

(1900), 2, 74, fig. 19, c?; Stgr. and Reb., Cat. Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, 

359, No. 4097; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 166, No. 

1410; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 46, PI. 10 e. 
Nola albula Fixsen (nee Hubner) var. a, mandschurica [sic=:mand- 

schuriana~\ Oberthur, Rom, Mem. Lep. (1887), 3, 327. 

The larva figured (Plate I, fig. 3) was taken in July (figured 
July 5), 1902, at Hakodate, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo), 
on cherry, Japanese name, sakuro, ( ? Prunus pseudocerasus 
Lindl.). ' 

This larva died, but several imagoes were obtained from other 
larvae taken at the same time and place; one of these emerged 

3 This moth is unnamed in Japanese by Matsumura, and I have, there- 
fore, named it. 



xii, d, 4 • Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 231 

July 30, 1902. The following description is taken from my 
original notes: 

Larva. — Ashy gray. Long, slender hairs issue from segment 
2 pointing forward, also from the spiracular line and anal seg- 
ment. On segments 2 to 6 (counting head as segment 1) there 
are long dorsal tufts of ashy gray hairs; the tuft on segment 2 
is the shortest, the tufts on segments 3 to 6 gradually increase 
in length, the longest tuft being on segment 6. The larva bears 
a most extraordinary vertical dorsal process situated between the 
head and the succeeding segment (Plate I, fig. 5). This process 
consists of five chitinous plates, apparently the sloughed plates 
of the head, which seem to indicate five molts, as the uppermost 
plate, counting from the top of the process, is the smallest ; this 
would seem to prove that the sloughed plates are pushed upward 
vertically as each successive molt takes place. 

Pupa. — The cocoon, or pupa case, is somewhat triangular with 
acute prolonged ends. It is attached to a twig and harmonizes 
exactly with the bark. Two long tufts of hair issue from the 
apex of the triangle. 

Local distribution. — Honshu: Oiwake, Shinano Province 
(Pryer) ; Tokyo Musashi Province (Fenton) ; Yoshino, Yamato 
Province, May and June {Wileman) ; Karuizawa, Shinano Prov- 
ince, July {Wileman). Hokkaido (Yezo) : Jozankei, Ishikari 
Province, and Hakodate, Oshima Province, July and August 
( Wileman) . 

Time of 'appearance. — Larva, July ; imago, May to August. 

General distribution. — Eastern Siberia (Sutschan and Ussuri, 
near Chabarovsk and Vladivostock, Askold Island) ; Korea ; 
Japan. 

ARCTIIDiE 

LITHOSIIN^E 

Genus ILEMA Hubner 

Ilema {Eilema) Hubner, Verz. (1827), 165. 

Ilema griseola Hubner. 

Plate I, fig. 6, larva {Ilema segrota Butler) ; fig. 7, pupa and food plant. 
Japanese name, kishita-hosoba. 
Bombyx griseola Hubner, Eur. Schmett. (1827), 2, fig. 97; Leech, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 599, No. 87; Alph. Rom. Mem. Lep. 

(1892), 6, 10; Hampson, Moths India (1894), 2, 80; Leech, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. London (1899), 181, No. 575; Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. 

(1900), 2, 168; Stgr. and Reb., Cat. Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, '377, 



232 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

No. 4294; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 179, No. 

1498; Miyake, Tokyo Zool. Mag. [Tokyo DSbutsugaku Zasshi 

(Jap.)] (1910), 22, pt. 260, 334, 375, PI. 11, fig. 12, <$; Seitz, 

Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 65, PI. 12 g, <S; 12 h, 2 and under- 
side. 
Lithosia fiava Haw., Lep. Brit. (1809), 147; Wood, Ind. Ent., 29, PI. 

8, fig. 99; Stgr. and Reb., Cat. Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, 377, No. 4294 

a; ( =stramineola Doubl.) . 
Lithosia stramineola Doubl., Zool., 5, 1914. 

Lithosia plumbeolata Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. (1829), 2, 96. 
Lithosia serva Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. (1854), 2, 506; Moore, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London (1B78), 15, PI. I, fig. 7; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 

327. 
Lithosia vetusta Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. (1854), 2, 506; Kirby, Cat. 

Het. (1892), 324; (=amurensis Stgr.). 
Lithosia segrota Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 20, 397; 

111. Typ. Lep. Het. (1879), 3, 8, PI. 42, fig. 13; Kirby, Cat. Het. 

(1892), 323; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 65, PI. 12 h 

(=adaucta Butl., cinerea Pouj., lenta Leech); Stgr. .and Reb., Cat. 

Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, 377, No. 4294 b. 
Lithosia adaucta Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 20, 398; 

111. Typ. Lep. Het. (1878), 2, 6, PI. 23, fig. 6; Kirby, Cat. Het. 

(1892), 323. 
Collita lilacina Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1878), 16; Kirby, Cat. 

Het. (1892), 324. 
Lithosia cinerea Pouj., Bull. Soc. Ent. France (1886) (6), vi, cl; 

Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 322. 
Lithosia lenta Leech, Entom. (1890), 23, 81. 
Lithosia amurensis Stgr., Rom. Mem. Lep. (1892), 6, 268; Stgr. 

and Reb., Cat. Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, 377, No. 4294 b. 
Lepista subumbrata Holland, Psyche (1893), 6, 411. 
Lithosia fuscicilia Hampson, Moths India (1894), 2, 80. 

The larva figured (Plate I, fig. 6) was taken in May (figured 
May 16), 1901, at Kobe, Settsu Province, Honshu, on a lichen; 
and a female imago of the form segrota Butler emerged June 1, 
1901. 

Hampson * gives the following descriptions of the larva of 
Ilema griseola Hiibner: 

Larva, Meyrick, Brit. Lep. p. 28; Barrett, Lep. Brit, ii, p: 226, PI. 67, 
fig. 1. Blackish brown, hairs dark brown; dorsal line black; subdorsal line 
orange-yellow interrupted, enlarged and partly confluent on somites 1, 2 and 
12, otherwise rather faint; head shining black. Food-plants, Lichens and 
dead leaves; 8-6. 

The original figure of my larva of segrota Butler agrees best 
with this description. 

'Cat. Lep. Phal. (1900), 2, 168. 



xir, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 233 

Wilson 5 describes the larva of Ilema griseola Hiibner as 
follows : 

Larva. About ten lines long, and nearly black, the segmental divisions 
deeply cut; each segment has a number of black velvety tubercles, and 
each of these bears a tuft of short hairs; along each side of the back is 
an interrupted orange-colored subdorsal line; these lines approximate and 
then widen on segment 2, 3, and on segment 12 take the form of two orange 
spots; the ventral area is rather paler than the dorsal; legs and claspers 
the same; head small, black and shining. 

Seitz 6 describes th'e larva of Ilema griseola Hiibner as follows : 

Larva black-grey, with reddish-yellow spots behind the head, from seg- 
ment 3 backwards two reddish-yellow longitudinal stripes dorsally [not 
subdorsally as in Wilson] between which there is a black dorsal line. Until 
the beginning of June, on lichens on trees. Pupa glossy reddish brown, 
in a cocoon of moss or lichen. The moths in July and August, often com- 
mon in Central Europe, and in Amurland (East Siberia) on tree-trunks 
and the branches of suckers. 

Seitz does not say that the longitudinal reddish yellow dorsal 
stripes are interrupted as they are in my figure. Wilson says 
"an interrupted orange-colored subdorsal line." 

Pupa. — Contained in a webbed cocoon spun on lichen (Plate 
I, fig. 7). 

Miyake 7 states of the Japanese forms xgrota and adaueta 
that the larvae are to be found on sasa, bamboo grass, and that 
they possibly feed upon that. I think, however, that they prob- 
ably collect there to sun themselves, crawling up from lichens 
near at hand, as lichen is the food plant of griseola in Europe, 
and my larva was found on lichen. 

Imago. — Leech 8 remarks : 

The species [griseola] is a very variable one. The descriptions of adaueta 
and zegrota apply rather to individual specimens than to constant forms. 

Ilema adaueta and /. segrota are the forms of I. griseola occur- 
ring in Japan. 

In the Far East the species varies considerably. In Amurland it is 
much smaller and the ground color of the forewing is so light that the 
costal stripe only slightly contrasts with it; this is vetusta Wlk. (=:amu- 
rensis Stgr.). JEgrota Butl. (—adaueta Butl. ; cinerea Pouj.; lenta Leech) 
on the other hand, is larger than European griseola and the forewing 
darker, the hindwing, which is yellow above, contrasting sharply with it ; 
from Japan. 9 

5 Larva? of British Lepidoptera (1880), 59, PI. 10, fig. 16. 

6 Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 65. 

' Tokyo Zool. Mag. (1910), 22, pt. 260, 376. 
8 Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1899), 181. 
"Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 65. 



234 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Local distribution. — I have taken segrota and adaucta in the 
following localities : Honshu : Nikko, Shimotsuke Province, June ; 
Tokyo, Musashi Province, May; Oyama, Sagami Province, May; 
Tennokawa, Yoshino, and Obatani, Yamato Province, June and 
July; Takami Toge (Pass), Ise Province, October. Kyushu: 
Kimbo-san, Kosadake, Haramachi, Higo Province, May, June, 
and July; Kagoshima, Satsuma Province, July. Hokkaido 
(Yezo) : Junsai Numa, Oshima Province, July; Jozankei, Ishi- 
kari Province, August; Teshiwo, Teshiwo Province, July. 

This species is common in most places in Japan. I found it 
especially abundant at Jozankei, near Sapporo, Hokkaido, in 
August, 1896. 

Matsumura records the species from Hokkaido, Honshu, and 
Kyushu ; and Miyake records it from the same islands. He gives 
the time of appearance as July and August and says that it is 
common in Hokkaido and not common in Tokyo, Honshu, so that 
it is evidently more abundant in the extreme north of Japan. 

Time of appearance. — Larva, May; imago, June, July, August, 
September, October. 

General distribution. — Europe; Altai; eastern Siberia (Amur- 
land) ; Japan; northern China; Tibet; Nepal; Sikkim; Manipur; 
Yunnan; Borneo; western Africa (H amp son) ; Korea {Matsu- 
mura, Miyake). 

This moth also occurs outside the Palsearctic Region: for 
example, as lilacina Moore and fuscicilia Hampson, in India; as 
serva Walker, in the Malay Archipelago (and Japan?) ; and as 
subumbrata, in West Africa. (Seitz.) 

ARCTIIDJE 

ARCTIIN^E 

Genus DIACEISIA Hiibner 
Diacrisia Hubner, Verz. (1827), 169. 

Eiacrisia subcarnea Walker. 

Plate II, fig. 1, larva. 

Japanese names, obi-hitori, hara-aka-hitori. 

Spilosoma subcarnea Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. (1855), 3, 675; Kirby, 
Cat. Het. 232; Butler, 111. Typ. Het. Lep. (1879), 3, 6, PI. 42, fig. 
8; Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 619, No. 188; Trans. 
Ent. Soc. London (1899), 149, No. 490; Hampson, Cat. Lep. 
Phal. (1901), 3, 315; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 172, 
No. 1446; Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1105), 28, 944; Miyake, 
Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, No. 2, 161; Seitz, 
Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 86, PI. 15 d: Matsumura, Thousand 



xii, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera • 235 

Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap).] (1911), suppl. 

3, 80, PI. 36, fig. 9, (?. 
Aloa bifrons Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. (1855), 3, 705; Kirby, Cat. Het. 

(1892), 232. 
Aloa leucothorax Feld., Wien. Ent. Mon. (1862), 6, 36; Kirby, Cat. 

Het. (1892), 232. 
Spilosoma erubescens MOORE, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 20, 

89; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 231. 
Spilosoma rybakowi Alph., Rom. Mem. Lep. (1897), 9, 171, PI. 10, 

fig. 9, tf. 
Hyarias oberthilri Semp., Schmett. Phil. (1899), 2, 489. 
Diacrisia robustum Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. (1901), 3, 316 (aberr.). 
Diacrisia subcarnea var. flavoventris Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo 

Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 162, ?, with orange-yellow, instead of red, 

abdomen. 

The larva figured (PL II, fig. 1) was taken in September (fig- 
ured September 29), 1900, at Yoshino, Yamato Province, Honshu, 
on mulberry, Japanese name, kuwa (Morus alba Linn.) ; and a 
female imago emerged from the resulting pupa May 20, 1901. 
Two other females emerged May 14 and 16, respectively, from 
larva? taken in the same month at the same place. 

Miyake :0 describes the larva of Spilosoma subcarnea as 
follows : 

Larva. Ochraceous yellow with long ochraceous hairs; head and legs 
fulvous black; a brownish subdorsal line; tubercles greyish white. Food- 
plant: mulberry-tree. [This agrees well with the original figure of my 
larva.] 

Dyar " remarks : 

The larva is a large hairy Arctian of the shape of the North American 
Estigmene acrea Drury, lightly colored as in pale specimens of Diarcrisia 
virginica Fabricius. The head, thoracic feet and abdominal leg plates are 
black. Body immaculate, except for broken mottled dark subdorsal and 
substigmatal stripes. [This description was taken from a preserved speci- 
men.] 

Local distribution. — Honshu : Tokyo, Musashi Province, April, 
May, June, August (Wileman) ; Yoshino, Yamato Province, May, 
June, August, September (Wileman). Shikoku: Hosono, Iyo 
Province, August (Wileman). Kyushu: Hikosan, Buzen Prov- 
ince, August (Wileman) . It has been found in Honshu, Shikoku, 
and Kyushu Islands; and Matsumura records it from Hokkaido 
(Yezo), Honshu, and Ryukyu (Loochoo). 

Time of appearance. — Larva, September ; imago, April to Sep- 
tember. Double-brooded ? 

10 Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 162. 
"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 944. 



236 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

General distribution. — Throughout Japan, China, and Korea; 
eastward to the Philippines and southward to the Malay Archi- 
pelago. (Seitz.) 

Diacrisia nivea Menetries. 

Plate I, fig. 8, larva; fig. 9, food plant. 

Japanese names, shiro-hitori and kyo-joro. 

Dionychopus niveus Menetries, Bull. Phys. Math. Petr. (1859), 17, 
218; Schrenck's Reisen, Lep. (1859), 2, 52, PI. 4, fig. 6; Pkyer, 
Trans. Asiat. Soc. Japan (1885), 12, 48, No. 138; Leech, Proc. 
Zool. Soe. London (1888), 620, No. 196; Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het. (1892), 
1, 229; Staudixger, Rom. Mem. Lep. (1892), 6, 289; Leech, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. London (1899), 151, No. 494; Stgr. and Reb., Cat. Lep. 
Pal. (1901), 1, 365, No. 4165; Butler, Cist. Ent., 2, 32; Hampson, 
Cat. Lep. Phal. (1901), 267; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 
1, 173, No. 1453; Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. 
(1S09), 8, 157; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 88, PI. 
15 h; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai 
(Jap.)] (1911), suppl. 3, 27, PL 32, fig. 4, 5. 

The larva figured (Plate I, fig. 8) was taken, in June, 1902, 
at Hakodate, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo) on an herb of 
which I know neither the Latin nor the Japanese name. This 
larva died, but I bred two female imagoes at Hakodate on August 
17 and 19, 1902, from larvae compared with my original figure 
of the June larva. 

Matsumura 12 describes the larva as follows and states that 
it feeds on obako (Plantago major Linn, var asiatica Dene.) and 
tampopo {Taraxacum officinale Wigg. var glaucescens Koch) : 
"Dark ashy-grey with long ashy-grey yellow hairs; pale lateral 
markings." 

Graeser says that the larvae, which hibernate in the young 
stage, are full grown by June and that the imago emerges in 
July. 

Staudinger 13 describes the larva as follows : 

Dirty-grey with lighter lateral markings and fascicles of long yellowish- 
grey hairs, which are not so bushy as in Arctia caja, but are thicker than 
in Arctia purpurata. 

I describe my larva from the original figure as follows: 
Larva. — Head ochraceous black with white V mark; body 
ruddy brown with the segmental divisions well marked by darker 
color; dorsal and lateral fascicles of hair ruddy gray; spiracles 
white; legs and prolegs ochraceous. 

12 Thousand Insects of Japan (1911), suppl. 3, 27. 
"Rom. Mem. Lep. (1892), 6, 289. 



xii, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 237 

Imago.— "Wings sometimes with traces of small blackish spots * * *. 
The moths in July and August, local but common at their flight places; 
they fly out of the grass making a noise, according to Doenitz. I could 
also hear a slight clicking sound of the wings when niveiim flew close by 
me, like that made by many larger arctiids, especially Callimorpha, but also 
by the small Parasemia plantaginis." M 

Leech says that the black discal spot of secondaries is some- 
times absent. 

Local distribution. — Honshu: Nikko, Shimotsuke Province, 
July and August (Wileman) ; Yoshino, Yamato Province, July 
and August (Wileman) ; Karuizawa, Shinano Province, July 
(Wileman). Hokkaido: Hakodate, Oshima Province, August 
(Wileman) . 

Matsumura records the species from Karafu-to (Saghalin), 
Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, Korea, China, and Man- 
churia. He includes Shikoku as a locality in one of his works 
and excludes it in another. 

Time of appearance. — Larva, June; imago, July and August. 

General distribution. — Throughout eastern Asia, eastern Sibe- 
ria (Amurland), China with the exception of the south, Korea, 
and Japan. (Seitz.) 

Biacrisia imparilis Butler. 

Plate I, fig. 10, larva; fig. 11, head; fig. 12, dorsal section. 

Japanese name, kuwa-gomadara-hitori. 

Spilarctia imparilis Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 20, 
394, 6; 111. Typ. Het. (1878), 2, 4, PI. 22, fig. 4, <$; Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (1879), V, 4, 351, ?; Fixsen, Rom. Mem. Lep. (1887), 3, 
334, c? and ?; Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 620, No. 193; 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1899), 153, No. 501; Matsumura, Japa- 
nese Injurious Insects [Nihon Gaichuhen (Jap.)] (1899), 29, PI. 
12, figs. 1 and 2, imago o and ?; fig. 3, ova; fig. 4, larva; fig. 5, 
pupa; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 232; Hampson,' Cat. Lep. Phal. 
(1901), 3, 308; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 172, No. 1451; 
Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 944, fig. 6, larva; Miyake, 
Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, No. 2, 166; Mat- 
sumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] 
(1911), suppl. 3, 4, PI. 30, fig. 5, ?; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. 
(1910), 2, 87, PI. 15 /, ?; Sasaki, Kwaju Gaichuhen [Insects In- 
jurious to Fruit Trees (Jap.)], ed. 5 (1911), 60 and 197, PI. 14, larva 
and imago. 

The larva figured (Plate I, fig. 10) was taken in July (figured 
July 7), 1902, at Hakodate, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo), 
on niwatoko (Sambucus racemosa Linn.), and a male imago em- 
erged August 16, 1902. Another larva pupated August 8, 1902, 
and the imago emerged August 11, 1902. 

"Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 88. 



238 The Philippine Journal of Science < 1917 

The larva is one of the commonest of the arctiids in Tokyo 
and is to be met with in May and June on many kinds of low- 
growing herbs and shrubs. It is closely allied to the larva of 
Diacrisia infernalis Butl. The pupa is inclosed in a loose-webbed 
cocoon, spun in leaves of the food plant. 

Matsumura 15 records the life history of this species and gives 
figures of the imago, male and female; the ova; the larva; and 
the pupa. He says that in Hokkaido the species is single- 
brooded. The larva hibernates after the second molt, on or near 
the food plant, until the spring of the following year. The imago 
emerges at the end of July. The female imago covers the ova, 
which are approximately two hundred in number, with hairs 
from the anal tuft. It is possible that this species is double- 
brooded in southern Honshu. 

The eggs are laid in a patch covered by the brownish wool from the 
abdomen of the female moth. 

The larva? resemble those of Arsilonche albovenosa in color, being black 
with yellow spots and red warts. The hairs are black and white, rather 
thin and do not obscure the body coloration. Head rounded, bilobed, flat 
before, shining black, paraclypeus reddish, epistoma and bases of antenna 
white. Body cylindrical, normal, with large, elevated, bright-red warts. 
Wart i is small, ii, iii, and v large, iv absent, vi large, black, base of leg 
broadly hairy. On the thorax, two warts above the stigmatal wart, normal. 
Cervical shield densely hairy. Black; a dorsal yellow line, broken into two 
spots on each segment; fine yellow dottings to a narrow broken subdorsal 
line; sides more heavily dotted to a waved broken substigmatal line. Feet 
reddish with black shields. 

The cocoon is composed of hair and thin silk. The pupa has the usual 
Arctian shape. 18 

The above description of the larva appears to have been taken 
from preserved specimens. Dyar does not mention the metallic 
blue described by Miyake. 

Larva. Purplish fuscous, with hairs of greyish white and greyish black; 
head and legs greyish fuscous; a dorsal and subdorsal series of greyish 
yellow spots; tubercles mostly ochraceous brown, some of 6-12 somites 
metallic blue; prothoracic shield metallic blue. 

Food-plants: mulberry-, peach-, pear-, plum-, cherry-, apple-tree and 
many others. 17 

Imago. — Diacrisia imparilis Butl. and D. infernalis Butl. are 
closely allied to each other in the larval and the imaginal stages. 
The male imagoes of both species are blackish brown, and the 

"Japanese Injurious Insects (Nichon Gaichuhen) (1899), 29. 
"Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 944, fig. 6, larva. 
17 Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 167. 



xii, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 239 

females are creamy white and pale buff. Leach remarks of 
imp ar ilis that — 

the black maculation is a variable character in the female ; one example 
of this sex from Hokkaido (Yezo) is devoid of markings with the ex- 
ception of a black dot on the left primary. 

I possess a specimen similar to that described by Leech. 

Local distribution. — Honshu : Tokyo, Musashi Province, August 
(Wileman) ; Nikko, Shimotsuke Province, August (Wileman) ; 
Yoshino, Yamato Province, August and September ( Wileman) . 
Hokkaido: Hakodate, Oshima Province, August (Wileman). 
Throughout the Japanese Islands (Matsumura, Seitz) ; very com- 
mon in Hondo (Honshu) ; the larvse are very common on various 
plants in Tokyo (Miyake). 

Time of appearance. — Larva, May, June, and July, hibernates ; 
imago, July, August, and September. Single-brooded. 

General distribution. — Japanese Islands only. 

Diacrisia infernalis Butler. 

Plate II, fig. 2, larva; fig. 3, food plant; figs. 4 and 5, imago and head 
of variety 1, immaculalis nov., ?; figs. 6 and 7, imago and head of 
variety 3, $, unnamed; figs. 8 and 9, imago and head of variety 4, 
maculalis nov., ?. 

Japanese name, kurobane-hitori and kurohane-hitori. 

Thanatarctia infernalis Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 
20, 395; 111. Typ. Lep. Het. (1879), 3, 7, PL 42, fig. 9, J; Leech, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 617, No. 182; Kirby, Cat. Het. 
(1892), 277; Leech, Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1899), 160, No. 519; 
Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. (1901), 3, 312, $ and $; Matsumura, Cat. 
Insect. Jap. (1905), 173, No. 1456; Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo 
Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 167; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 1, 
87, PI. 15 /, c?; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon 
Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1911), suppl. 3, 6, Fl. 30, fig. 9, ?. 

The larva figured (Plate II, fig. 2) was taken in May (figured 
June 1), 1901, at Kobe, Settsu Province, Honshu, on- willow, 
Japanese name, yanagi (Salix). A female imago emerged from 
the resulting pupa in July, 1901. This female is not typical, but 
is an interesting aberration and is much more heavily maculated 
with fuscous spots than variety 4, maculalis var. nov. (Plate II, 
figs. 8 and 9) . It shows basal, antemedial, and postmedial bands 
on the forewings, the buff -colored ground color showing through 
but faintly on all the wings, especially on the hind ones. I bred 
a black male imago on July 3, 1901, at Kobe, the larva of which 
agreed with my original figure of the larva that produced this 
female aberration; otherwise I might have regarded it as the 
female of a different species. Subsequent experience at Hako- 

149382 4 



240 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

date in 1902 and 1903 proved to me the extreme variability ■ of 
the females of this species as will be perceived by the notes on 
four varieties. I have taken the young larvae at Hakodate in 
October, so that in Hokkaido, where the winter is very severe 
and lasts for five months, the larva probably hibernates. The 
pupa is brownish black and is inclosed in a loose-webbed cocoon. 
I also bred two males, July 24 and August 2, 1902, respectively, 
at Hakodate, Hokkaido. 

Larva. Purplish fuscous with mixed hairs of whitish and blackish; 
head ochraceous brown; legs brownish; a yellowish dorsal line with some 
indistinct irregular lateral lines; tubercles of dorsal half, metallic blue; 
lateral ones ochraceous brown. Food-plants: mulberry-, peach-, pear-, 
cherry-, apple-tree; Quercus serrata; Q. glandulifera; &c. ls 

The above description of the larva agrees well with my original 
figure with one exception. In my figure a yellowish midlateral 
line is represented ; perhaps Miyake includes this in "some indis- 
tinct irregular lateral lines." Like its near ally, Diacrisia impa- 
rilis, it seems to be a general feeder. 

Imago. — The female of this species is subject to very great 
variation in the fuscous markings of the fore- and hindwings. 
In a series of seventeen examples especially selected out of forty- 
one specimens (most of them captured near Hakodate) with the 
object of illustrating this variation, no two specimens are exactly 
alike in markings. Generally speaking,, they can be divided 
into four varieties. 

Variety 1 (Plate II, figs. 4 and 5), immaculalis var. nov., col- 
lection Wileman No. 269. Immaculate; fuscous markings re- 
ferred to by Hampson 16 in his description entirely obsolete on 
the upper side of both fore- and .hindwings ; on the underside 
the discocellular spot of the forewing and the discoidal spot of 
the hindwing are faintly perceptible. 

Variety 2, unfigured, unnamed. Fuscous markings very faint, 
being faintly present in some specimens on both fore- and hind- 
wings and in other specimens on the hindwings only. 

Variety 3 (Plate II, figs. 6 and 7) , unnamed, collection Wileman 
No. 269c. Moderately maculated ; the fuscous markings on both 
the fore- and hindwings are more prominent ; two spots, one on 
subcostal nervure and one on costa of forewing; the commence- 
ment of an interrupted antemedial band is represented by four 
spots, one on the inner margin, one beyond vein 1, one on discocel- 

18 Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 167. 
"Cat Lep. Phal. (1901), 3, 312, 3 and ?. 



xii, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 241 

lulars, and one on the costa of forewing. This interrupted ante- 
medial band is more complete in variety 4, maculalis (see the 
following- paragraph), in which it is interrupted between veins 
3 and 6 at the point where is should bend inward to the costa like 
the postmedial band. 

Variety 4 (Plate II, figs. 8 and 9), maculalis var. nov., collection 
Wileman No. 269e. Heavily maculated; the antemedial band 
continues nearly to vein 3, where it is interrupted and then con- 
tinues in two spots, one discocellular and one on the costa; on 
the hindwing a well-defined, submarginal band of spots, which 
is continuous in some specimens from inner angle to apex, inter- 
rupted in others; discoidal spots very prominent. 

A comparison of the immaculate form, var. 1, immaculalis, with 
the heavily maculated form, var. 4, maculalis, leads one almost 
to believe that they are two different species unless in possession 
of a long series showing the intergrades between the two forms. 
Taking into consideration the great variability of the female, 
I think it is unnecessary to give names to varieties 2 and 3. 

I have captured Diacrisia inf emails, both male and female, in 
some numbers at Junsai Numa (Junsai Lake), near Hakodate, 
Hokkaido (Yezo). The female, as also recorded by Miyake, 
covers the ova with hairs from the anal tuft. The male has a 
peculiar gyrating flight, and on sunny days can be seen careering 
round the tops of low trees and then suddenly disappearing for 
a rest. I also found many males (which, like Diacrisia imparilis, 
are blackish brown) in copula with females in the woods about 
Junsai Numa, lying exposed on the low herbage. 

Local distribution. — Honshu : Nikko, Shimotsuke Province, 
July and August (Wileman) ; Kobe, Settsu Province, July (Wile- 
man) ; Myanoshita, Sagami Province, June (Wileman) ; Oiwake, 
Shinano Province, 3 males, 1 female in the British Museum col- 
lection (Pryer). Hokkaido: Hakodate, Junsai Numa, Oshima 
Province, July and August (Wileman) ; Jozankei, near Sapporo, 
Ishikari Province, August (Wileman). I captured 23 male and 
18 female specimens at the above localities in June, July, and 
August of different years. 

Miyake says : "Not very rare in Hokkaido and Hondo ; I have 
received some specimens captured in Tokyo." 

Matsumura records the species from Honshu and Hokkaido 
and says that it is common at Sapporo, Hokkaido. 

Time of appearance. — Larva, May to October, hibernates? 
Imago, June to August. Single-brooded? 

General distribution. — Japan only. (Seitz.) 



242 The Philippine. Journal of Science 1917 

Genus ARCTIA Schrank 

Arctia Schrank, Fauna Boica (1802), 2, 152. 
Arctia caja Linnseus. 

Plate II, figs. 10 and 11, larva; fig. 12, head; fig. 13, dorsal aspect. 
Larva of Arctia caja var. ? phseosoma Butler. 

Japanese names, hitori-ga, odoriko-ga, hyo-mushi. 

Bombyx caja Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (1758), 1, 500; Esp. Schmett. 
(1789), 3, 167, Pis. 30-32; Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1888), 
617, No. 179; Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1899), 159, No. 517; Stgr., 
Rom. Mem. Lep. (1892), 278; Kirby, Cat. Het. (1892), 258; Mat- 
SUMURA, Japanese Injurious Insects [Nihon Gaichuhen (Jap.)] 
(1899), 33, PI. 14, fig. 1, imago; fig. 2, larva; Stgr. and Reb., Cat. 
Lep. Pal. (1901), 1, 368, No. 4201; Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. (1902), 
3, 463; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 175, No. 1467; 
Miyake, Bull. Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 171; Mat- 
sumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] 
(1911), suppl. 3, 21, PI. 31, fig. 12, ?; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. 
(1910), 2, 98, PI. 18 b, <$; Oberthur, Etud. d'Ent., 20, Pis. 13-15, 
figs. 227-262 (aberrs.). 

Phalsena erinacea Retz., Gen. Spec. Ins. (1783), 36. 

Arctia caja var. wiskotti Stgr., Hor. Ent. Ros. (1878), 14, 333; Seitz, 
Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 98. 

Arctia orientalis Moore, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1878), V, 1, 
230; Hampson, Moths India (1894), 16. 

Arctia americana Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass. (1841), 246; in Agassiz and 
Cabot, Lake Superior (1850), 391, PI. 7, fig. 5. 

Euprepia phseosoma Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 20, 
395; 111. Typ. Lep. Het. (1879), 3, 7, PI. 42, fig. 10, ?; Kirby, Cat. 
Het. (1892), 259; Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 98, PI. 18 
b, ?. 

Euprepia phaeosoma var. auripennis Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. (1881), 
7; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 175, No. 1467. 

Euprepia. opulanta H. Edwards, Papilio (1881), 1, 38; Kirby, Cat. 
Het. (1892), 259. 

Two larvas are figured (Plate II, figs. 10 and 11). One (fig. 
11) was taken in August (figured August 22), 1900, at Yoshino, 
Yamato Province, Honshu, from which no imago was bred, and 
one (fig. 10) was taken in June (figured June 7), 1902, at Hako- 
date, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo). The food plant is 
unknown, as no notes were taken. 

From the larva taken in June, 1902, a male imago emerged 
August 26, 1902. In this specimen the white markings on the 
forewings are slender (aberratively reduced) and are for the 
most part replaced by the brown spots. As the specimen is not 
at hand, I am unable to say whether it is referable to phseosoma 
Butler, which is the normal form in Japan. 

Larva. — Velvety black; each segment having a number of black shining 
tubercles, from which proceed very long hairs, those on the dorsal area are 



xii, d, 4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 243 

mixed grey and black, those on the 2nd and 3rd segments amber brown; 
along each side the hairs are of a lighter brown; the spiracles are golden; 
head legs and claspers shining black. 20 

Wilson counts the head as segment 1. In his figure (fig. 9) 
the dorsal and lateral hairs on segments 2 and 3 are distinctly 
amber-brown. 

Egg greenish white, larva with very long and dense hair, which is red 
on the anterior segments and on the others black above and only red 
laterally, placed on warts with a whitish gloss; when touched roughly the 
hairs sting slightly, but do not cause any noteworthy inflammation. From 
September until May, at the edges of woods, on meadows in the woods, on 
nettles, dandelion and many other low-growing plants. Attempts to breed 
aberrations by feeding the larvae with .certain plants (foliage of walnut, 
etc.) were not successful. Common. 21 

The hair is red on the anterior segments above and on the 
others black above and only red laterally. 

Larva.— Meyr. Brit. Lep. 42; Barrett, Lep. Brit. 268, PI. 7, fig. 1. Black; 
hairs .very long, black and grey, browner on sides and on 1st and 2nd 
somites reddish brown; head black. Food-plants: Urtica, Plantago, etc. 
8-5. Great Britain. 22 

The hairs on first and second somites are reddish brown. 

Larva. Head black with reddish-brown spot at sides; body black; each 
body-segment with two deep-black tubercles on subdorsal line, one on supra-, 
subspiracular and basal lines; tubercles on subdorsal and subspiracular 
lines thickly covered with longer or shorter light greyish yellow hairs; 
tubercles on subspiracular and basal lines with short reddish brown hair; 
thoracic legs black; abdominal legs dark brown. Food-plants: hemp, rape, 
•mulberry-tree. Ribes grossularioides. — Prof. Sasaki. 23 [Nothing is said of 
segments 2 and 3 (counting head as segment 1) being reddish brown or 
amber-brown.] 

It will be noted that Hampson, Wilson, and Seitz state that 
the hair on anterior segments 1 and 2 (or counting head as 
segment 1, on 2 and 3, Wilson) is red, reddish brown, or amber- 
brown. Sasaki does not notice this, and it is not apparent in 
the original figures of my larvse. This is possibly the distin- 
guishing feature of the larva of phseosoma, the normal Japanese 
form of caja. 

In the original figure of my Hakodate larva (Plate II, fig. 10) 
the spiracles are white; this is not mentioned by the foregoing 
authors. 

20 Wilson, Larvse of British Lepidoptera (1880), 64, PI. 11, figs. 9, 9a. 

"Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 99. 

"Hampson, Cat. Lep. Phal. (1901), 3, 465. 

23 Miyake, Bull Coll. Agr., Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1909), 8, 172. 



244 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Matsumura 2i records the life history of this species and gives 
figures of the imago and larva. 
He says that in Hokkaido — 

It is single-brooded and hibernates in the larval stage. It attains full 
growth from May to the beginning of June and the imago emerges four or 
five weeks afterwards. It is extremely abundant both in the larval and 
imaginal stages at Sapporo, Hokkaido. 

Imago. — "In Asia caja is considerably larger than in Europe; already 
in Asia Minor it is larger, with much white on the forewing and the 
hindwing in the male almost white, this is wiskotti Stgr. Phseosoma Butler 
from Eastern Asia is at once distinguished by the white tegulss. In this 
form, which is the normal one in Japan, East Siberia, Korea and North 
China, the white may be predominant on the forewing, but may also be 
aberratively reduced as in European specimens. In East Asia where the 
larva of phseosoma is locally extraordinarily abundant (Greaser), specimens 
often occur with yellow abdomen and hindwing; this is ab. auripennis Butl. 
In orientalis Moore, from Kashomir to the Khasia Hills, the thorax and 
forewing are more yellowish red-brown, as in certain local worms in North 
America, where caja occurs in some very different varieties (utahensis, 
opulenta, transmontana)". 25 

The female type of auripennis Butler is from Tokyo, Honshu 
(Fenton) , and the female type of phseosoma Butler is from Yoko- 
hama, Honshu (Jonas) . 

Local distribution. — Honshu. In British Museum collection: 
Oiwake, Shinano Province {Pryer) ; Tokyo, Musashi Province 
{Fenton), type auripennis; Yokohama, Musashi Province (Jonas, 
Pryer, L etuis) , type phseosoma; Nikko, Shimotsuke Province 
(Maries). In the Wileman collection: Tokyo and Yokohama, 
August and September, phseosoma? Hokkaido: Shikubi, Oshima 
Province, August, auripennis. Matsumura records caja from 
Hokkaido and Honshu and says that it is very abundant at 
Sapporo, Hokkaido; he records auripennis also from Sapporo. 

Time of appearance. — Larva, May and June; imago July, 
August, and September. 

General distribution. — Arctia caja. — Throughout Europe and 
anterior Asia, from Scandinavia, Lapland, and northern Russia 
southward to the Mediterranean and from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the Pamir, Kashmir, and even Assam. (Seitz.) 

Arctia phseosoma. — Hampson includes phseosoma Butl. and 
opulenta H. Edw. under the subspecies americana Harris, from 
North America. Tegulae with a broad white band in front. 
Abdomen and hindwing scarlet. Japan, eastern Siberia, Korea, 
North China. 

"Japanese Injurious Insects (Nihon Gaichuhen) (1899), 33. 
25 Seitz, Macrolep. Faun. Pal. (1910), 2, 98, 99. 



xii, d,-4 Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera 245 

Ab. 1, opulenta. — Forewing with the white markings very- 
extensive and occupying the greater part of wing. Amur and 
Alaska. 

b, americana. — Abdomen scarlet; hindwing yellow. North 
Atlantic States. 

c, auripennis. — Abdomen and hindwing yellow. Japan. 

ERRATA IN NOTES ON JAPANESE LEPIDOPTERA AND THEIR LARViE, 

PARTS II AND III 

This Journal Sec. D (1915), 10, No. 5: 

Page 284: In line 19 for Honshu read Kyushu. 

Page 286: In line 36 for Seib. read Sieb. 

Page 293: In line 26 for at Hokkaido read in Hokkaido. 

Page 293: In line 29 for Gersan read Gensan. 

Page 293: In line 38 for attillia read attilia. 

Page 305: In line 20 for ochrace read ocharcea. 
This Journal Sec. D (1915), 10, No. 6: 

Page 351: In line 12 for schiroseuji read shirosuji. 

Page 353: In line 27 for Sipirama read Spirama. 

Page 353: In line 37 for Hokodate read Hakodate. 

Page 354: In line 40 for kohoha read konoha. 

Page 357: In line 24 for chacosiiNjE, read chalcosian^:. 

Page 360: In line 39 for Yomata read Yamato. 

Page 361 : In line 1 for Busen read Buzen. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Drawings by Hisashi Kaido.] 

Plate I 

Figs. 1 and 2. Chelonomorpha japona Motschulsky. 

1, larva; 2, food plant. 

3 to 5. Roeselia mandschuriana Oberthur. 

3, larva; U, food plant; 5, head and dorsal process. 
6 and 7. Ilema segrota Butler. 

6, larva; 7, pupa and food plant.. 
8 and 9. Diacrisia nivea Menetries. 

8, larva; 9, food plant. 
10 to 12. Diacrisia imparilis Butler. 

10, larva; 11, head; 12, dorsal section. 

Plate II 

Fig. 1. Diacrisia subcarnea Walker, larva. 

FlGS. 2 to 9. Diacrisia infernalis Butler. 

2, larva; 3, food plant; U, imago of variety 1, immaculalis 
nov., ?; 5, head of variety 1, $; 6, imago of variety 3, 
? ; 7, head of variety 3,5; 8, imago of variety 4, maculalis 
nov., ?; 9, head of variety 4, ?. 

10 to 13. Arctia caja var. ? phososoma Butler. 

10 and 11, larva; 12, head of larva; 13, dorsal aspect of 
larva. 

247 



Wileman: Japanese Lepidoptera, IV.] 



r Pun.. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 4. 




PLATE I. CHELONOMORPHA JAPONA, ROESELIA MANDSCHURIANA, ILEMA /EGROTA. 
DIACRISIA NIVEA, AND D. IMPARILIS. 



Wilf.man : Japanese Lepidoptera, IV.'J 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 4. 




6 



J 





W^***-4 : *"-<'' 



11 



PLATE II. DIACRISIA SUBCARNEA, D. INFERNALIS, AND ARCTIA CAJA VAR. ? 

PHCEOSOMA. 



FOURTH CONTRIBUTION TO THE COLEOPTERA FAUNA OF THE 

PHILIPPINES 

By W. Schultze 
(Manila, P. I.) 

ONE PLATE 

This paper is mainly an addition to the knowledge of the 
pachyrrhynchid group of the Curculionidse found, with a very 
few exceptions, 1 in the Philippine Islands. 

CERAMBYCID^E 

Acronia pretiosa sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 1. 

Head: clypeus and mandibles black, frons and vertex dark 
blue, with irregularly scattered needle punctures and a fine 
medial groove. A creamy white transverse stripe at the base 
of the clypeus, continued on the sides of the head. Two oblique 
stripes arise at the middle from the base of the clypeus, run 
just above the eye, and terminate on the vertex. These two 
stripes form the letter V. Antennae bluish black, basal half of 
second and third joints creamy white. Thorax dark blue with 
a metallic luster. Two transverse bands, one next to the anterior 
and the other next to the posterior margin, joining a lateral 
marginal stripe, both the former bands interrupted in the discal 
area. Sides and underside of thorax, abdominal segments, and 
femora glossy metallic green. Elytra dull bluish black, remotely 
and regularly punctured, but the basal area coarsely and con- 
fusedly punctured. A transverse band, at the end of the basal 
third of the elytra, to the outer margin, another transverse band 
at the end of the second third, running obliquely behind to the 

1 Non-Philippine species known so far are the following : Pachyrrhynchus 
croesus Oberth., Sanghir Island; P. forsteni Vollh., Ternate, Halmaheira, 
and Sumatra; P. inf emails Fairm., Ishigahi-Sima Island; and P. moro- 
taiensis Vollh., Morotai. In 1912 Professor Heller published in This Journal 
his very commendable paper, Philippinische Russelkafer. In the same he 
included in the keys, also, the above-mentioned non-Philippine species, 
without calling attention to that fact, except in the case of P. morotaiensis 
Vollh. Through an oversight, I included also the above-named species in my 
Catalogue of the Philippine Coleoptera, which mistake I wish to correct 
herewith. 

249 



250 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

outer margin. The central area, which is inclosed by the trans- 
verse bands, has a whitish opalescent aspect. 

A short longitudinal and slightly curved stripe from the middle 
of the base of each elytron, but not reaching the first trans- 
verse band. Also from the base to the second transverse band 
a narrow sutural stripe and in the apical third of each elytron 
an anteriorly forked subsutural stripe, which is recurved in the 
apical triangle toward the outer margin and joins the second 
transverse band. The suture is apically slightly raised. Each 
femur, with two tomentose spots. Tibia dull dark blue and 
finely bristled above apically. First abdominal segment with 
a band at the fore margin. Outer margin of all abdominal 
segments and the last segment almost entirely creamy white 
tomentose. The latter with a longitudinal medial groove, a 
character that is also found in the genus Aprophata. 2 

Length, 18 millimeters; width, 7. 

Catanduanes, Virac. Type in my collection. 

The type of the genus Acronia is perelegans Westwood, 3 also 
from the Philippines; Luzon, Tayabas Province, Casiguran 
(Semper) . 

CURCULIONID^E 

Pachyrrhynchus sumptuosus sp. nov. 

Head, thorax, legs, and underside glossy black, with a coppery 
luster. Elytra dull glossy, iridescent purplish brown or green. 
Rostrum finely and sparsely punctured, a prominent pitlike de- 
pression in the basal half. In the depression a rather indistinct 
longitudinal groove. Thorax with an indistinct groove near the 
fore margin, laterally only. Hind margin raised. Female with 
a group of very minute bronze-green scales at the lateral margin. 
Each elytron with a row of punctiform impressions near the 
outer margin, extending from the middle to the apex. In the 
apical part these depressions run together, forming a groove. 

2 1 described in This Journal, Sec. D (1916) ,11, 348, Abryna ? hoffmeisteri, 
placing the species provisionally in the above-mentioned genus, following 
Westwood's conception. The species hoffmeisteri Schultze should be placed 
in the genus Aprophata. Furthermore I find that A. hoffmeisteri is identical 
with A. ruficollis Heller. Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. (1916), 308. Through 
the kindness of Professor Baker I received a reprint of Heller's paper, 
but from it I am unable to state the date of publication and whether the 
former (issued January 3, 1917) or the latter specific name will have 

priority. 

My copies of the Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift', as well as those 
for the library of the Bureau of Science, Manila, are evidently being held 
up or lost. 

3 Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1863), III, 633, PI. 24, fig. 4. 



xii, d, 4 Schultze: Coleoptera Fauna 251 

Femora with a strongly excavated depression below, apically. 
At the depression minutely fine scales and hair. Tibia below 
very minutely denticulate and beset with fine hair. 

Male, length, 12.5 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 5. 
Female, length, 16 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 7. 

Luzon, Bontoc. Types in my collection. 

This species is easily recognized by the very peculiar colora- 
tion of the elytra. 

Pachyrrhynchus igorota sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 2. 

Dull glossy, black. Rostrum apically broader than at the base. 
Apical area densely punctured. Rostrum transversely set off 
at the middle, posterior of which a deep depression, the lateral 
edges of which are strongly produced. A creamy white scale 
spot posterior of the antennal groove. Thorax as long as broad. 
Laterad of the middle an irregular spot composed of a few scales 
and posteriorly of the latter at the hind margin a wedge-shaped 
spot. A longitudinal lateral facia from the fore to the hind 
margin. Each elytron with three narrow creamy white stripes : 
One from the base straight across the disk to the apex ; another 
laterad, beginning a short distance from the base and terminating 
a short distance before the apex ; and another broad outer mar- 
ginal stripe arising similarly some distance from the base and 
terminating before the apex. Pro- and mesosternum with a 
triangular spot between the coxse, the latter also with a spot 
laterad. Metasternum and first abdominal segment with a lat- 
eral spot only. Femora with a spot on the underside near the 
apex. 

Male, length, 18 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 7. 
Female, length, 20 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 8.5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Haight's Place (2,700 meters). Types in 
my collection. 

The males of this species have the spots on the thorax mostly 
very much reduced or entirely absent. Also the stripes on the 
elytra, with the exception of the one on the lateral margin, are 
sometimes interrupted in the middle. In. one specimen the second 
stripe is reduced to one fourth of the normal length, basally. 
This species is mostly covered with a sticky substance, so that 
it is very difficult to obtain perfectly clean specimens. Whether 
this is due to a kind of natural perspiration or to certain peculia- 
rities of the food plant with which the insect comes in contact, 
I am unable to say at the present. Through my native collector, 
as well as through the kindness of Messrs. C. Hoffmeister and 
0. Schutze, I received a large number of specimens, all from 



252 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

the above-mentioned locality. 4 It seems that the range of this 
species is very limited. This species is closely related to P. 
modestior Behr., but is easily distinguished from the latter by 
the usually larger size, the narrower stripes on the elytra, and 
the absense of a spot between the eyes. The color of P. modes- 
tior is mostly dark glossy green, but in all the specimens of P. 
igorota that were examined, the color is dull glossy black. 

Pachyrrhynchus loheri sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 3. 

Glossy black, elytra with very broad, light green, longitudinal 
scale stripes. Rostrum comparatively short, transversely set 
off and emarginate in the middle. Apical part densely punc- 
tured, in the basal part a deep depression with a scale spot, the 
lateral edges prominently produced. Frons with a punctiform 
impression. Thorax longer than broad. A broad band at the 
anterior margin, which narrows toward the sides, but continues 
to the hind margin where it terminates laterad in a shallow 
depression. Hind margin dorsad with a broad band composed 
of two elongated closely approximated spots. Somewhat behind 
the middle, laterad, a shallow depression with a nearly round 
scale spot. From the latter to the posterior margin a slightly 
raised keel. Elytra cordiform, broadest before the middle. 
Each elytron with five longitudinal stripes, which are broader 
than the interspaces, except the sutural stripes. The latter begin 
before the middle, becoming somewhat narrower and again 
broader toward the apex. The second stripe unites with the 
marginal near the apex. The interspaces are somewhat elevated. 
Abdominal segments finely wrinkled like leather and with a few 
scattered scales. Each femur with a spot near the apex, antad. 

Length, 18 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 8. 

Luzon, Bulacan, Mount Guinuisan (A. Loher) . Type in my 
collection. 

This species is to be placed in Heller's group II. 5 

Among the other species of this group P. loheri is easily recog- 
nized by the cordate elytra. 

4 The mountainous regions of central and northern Luzon appear to be 
the ancestral home of the Pachyrrhynchus-Apocyrtus groups, since by far 
the most species of these groups, known from the Philippines, are found 
in the indicated regions, and many more will be discovered in the vast yet 
unexplored areas. For example, at Baguio (altitude, about 1,500 meters) 
and close neighborhood the following species of Pachyrrhynchus are found: 
Pachyrrhynchus anellifer Hell., annulatus Chevr., argus Pasc, coerulans 
Kraatz, congestus Pasc, pulchellus Behr., sanchezi Hell., and zebra Schultze, 
besides several other species not yet identified. 

'This Journal, Sec. D (1912), 7, 305. 



xii, d, i Schultze: Coleoptera Fauna 253 

Pachyrrhynchus schuetzei sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 7, 2 • 

Black, with a coppery gloss and numerous yellowish white 
scale ringlets. Rostrum set off transversely in the middle. On 
the basal part a small, double, scale spot divided by a longitudinal 
groove. The latter terminates between the eyes and is somewhat 
shorter, as in P. anellifer Heller. Thorax a little broader than 
long. Anterior and posterior margin with a fine scale line. A 
shallow, longitudinal, middle groove along which a few scales 
are located. In the middle, but laterad, a shallow dimplelike 
depression surrounded by a ring of scales. At the lateral mar- 
gin a group of a few scales. Elytra with irregular rings of 
scales in transverse rows. The first row parallel to the basal 
margin, each elytron having three large oval rings and four 
smaller spots. The spaces within the large rings are frequently 
filled with scales. In the first row the location of the spots is 
as follows: a small dotlike spot next to the suture, two larger 
ones in the middle, a few small ones, again one larger, and a 
small one at the lateral margin. The second row runs about 
parallel to the first row, each elytron with four larger and next 
to the lateral margin a few small spots. A third interrupted row, 
composed of two rings on each elytron, is located at the begin- 
ning of the apical third thereof. Between the second and third 
rows, as well as in the apical area of the elytron, a subsutural 
double spot, the latter being rather long and narrow. In the 
apical triangle a large, irregular, triangular spot. Scattered 
among different larger rings of the elytra are a number of scaly 
dots. In the male the elytra are not so glossy as in the female ; 
in the former they have very slight indications of longitudinal 
furrows, and the spots are more dotlike. 

Male, length, 11 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 5. 
Female, length, 14 (without rostrum) ; width, 6. 

Luzon, Benguet, Haight's Place (0. Schiltze) . Types in my 
collection. 

This species has a superficial resemblance to P. anellifer Heller, 
but I have numerous specimens of both species before me and 
there are no intermediate forms among them. The differences 
between the two species seem to be very constant. It appears 
as if P. annulatus Chevr., P. anellifer Heller, and P. schuetzei 
are closely related species, which represent, so to say, transitional 
stages of their evolution. 

Pachyrrhynchus zebra sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 5- 

Black, with longitudinal, light bluish or greenish scale stripes. 
Rostrum with a deep pitlike depression in the middle, which 



254 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

disperses between the eyes. Frons with a fine medial groove 
and an elongated spot not continued on the vertex. Thorax 
smooth and shiny. A narrow band on the fore margin continued 
laterally to the hind margin. A lateral medial band joins the 
side marginal stripe. From the disk of" the thorax arising from 
the lateral band, a longitudinal stripe to the posterior margin, 
forming the letter T. Elytra very finely wrinkled like leather 
with very pronounced longitudinal puncture, rows. Each elytron 
with four longitudinal stripes, which run together at the basal 
margin and in the apical triangle. A narrow subsutural stripe 
in the apical half of each elytron not quite reaching the apex. 
The broadest stripes are the one located between the second 
and third rows of punctures and the lateral marginal stripe, 
both of which are also broader toward the base and toward 
the apical triangle. Underside with a spot on the meso- and 
the metasternum. First abdominal segment with a large spot 
on either side. Each femur with a scale spot in the middle 
and a ringlike spot near the apex. 

Length, 11.5 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 5.5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Mount Santo Tomas (W. Schultze). Type 
in my collection. 

This species belongs to Heller's group V. 6 

Eupachyrrhynchus hieroglyphicus sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 4. 

Female. — Black, each elytron with four greenish or bluish 
white longitudinal stripes. Rostrum comparatively broad, 
strongly and confusedly punctured at the apex. A prominent 
quadratic depression in the basal half, the lateral edges of which 
are strongly keeled. Inside of the depression a fine longitudinal 
groove, extending to the frons. Thorax with a narrow trans- 
verse spot laterad of the middle, another larger one at the base, 
and a still larger spot on the lateral margin. Elytra with ir- 
regular longitudinal rows of punctures. Each elytron with four 
stripes. The dorsal pair at the base interrupted, forming two 
spots, afterward combined and at the disk separated again, 
forming a peculiar loop posterior of which the stripes approach 
each other and separate again, forming a second loop at the 
hind slope. Another, rather wavy lateral stripe and another, 
the broadest stripe, near the outer margin. The two latter run 
together at the base, and all four stripes are confluent in the 
apical triangle. The striped areas are very distinctly depressed. 
Suture and costal margin apically with a few fine hairs. Apical 

6 This Journal, Sec. D (1912), 7, 303. 



xir, d, 4 Schultze: Coleoptera Fauna 255 

ends of the elytra acutely divergent. Legs sparsely and indis- 
tinctly punctured, beset with fine hair, especially the tibia. 

Length, female, 16.5 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 
7.75. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio. Type in my collection. 

Macrocyrtus ? benguetanus sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 8, ? . 

Dark brown, almost black. Rostrum shagreened and irregu- 
larly punctured, fine hair arising from the punctures. A mod- 
erate longitudinal depression which is continued between the 
eyes as a fine groove to the vertex. Bronze-green scales scattered 
over the punctured area of the rostrum and frons. Antennae 
beset with fine white hair, first funicular joint the longest, 
second almost as long as the first, the following short, each about 
one third the length of the second joint. Thorax sparsely punc- 
tured, with a prominent median and a rather indistinct anterior 
marginal groove. The punctuation in the female obsolescent. 
A broad bronze-green dorsolateral fascia from fore to hind 
margin interrupted cephalad, thus forming a small nearly round 
spot at the margin. A similar ventral-lateral fascia, certain 
scales of which extend to the margin of the acetabula. Elytra 
strongly punctured in irregular longitudinal rows, in the female 
strongly suffused. Each elytron with three longitudinal fasciae, 
two of which are dorsolateral, the other at the outer margin. 
The same are irregularly interrupted before and behind the mid- 
dle, forming irregular spots, the basal and the apical spots being 
the largest. Elytra beset with fine, scattered hair, especially 
toward the costal and apical margin. Legs reddish brown and 
hairy. Fore tibia only, below, with fine tubercles or blunt teeth. 
Apical ends of the elytra of the male acutely rounded, in the 
female acutely divergent. 

Male, length, 10 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 3.5.. 
Female, length, 12 (without rostrum) ; width, 5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Mount Santo Tomas (2,250 meters). Types 
in my collection. 

Var. montanus nov. Plate I, fig. 9, s ■ 

Castaneus brown. Rostrum with the longitudinal depression 
less pronounced than in the typical form. Thorax with the 
median groove almost absent. The fasciae very broad, especially 
on the elytra. Legs red, the apical half of the femora and the 
tarsi dark brown. 

Luzon, Benguet, Haight's Place (2,700 meters). 

The species benguetanus I place for the present provisionally 

149382 5 



256 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

in the genus Macrocyrtus, which includes already some generi- 
cally rather different species that should be rearranged when 
more is known about the group. The latter contains so far the 
species nigrans Pasc., castaneus Pasc, subcostatus Heller, negrito 
Heller, and erosus Pasc. The last-mentioned species is quite 
different in general appearance and form from the first four 
species, the main difference being that the elytra of the former 
are depressed dorsally, whereas in erosus Pasc. the elytra are 
inflated more as in Pachyrrhynchus. Macrocyrtus negrito Heller 
represents an intermediate form. 

Nothapocyrtus luzonicus sp. nov- Plate I, fig. 6. 

Castaneus, very glossy. Rostrum with irregular and scattered 
punctures. A large, shallow depression and an indistinct longi- 
tudinal groove terminating between the eyes. Thorax finely and 
irregularly punctured, with a large light green or bluish scale 
spot at the lateral margin. Elytra with distinct longitudinal 
rows of punctures. Each elytron with four lapis lazuli colored 
spots, as follows: Two at the base, one of which is near the 
suture, the other at the lateral margin ; another long and narrow 
spot apically at the lateral margin ; and one in the apical triangle. 
Besides the above-mentioned spots are indications of another, 
in the female only, at the lateral margin before the middle. 
Female with the suture apically strongly elevated and the sutural 
ends dull-pointed, in the male the latter are evenly rounded. 
Meso- and metasternum with a scale spot laterad. Metasternum 
and first abdominal segment of the male with a longitudinal 
depression in the middle. Legs with fine scattered punctures, 
a hair arising from each puncture. 

Male, length, 11 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 4.5. 
Female, length, 12 (without rostrum) ; width, 5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Haight's Place. Types in my collection. 

I place this species provisionally in the genus Nothapocyrtus 
Heller, since luzonicus is congeneric with N. cylindricollis Heller. 

Artapocyrtus sexmaculatus sp. nov. Plate I, figs. 11, 11a. 

Glossy black, related to A. quadriplagiatus Roel., but the 
ventral side of the rostrum not armed with the conical projection 
as in the latter species. Rostrum densely punctured, a medial 
groove on the basal half reaching to the frons between the eyes. 
A prominent, deep transverse groove at the base of the rostrum. 
Underside of rostrum (Plate I, fig. 11) somewhat resembling 
that of A. pardalis Heller. Thorax equal in length and width, 



xii, d, 4 Schultze: Coteoptera Fauna 257 

globular, and with fine, scattered punctures. The female only 
has a flat depression with fine transverse wrinkles somewhat 
anterior of the hind margin in the discal area of the thorax. 
In the middle of the lateral margin a very light pinkish white 
scale spot of about double the size of the eye. Elytra irregularly 
punctured in rows, the puncture rows next to the outer margins 
running together, groovelike. Each elytron with 2 ($) or 3 
( ? ) lateral pinkish white scale spots, one of which is located 
at the base and the other at the beginning of the apical third. 
The female has besides the above-mentioned spots another small 
one in the discal area between the second and third rows of 
punctures. Still another is more or less indicated at the margin 
in the apical part of the elytra. Anal segment of the female 
with two longitudinal impressions as in A. pardalis Hell. 

Female, length, 11.5 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 5. 
Male, length, 10.5 (without rostrum) ; width, 4.5. 

Catanduanes, Virac. Types in my collection. 

Metapocyrtus carinatus sp. nov. 

Black. Rostrum strongly coriaceous, with a prominent longi- 
tudinal groove. The former triangularly set off between the 
eyes. Frons also coriaceous. Vertex smooth. Antenna finely 
pilose, especially the club, scape reaching slightly beyond the 
fore margin of the thorax. First funicular joint double the 
length of the second, each of the following joints half as long 
as the second (and equal among themselves) . Thorax strongly 
coriaceous, with a marginal groove posteriorly only. Elytra pro- 
minently carinate, the interspaces with a coriaceous appearance. 
Elytra of the female with a large pubescent sutural tubercle 
at the posterior slope and an apical protuberance forming a 
short thornlike projection. Elytra of the male normally de- 
veloped. Legs less pronounced coriaceous and beset with silvery 
gray hair, especially the tibiae and tarsi. Hind femora of the 
female reaching beyond the apex of the elytra, hind femora 
of the male extending nearly half of their length beyond the 
elytra. 

Male, length, 9 millimeters (without rostrum) ; width, 2.75. 
Female, length, 10 (without rostrum) ; width, 3.5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Haight's Place (2,700 meters). Types in 
my collection. 

This species seems to be related to M. cylas Hell., 7 assuming 
that Heller's description refers to a male. 

1 This Journal, Sec. D (1912), 7, 359. 



258 The Philippine Journal of Science 

Metapocyrtus furcatus sp. nov. Plate I, figs. 10, 10a, 5 . 

Black with large light green scale spots. Rostrum in the 
apical part minutely, confusedly punctured. A well-pronounced 
longitudinal depression expanded toward the front and ter- 
minating between the eyes. The punctuation in the broad por- 
tion of the depression' or groove and up to the frons strong and 
confused. From the puncture arise very fine hairs. A large 
scale spot between the eyes. Sides of the head similarly scaled. 
Thorax longer than broad, strongly and confusedly punctured. 
A large, lateral, oblong scale spot and a broad fascia above the 
hips extending from the anterior to the posterior margin. 
Elytra irregularly punctured in rows. Female with seven large 
scale spots on each elytron. A prominent and finely bristled 
and scaled sutural double tubercle at the beginning of the hind 
slope of the elytra. Sutural end of each elytron drawn out 
thornlike and bent outward, forming a fork-shaped appendix. 
Male without the above-mentioned double tubercle and the sutural 
ends of the elytra uniformly rounded. The spots in the female 
are located as follows: Two oblong oval spots at the base, one 
subsutural, the other outer marginal, another, the smallest sub- 
sutural spot, at the disk. Still another subsutural oblong oval 
spot at the hind slope and next to the tubercle. An irregular 
triangular spot at the apical area. Another large oblong mar- 
ginal spot scarcely separated from that in the tip triangle, and 
a large somewhat rectangular spot, which is located laterad to 
the small one at the disk and runs obliquely caudad. The spots 
vary, some are joined, others are divided, the latter being gen- 
erally the case in the male. Legs beset with fine silver grayish 
hair. Tibia below with a few fine teeth and more strongly 
haired. Thorax below and abdominal segment similarly finely 
hairy. 

Male, length, 8 millimeters; width, 2.5. Female, length, 10; 
width, 3.5. 

Luzon, Benguet, Mount Mirador (W. Schultze). Types in 
my collection. 

The male of this species has a superficial resemblance to 
Notapocyrtus alboplagiatus Heller. The female is to be re- 
cognized at once by the peculiar forked sutural apical ends of 
the elytra (Plate I, fig. 10a). 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Drawings by W. Schultze.] 

FlG. 1. Acronia pretiosa sp. nov. X 1.5. 

2. Pachyrrhynchus igorota sp. nov. X 1.5. 

3. Pachyrrhynchus loheri sp. nov. x 1.5. 

4. Eupachyrrhynchus hieroglyphicus sp. nov. X 1.5. 

5. Pachyrrhynchus zebra sp. nov. X 2. 

6. Nothapocyrtus luzonicus sp. nov. X 2. 

7. Pachyrrhynchus schuetzei sp. nov. X 2. 

8. Macrocyrtus benguetanus sp. nov. X 1.5. 

9. Macrocyrtus benguetanus var. montanicus nov. X 1.5. 

10. Metapocyrtus furcatus sp. nov. X 2.5; 10a, dorsal view of apical 

area. 

11. Artapocyrtus sexmaculatus sp. nov., lateral view of head; 11a., front 

view of head. 

259 



Schultze: Philippine Coleoptera, IV.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 4. 




PLATE I. NEW PHILIPPINE COLEOPTERA. 



REVIEWS 

The Fundus Oculi of Birds | especially as viewed by the | Ophthalmoscope 
| A study in | comparative anatomy and physiology I by | Casey 
Albert Wood | Illustrated by 145 drawings in the text; also by sixty- 
one | colored paintings prepared for this work by | Arthur W. Head, 
F. Z. S. | London | Chicago | The Lakeside Press | 1917 | Cloth, 
pp. 1-182. Price, $15.00. 

The Fundus Oculi of Birds is evidently a work of love, a 
byproduct in the life of a busy professional man, the utilization 
of the skill of the oculist in the study of a specialized branch 
of ornithology. 

The author clearly shows the difficulty involved in the pro- 
duction of a work such as he has given us the pleasure of 
reviewing. As he says (p. 36) : 

The ophthalmologist may be a good observer but a poor artist; con- 
versely, an expert in the use of brush and pencil may not be sufficiently 
conversant with normal and pathological, human and comparative oph- 
thalmoscopy and ophthalmology to enable him to make an intelligent use 
of his artistic talents. 

Fortunately Doctor Wood has been able to combine his own 
technic with the rare artistic experience and ability of Mr. A. W. 
Head, and thus to present a wonderful collection of colored pic- 
tures of the fundus oculi. 

Following the Introduction and Summary of Conclusions the 
chapters deal with collection, selection, and preparation of mate- 
rial and bibliography; anatomy of the fundus organs in birds; 
ophthalmoscopy of the vertebrate eye; ophthalmoscopy of the 
fundus in living birds; fundus oculi of birds in prepared speci- 
mens; effects of domestication on the fundus oculi; the fundus 
appearances in various orders of birds; classification of the 
ocular fundi of birds; classification of Aves and the fundus 
oculi, and the relations of reptilian to avian fundi. 

The fundus oculi of birds, in simple words, is the posterior 
wall of the eye, and as seen through the pupil in the living bird 
by means of the ophthalmoscopy, it presents a picture entirely 
different from that seen in the eye of any other vertebrate. 
Doctor Wood has examined the eyes of representatives of nearly 
all the avian orders and 

believes that as the fundus appearances in wild species are probably in- 
variable and that, as the evidence so far produced shows, each species 
• ' 261 



262 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

exhibits a background picture distinct in one or more particulars from 
every other species, it is possible to identify many of them by the use of 
the ophthalmoscope alone; * * *. [p. 114.] 

Colored plates show that there is much difference in the 
fundus of different genera, but in only one case has the author 
illustrated the fundi of two species in the same genus, namely, 
Haliaetus leucocephalus and H. leucogaster, illustrated on plates 
33 and 34, respectively. The ocular fundi of these two species 
seem to be somewhat similar to each other, but that of the 
latter seems to be more similar to the fundus of Tinnunculus 
alaudarius, plate 35, than to the fundus of H. leucocephalus. 
Doctor Wood says (p. 115) : 

The arrangement of the centres of distinct vision, the fundus tints and 
the pectinate tissues of the larger Acciptriformes present a decided oph- 
thalmoscopic resemblance in all the species so far examined by the writer. 

A series of plates illustrating the fundi of half a dozen or 
more species in one genus would be interesting. With regard 
to characteristic colors of the fundus, Doctor Wood says (p. 114) : 

When a bird and his ancestors (in the evolutionary sense) have used 
their eyes for distinct visualization largely or exclusively at night the 
fundus tint is nearly always yellow or orange. 

Another observation of avian fundi seems to show that an admixture of 
yellow (in the form of an orange-red coloration) may be present to in- 
dicate not so much recent as former, i. e. atavistic, night habits long since 
abandoned by the species. 

This almost universal occurrence of yellow or orange-tinted fundi in 
Night Birds leads one to speculate as to the cause of a different colora- 
tion in species that, during historic times at least, have used their eyes 
largely or exclusively after dark. At least some of the Ardeiformes furnish 
such examples. 

The paper, type, press work, and binding of this book are 
such as to produce a pleasing and satisfactory volume. 

R. C. McG. 

Heridity in Relation | to Eugenics | by | Charles Benedict Davenport | [5 
lines] | [ornament] | New York | Henry Holt and Company | 1913 | 
Cloth, pp. i-xi+ 1-298. 

Heredity in Relation to Eugenics is a most welcome contri- 
bution to the literature of the subject, not only because of the 
many facts presented, but also because of the clear, sound, and 
temperate analysis which the author has made of them. What 
is given here is no more than a brief abstract of this book, and 
it should be said that the work is an excellent one for those who 
are interested in the subject, as it covers the field in an adequate 
manner and avoids those severely technical discussions that 



xn, d, 4 Reviews 263 

are difficult of comprehension by the ordinary reader, as well 
as theories that are not widely accepted. 

There is a general impression that books upon heredity are 
gloomy and pessimistic ; that they teach that the deficiencies 
of the parents are inevitably inherited by the children; and 
that as acquired characteristics are not transmitted there is no 
chance for mental, moral, or physical improvement. According 
to this idea, since the career of each individual would be pre- 
determined from his birth, there would be no room for free will, 
all striving for improvement would be useless, and the very 
foundations of ethics and of religion would be undermined. 

Doctor Davenport's presentation of the subject is distinctly 
hopeful, as it makes clear that only mental and moral tendencies 
are usually inherited, and that these can be inhibited, cultivated, 
and modified, within certain limits, by training, formation of 
habits, and education. Social environment and deliberate choice 
and effort are factors that may improve many individuals, 
though there are persons of the lower types who are not able 
to advance themselves consciously. Thus the underlying convic- 
tion of most thinking people that the larger number of indi- 
viduals are responsible for their acts is shown to be well founded, 
and heredity takes its place with environment as one of the fac- 
tors influencing conduct, instead of being an overmastering power 
against which it is useless to struggle. 

Notwithstanding this encouraging attitude, the author main- 
tains, in no equivocal terms, the commanding importance of 
eugenics, which he defines as "the science of the improvement 
of the human race by better breeding," and he even goes so 
far as to say: "Man is an organism — an animal; and the laws 
of improvement of corn and of race horses hold true for him 
also. Unless people accept this simple truth and let it influence 
marriage selection human progress will cease." 

The expense in the United States of caring for the insane, 
the feeble-minded, criminals, and other defectives shows an enor- 
mous and disproportionate increase from year to year and has 
led some writers to deplore the undue sentimentality of modern 
society in encouraging the multiplication of the unfit, who other- 
wise would have been eliminated. The statement is made that 
one fifth of the total revenues of some states in the United States 
is devoted to the care of the unfit, and that we support about 
half a million insane, feeble-minded, epileptic, blind, and deaf 
persons, with, in addition, 80,000 prisoners, and 100,000 paupers, 
at a cost of over 100,000,000 dollars a year. Besides this stag- 



264 The Philippine Journal of Science iw 

gering total, there are many other defectives, who are not in 
institutions and who are a constant menace to society. 

Davenport's views on the question of the best methods of 
diminishing the transmission of undesirable physical and mental 
traits are perfectly definite. After discussing the sterilization 
of the unfit from various points of view, he concludes that the 
lower grades should be segregated in institutions, while the 
nearly normal people should be educated as to fit and unfit 
matings. 

This is one of the few subjects that he has not treated in a 
satisfactory manner, as many persons might feel that his own 
tables could be easily interpreted to confute the author's con- 
clusions as to the social expediency of the marriage of the higher 
grades of the mentally defective, while the expense of the pro- 
posed adequate segregation would be prohibitive. 

However, he is not unaware of the logical deductions from his 
presentation of the facts, for he writes, "There is no question 
that if every feeble-minded, epileptic, insane, or criminalistic 
person now in the United States were operated on this year 
there would be an enormous reduction of the population of our 
institutions 25 or 30 years hence; * * *." 

A more complete discussion of the relation of drunkenness to 
defectiveness would add to the usefulness of the book, as some 
authors regard alcoholism as the cause of deficiency, while al- 
most all feel that the two are very intimately related. There- 
fore it may be desirable to include drunkards in the list of those 
who should not be permitted to burden society with their progeny. 

Apparently the author's sympathy for the individuals who 
are less favored by nature tends, in this instance, to outweigh 
the interests of society, and he may possibly place too much 
importance upon the usefulness to society of the offspring of 
the high-grade defectives. 

On the other hand, he emphasizes the importance of proper 
marriage in the words "proper matings are the greatest means 
of permanently improving the human race — of saving it from 
imbecility, poverty, disease, and immorality." 

The section on the sociological aspect of eugenics is of especial 
interest, for his explanation "the traits of the feeble-minded 
and the criminalistic are normal traits for infants and for earlier 
stages in man's evolution" gives an additional instance of the 
biological truth that "the individual (ontos) in its development 
passes through stages like those the race (phylum) has traversed 
in its evolution." We are forced "to conclude that these traits 
have come to us directly from our animal ancestry and have 



xii, d, 4 Reviews 265 

never been got rid of" by those whom we class as defectives, 
and who in many cases are merely instances of arrested or im- 
perfect development. The universal processes of evolution 
tended to eliminate those individuals who were not adapted to 
their environment, and so society gradually freed itself from un- 
social strains by the simple process of the imprisonment or execu- 
tion of those individuals who were a menace to the welfare of 
their fellows. The author faces the situation with courage and 
does not hesitate to say (p. 263) : 

We are horrified by the 223 capital offenses in England less than a 
century ago, but though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling 
with the difficulty it is infinitely superior to that of training the feeble- 
minded and criminalistic and then letting them loose on society and per- 
mitting them to perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits. Our 
present practices are said to be dictated by emotion uhtempered by reason; 
if this is so, then emotion untempered by reason is social suicide. If we 
are to build up in America a society worthy of the species man then we 
must take such steps as will prevent the increase or even the perpetuation 
of animalistic strains. 

The deductions of heredity give little support to those philan- 
thropists who think that all criminals are merely the victims 
of social injustice and that the children of criminals will always 
make good citizens if placed in a proper environment. The pedi- 
gree of the Juke family, which up to 1877 had cost New York 
State over 1,250,000 dollars, and is still multiplying, and those of 
the "Ishmaelities," Owens, and many other families show that 
defective parents will almost inevitably have defective offspring. 
Many instances are given of children with defective ancestry, 
but with excellent surroundings from an early age, who have 
proved incorrigible. 

In support of these various conclusions, Davenport gives a 
logical and well-arranged discussion — though it is possibly too 
condensed — illustrated by many tables of the method and 
mechanics of heredity, covering the fertilization and multiplica- 
tion of the germ cells, the transmission of determiners and unit 
characters, and the Mendelian theories of the inheritance of 
dominant and recessive characters. 

One of the best bases for the study of the interaction of these 
factors is the inheritance of family traits, since we have here 
available a considerable number of facts regarding the trans- 
mission of the color of the eyes, hair, and skin; the energy, 
stature, weight, form, and peculiarities of the body ; the appear- 
ance of mechanical, mathematical, mental, literary, musical, and 
artistic ability ; and the susceptibility to various diseases of the 



/ 



266 The Philippine Journal of Science 

nervous, muscular, vascular, alimentary, and respiratory systems, 
as well as to maladies of the eyes, ears, skin, glands, and blood. 
The list is astonishingly long, and the evidence is abundant. The 
studies of feeble-mindedness, insanity, pauperism, and criminal- 
ity are especially convincing. 

Chapters are also devoted to the geographic distribution of 
inheritable traits and to migrations and their eugenic signifi- 
cance. Of special interest is the chapter on the influence of the 
individual on the race. 

The author closes with a strong plea for a thorough study by 
the various States, by means of eugenic surveys made by the 
school teachers, of all their families, for the purpose of record- 
ing the good and the bad traits of each strain, with a view of 
eliminating the latter. He feels that society has a right to this 
information, in spite of the unwillingness to give it that may be 
felt by individuals, and he meets the objection that such a survey 
is impracticable by the assertion that a similar one is well ad- 
vanced in New Jersey, largely through private initiative, by 
means of field-workers attached to various institutions for de- 
fectives. He also thinks that there should be a national clearing 
house to collect the information collected by the various states. 

C. C. Batchelder. 

Truth | and | Other Poems | by | Paul Carus ! [cut] | Chicago \ The Open 
Court Publishing Company | MCMXIV | Cloth, pp. 1-61. Price, ?1. 

The | Mutation Theory | Experiments and Observations | on the | Origin of 
species in the Vegetable | Kingdom | by | Hugo de Vries | professor of 
botany at Amsterdam | translated by ] Prof. J. B. Farmer and A. D. 
Dabishire ! Volume II I The origin of varieties by mutation | with 
numerous [text] illustrations and six colored plates I Chicago I The 
Open Court Publishing Company j London agents \ Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd. | 1910 | Cloth, pp. i-viii+ 1-683. Price, $4. 



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THE PHILIPPINE 



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THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
and Anthropology 

Vol. XII SEPTEMBER, 1917 No. 5 

BRACHYMELES, A GENUS OF PHILIPPINE LIZARDS 

By Edward H. Taylor 

(From the Section of Ichthyology, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science, 

Manila) 

ONE PLATE AND SEVEN TEXT FIGURES 

The genus Brachymeles, as here understood, is the same as 
defined by Boulenger ; 1 that is, it includes the genera Brachy- 
meles Dumeril and Bibron and Senira Gray. At first glance the 
three large pentadactyl species — B. schadenbergi, gracilis, and 
bicolor — appear to be very different from the diminutive bonitse 
with stumplike limbs; however, the marked similarity of the 
upper head scales and the fact that these species form a more 
or less continuous series warrant placing them in one genus. 
The recent discovery of two species intermediate between bicolor 
and bonitse makes the relationship of the species appear more 
obvious. 

Taking Brachymeles schadenbergi as the most specialized form 
of the genus, since in this species the leg development seems 
greatest (that is, the length of the hind leg is contained in the 
axilla to groin distance 3.25 times, 2 while in B. gracilis the* 
average is 3.6 times) , 3 it is seen that the relative length of the 
body (axilla to groin distance) increases and the length and the 
development of the limbs decrease proportionally in each species 
of the series. Thus in B. bicolor the hind leg is contained in 
the axilla to groin distance 7 times ; in elerx, 9.6 times ; in bonitss 
and burksi, more than 25 times. 

'Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1887), 3, 386. 
* Average of 20 specimens. 
3 Average of 27 specimens. 
150687 267 



268 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

In the two species first mentioned, which are very closely 
related, the legs are used more or less; in bicolor the legs are 
for the most part kept folded close to the body and are probably 
of no great consequence in locomotion; however, the limbs are 
still pentadactyl. In elerse the limbs are still further reduced 
and one of the digits on each hand and foot is wanting; in this 
species the legs are probably of no use in locomotion. In bonitse 
and burksi the legs are reduced to small stumplike rudiments 
and are scarcely more than 2 millimeters long in the largest 
specimens. 

In this paper I have redescribed the species of the genus from 
large series of specimens. The characters assigned to B. gracilis 
and to B. schadenbergi by Boulenger * are not constant, and 
specimens of one species can be found that agree with both 
descriptions. Of the two new species here described, B. elerse 
is well differentiated by having only four digits ; B. burksi stands 
in the same relation to B. bonitse as B. schadenbergi does to B. 
gracilis. 

Key to the species of Brachymeles. 

a\ Limbs pentadactyl. 

b\ Length of hind leg contained three to four times in the distance be- 
tween axilla and groin. 
c\ Second pair of chin shields broader than first and separated by one 

scale v gracilis Fischer. 

c 2 . First pair of chin shields broader than second pair, the latter sep- 
arated by two or three scales schadenbergi Fischer. 

6 2 . Length of hind leg contained about seven times in distance from axilla 
to groin. First pair of chin shields broadest; second pair separated 

by two or more scales. Limbs pentadactyl bicolor Gray. 

a". Limbs tetradactyl. Length of hind limb contained nine to ten times 
in distance from axilla to groin; second pair of chin shields broadest, 

separated by one scale elerse sp. nov. 

a 3 . Limbs stumplike. Limbs contained in axilla to groin distance twenty- 
five or more times. 
d 1 . Second pair of chin shields broadest, separated by a single scale. 

burksi sp. nov. 

d 2 . First pair of chin shields broadest; second pair separated by three 

scales bonitae Dumeril and Bibron. 

Brachymeles schadenbergi Fischer. Plate I, fig. 1. 

Senira bicolor, part., GRAY, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845), 98. 
Eumeces (Riopa) schadenbergi Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamb. 

(1885), 11, 87, PI. Ill, fig. 2. 
Brachymeles schadenbergii BOULENGER, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1887), 

3, 386. 

4 Boulenger, op. cit., 386. 




xii, d, b Taylor: Brachymeles 269 

Description of species. — Rostral large, longer than wide, point- 
ed behind, in contact with the frontonasal in 7 specimens, 
separated in 13 ; supranasals present, either in contact or separ- 
ated; frontonasal usually broader than wide; prefrontals con- 
stantly separated, leaving frontal narrowly in contact with fron- 
tonasal; frontal large, longer than broad or equal, constantly in 
contact with two supra-oculars ; frontoparietals 
usually in contact (two specimens show excep- 
tion), as broad as long or a little broader; inter- 
parietal large, longer than broad, with a whitish 
eyespot; parietals not forming a suture behind 
interparietal (one exception) ; no nuchals; nostril 
pierced in a small nasal, which is followed by a 
small postnasal; two frenals, first much higher Fro . j. Brachyme- 
than wide; second lower than first and nearly les schadenbergi 

Fischer chin 

square; two small preocular scales; five supra- shields. x2. 
oculars, the second widest; six superciliaries ; 
six or seven upper labials, the fourth entering the orbit (two 
specimens have the fifth), first largest; four subequal scales 
at the posterior corner and below the eye; temporal scales 
slightly enlarged; mental large, somewhat rectangular; five to 
seven, usually six, lower labials; an undivided postmental 
wider than deep; first pair of chin shields wider than sec- 
ond pair, in contact or not (10 specimens touch, 10 do not) ; 
rostral, mental, first upper and lower labials, nasals, postnasals, 
and internasals all apparently thickened and lighter in color than 
body; eye small, its diameter one half its distance from snout; 
distance from eye to auricular opening greater than from eye 
to nostril; auricular opening present, small, about halfway be- 
tween end of snout and insertion of forearm; forearm pressed 
forward fails to reach auricular opening in large specimens, 
but does so in some smaller specimens; foreleg followed by a 
lateral depression into which it is usually folded; distance from 
tip of snout to insertion of arm from 2 to 2.6 times (average, 2.3) 
in distance from axilla to groin; length of hind leg contained in 
this distance from 3 to 4 (average, 3.25). Limbs pentadactyl; 
with unicarinate lamellae ; six lamellae under longest finger, eight 
under longest toe; third and fourth toes practically equal, some- 
times the fourth slightly longer, sometimes the third; preanal 
scales slightly enlarged; 26 to 28 rows of scales about the body 
(17 specimens, 28 rows; 3 specimens, 26 rows) ; scales of poste- 
rior part of body frequently dimly tricarinate; tail 1.1 times 
the length of body. 



270 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Color in life. — Above brown, each scale with a darker brown 
area, covering eight scale rows ; laterally and ventrally brownish 
yellow with some lateral scales flecked with the darker brown 
of the dorsal area; scales of belly of some specimens flecked 
with brown; scales on the ventral part of tail usually dark 
brown; head and upper labials usually dark brown, scales on 
the end of snout lighter. 

Measurements of Brachymeles schadenbergi Fischer. 

T arrest Average of 8 

=J^S!™ nearly equal-sized 
specimen. specimeI13 . 

mm - mm. 



Length 




220 


206 


Snout to vent 




112 


99 


Tail 




a 108 


106 


Snout to foreleg 


• 


31 


29 


Axilla to groin 




71 


64 


Foreleg 




13 


12.5 


Hind leg 


* Tip missing. 


20 


19 



Remarks. — This species is common in Mindanao. Most of 
the specimens examined are from Agusan River Valley. It is 
a burrowing form and is usually found under logs or trash. The 
females give birth to from two to five young. 

The preceding description is based on a series of 20 specimens 
from Mindanao. 

Brachymeles gracilis Fischer. Plate I, fig. 2. 

Senira bicolor, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845), 98; Gunthee, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1879), 76. 
Eumeces (Riopa) gracilis Fischer, Jahrb. Wiss. Anst. Hamb. (1885), 

11, 85, PL III, fig. 1. 
Brachymeles gracilis Bc-ULENGER, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1887), 3, 387. 

Description of species. — Rostral broader than high, visible 
above ; supranasals present, in contact or not behind the rostral 
(8 specimens touch, 19 do not) ; frontonasal broader than deep; 
prefrontals broader than deep, never in contact with each other, 
laterally forming sutures with both f renals and first superciliary ; 
frontal large, about as long as broad, in contact with the fronto- 
nasal and two supra-oculars ; frontoparietals constantly in con- 
tact, about as broad as deep; parietals elongate, in contact or 
not behind the interparietal (14 specimens touch, 13 do not) ; 
interparietal about as long as broad with a distinct white eye- 
spot; nostril in a minute nasal followed by a postnasal; two 
f renals, first highest, second rather square ; five or six supercilia- 
ries ; five supra-oculars, second widest ; six or seven upper labials, 




x ".d, 5 Taylor: Brachymeles -271 

fourth entering orbit; seven lower labials, mental little wider 
than deep, followed by an undivided postmental much wider than 
deep; first pair of chin shields in contact or not (19 specimens 
touch, 8 do not) ; second pair of chin shields broadest, separated 
by a single scale; temporals not or but slightly enlarged; pre- 
anals somewhat enlarged; foreleg short, with four unicarinate 
lamellae under the longest finger ; hind leg with third and fourth 
toes equal, eight lamellae under each; a short 
depressed area along the body behind limbs; 
distance from eye to end of snout about equal 
to distance from eye to auricular opening; dis- 
tance from snout to foreleg contained in distance 
from axilla to groin 2.1 to 2.6 times (average, 
2.46) ; length of hind leg contained in axilla Fic 2 Brac7l!/)ne _ 
to groin distance 3 to 4.3 times (average, 3.6). ies gracilis Fis- 
The front leg fails to reach the ear by a consid- * h 2 er ' chin shields - 
erable distance. 

Color in life. — The 10 or 12 upper rows of scales dark yellow- 
ish brown with darker spots, usually on the posterior part of 
each scale, forming, sometimes, rather distinct longitudinal lines ; 
below usually dirty yellowish brown, each scale on ventral side of 
tail with a brownish spot ; head blackish brown ; sometimes scales 
on sides and belly have small dark spots. Scales smooth, in 24 
to 28 rows. 

Measurements of Brachymeles gracilis Fischer. 

mm. 

Length 196 

Tail ' 101 

Axilla to groin 60 

Snout to foreleg 26 

Foreleg 9 

Hind leg 15 

Variation. — The young usually have narrow white stripes from 
behind the eyes to some distance on the tail, separated by six 
rows of scales. These frequently persist in half-grown speci- 
mens. One specimen from Canlaon Volcano, Negros, shows very 
marked variation . from other specimens from the same locality. 
It has 30 rows of scales, the legs are better developed; the ear 
opening much larger and nearer the foreleg than the end of the 
snout; there is a broad white band on either side, the parietals 
are in contact ; the fourth and fifth supralabials enter the orbit ; 
the distance from snout to foreleg is contained twice in axilla to 
groin distance; the hind leg in the same distance, 2.7 times. 
It is probable that this specimen represents a distinct subspecies. 



272 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Remarks. — Females give birth to from four to six young at a 
time. Embryos taken from a female captured in Mindoro meas- 
ured about 60 millimeters and were still surrounded by a large 
egg mass; the eyespot on the interparietal is prominent in the 
embryos. 

This species is common in Negros and is especially common in 
Mindoro. I was unable to find it in Mindanao where it has been 
reported by J. G. Fischer. 3 I surmise that the specimen reported 
by Fischer is B. schadenbergi. The preceding description is 
based on a series of 27 specimens from Negros and Mindoro. 

Brachymeles bicolor Gray. Plate I, fig. 3. 

Senira bicolor, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845), 98. 
Brachymeles bicolor Boulenger, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1887), 3, 388, 
Plate XXXI. Casto de Elera, Fauna de Filipinas (1895), 422. 

Description of species. — Rostral very much broader than deep, 
not touching the frontoparietal; internasals large, broadly in 
contact behind the rostral and forming their longest suture with 
the frontonasal ; latter much broader than deep, in contact with 
one loreal and in contact with the frontal at a single point; pre- 
frontals large, minutely separated, wider than deep; frontal 
longer than wide, rather pointed in front, 
touching two supraoculars ; two frontoparietals, 
a little wider than deep, broadly in contact be- 
hind frontal ; two very elongate parietals, lying 
diagonally, nearly three times as long as wide, 
forming a suture behind interparietal; latter 
longer than broad; a pair of nuchals, narrow 

Fig. 3. Brachymeles , , , , . . , , , , 

bicolor Gray, chin and elongate ; a large, elongate temporal borders 
shields. x2. parietal; nasal extremely small, only a ring 

about nostril; a postnasal of nearly the same 
size; two large frenals, first higher than wide, higher than 
second; second f renal nearly square; a preocular directly in 
front of eye; five supra-oculars, second longest and arranged 
as in other members of the genus, two in contact with frontal ; a 
few small scales below orbit above labials ; six superciliaries ; six 
upper labials, first largest, not touching internasal ; fourth under 
eye, first four of nearly the same size; two or three scales in 
temporal region enlarged ; six lower labials ; mental broader than 
deep, rather rectangular; postmental single, wider than deep; 
first pair of chin shields in contact, wider than second pair ; the 
latter small, separated by three scales (like the arrangement in 
B. schadenbergi) . Ear opening greatly reduced and well poste- 

5 Fischer, loc. cit. 




xii, d, 5 Taylor: Brachymeles 273 

rior to eye; 28 rows of scales around the body; anals not or 
scarcely enlarged. Legs small, five fingers and toes present, all 
clawed; lamellae below digits feebly compressed and unicarinate, 
limbs rather broadened at base. Hind leg contained in the 
distance from axilla to groin 7.4 times. 

Color in alcohol. — Above dark red-brown, covering ten scale 
rows ; each scale with a darker brown spot, which is not readily 
discerned; head and upper parts of limbs brown; laterally and 
ventrally the color is yellowish to brownish white, distinctly 
contrasted with the color above. 

Measurements of Brachymeles bicolor Gray. 

ram. 

Length, tail broken and a partial regeneration begun 215 

Snout to vent 155 

Width of body 18 

Width of head 14 

Snout to ear 15 

Snout to eye 6 

Snout to foreleg 32 

Axilla to groin 112 

Foreleg 8 

Hind leg 15 

Remarks. — The specimen contained two embryos which were 
almost fully matured. They measure 90 and 86 millimeters, re- 
spectively; width of head, 6.5; snout to vent, 48; hind limb, 6. 
The head scales are identical with those of the mother, save that 
the interparietals are a little wider than deep; the nuchals are 
present in one specimen, in the other they are broken. I regard 
the presence of the nuchals as a normal characteristic, although 
the figure of the type does not show them. This species is ap- 
parently very rare. I have been unable to find it, and there is 
no specimen in the Bureau of Science collection. I am inclined 
to believe that it is an inhabitant of north-central and western 
Luzon, although I have been unable to find any definite localities 
recorded. It is the largest known species of the genus and is 
readily recognized by the elongate body. 

Described from a specimen in the Santo Tomas Museum, Ma- 
nila. It has no number. It is labeled "Filipinas." 

Brachymeles elerae sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 4. 

Type. — Museum of Santo Tomas, unnumbered; the collector 
unknown; labeled "Filipinas." 

Description of type. — Rostral but little wider than deep, bend- 
ing backward somewhat over end of the snout, broadly in contact 
with frontonasal ; internasals reduced, separated, in contact with 



274 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 




Fig. 4. Br a- 
c hy m eles 
eler se sp. 
nov., type ; 
chin shields. 
X 2. 




first labials; frontonasal nearly as long as broad, narrowly in 
contact with frontal; the latter longer than broad, produced to 
a point in front, in contact with two supra-oculars ; 
frontoparietals quadrangular, moderate, separate; 
frontal touches interparietal, which is diamond- 
shaped; parietals elongate, three times as long as 
wide ; nasal minute, a mere rim around nostril ; two 
f renals, first higher than wide ; second almost square ; 
one large preocular; five supra-oculars, the second 
widest; six superciliaries ; six labials above, first 
labial largest, the fourth entering orbit; one pair 
of nuchals; temporals somewhat enlarged, the larg- 
est bordering parietal; mental quadrangular, wider than deep; 
one postmental, wider than deep ; first and second pairs of chin 
shields divided by a single, median, much-enlarged 
scale, second pair somewhat broader than first pair ; 
third pair of chin shields divided by three scales. 
Limbs much reduced, each with fouK diminutive, 
clawed digits; ear opening wanting; two anals dis- 
tinctly enlarged; eye rather small; 24 scale rows 
around anterior part of body; 22 about middle; 
length of hind leg in distance from axilla to groin 
about ten times. 

Color in alcohol. — Very light yellowish brown 
above and on sides, each scale with a dark brown spot, which 
forms longitudinal dotted lines on each scale row; dots below 
smaller and not so distinct as above. 

Measurements of Brachymeles elerse sp. nov. 

Length 

Snout to vent 
Width of hody 
Width of head 
Axilla to groin 
Snout to foreleg 
Foreleg 
Hind leg 
Scale rows 

Variation. — A second specimen in Santo Tomas Museum is 
in the same container and is probably from the same locality. 
Its measurements are included in the preceding table. 

The two specimens agree very well, save that in the cotype the 
scale dividing the first pair of chin shields is smaller and the 



Fig. 5. Bra- 
chymeles 
elerse s p. 
nev., cotype ; 
chin shields. 
X 2. 



Type. 


Cotype. 


mm. 


mm. 


128 


103 


68 


63 


6 


6 


5.1 


5 


51 


44 


15 


12 


3.5 


3.1 


5.2 


4.6 


22-24 


24-26 



xii, d, 6 Taylor: Brachymeles 275 

second pair is divided by only a single scale. This is probably 
the normal condition. 

Remarks. — While no locality is given, I am assured by the 
Director of Santo Tomas Museum that the specimens are from 
Nueva Vizcaya. I take pleasure in naming the species for Father 
Casto de Elera in recognition of his contribution to Philippine 
zoology. 

Superficially this species resembles Lygosoma lineatum Gray 
and thus the specimens were found labeled. In common with 
this species they have four digits on the limbs, and the coloring 
and the marking are strikingly similar, but here the resemblance 
geases. It has no close affinities in the genus. 

Brachymeles burksi sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 5. 

Type. — No. 700, male, private collection ; collected at Sumagui 
(Liddell Plantation), east coast of Mindoro; May 4, 1916; by E. 
H. Taylor. 

Description of type. — General appearance rather wormlike; 
head bluntly pointed. Rostral large, visible above for nearly 
half its length, rather broadly in contact with the frontonasal; 
nostril in a minute nasal between first labial, supranasal, and 
rostral ; supranasal in contact with largest f renal and first labial ; 
these scales on point of snout thickened; frontonasal 
a little broader than long, narrowly in contact with 
frontal, which is slightly longer than broad and in 
contact with first and second supra-oculars ; prefrontals 
rather rectangular, touching two frenals, first super- FlG - 6 - Bra - 
ciliary, and first supra-ocular; four supra-oculars, Lr/Tsisp* 
second widest, last smallest ; four or five superciliaries ; nov - chin 
frontoparietals somewhat rectangular, little larger than x 2 '. e 
prefrontals, touching two supra-oculars; interparietal 
a little longer than broad, narrowly in contact with the frontal ; 
parietals more than twice as long as wide, in contact behind inter- 
parietal, touching two supra-oculars, two temporals, and an 
elongate nuchal; two frenals, a small preocular before eye; no 
postnasal; six upper labials, fourth entering orbit; six lower 
labials; mental moderate, thickened, wider than high; an un- 
paired postmental, followed by three pairs of chin shields none of 
which are in contact, second pair widest ; two temporals between 
parietal and sixth labial ; 24 scale rows ; two distinctly enlarged 
preanals; eyes small; ear completely hidden; legs reduced to 
scaled stumplike rudiments with no indication of digits; length 
from snout to foreleg 4.5 times in distance between axilla and 
groin. 




276 The Philippine Journal of Science 1m 

Measurements of Brachymeles burksi sp. nov. 



mm. 



Length, tail regenerated 103 

Snout to anus 73.5 

Axilla to groin 60 

Snout to foreleg 13.5 

Width of head 4.5 

Width of body 5.4 

Foreleg 1.1 

Hind leg 1.3 

Color in life. — Above and below dark (sometimes purplish) 
brown, each scale having a darker area with the edges somewhat 
lighter ; end of snout grayish. 

Remarks. — Several specimens of this species were taken on 
the eastern coast of Mindoro at Sumagui, on the Liddell Planta- 
tion ; ten specimens were taken later at Calapan, on the northern 
coast. They were found burrowing under logs and in rotting 
wood. Very little variation is evident; most of the specimens 
have 22 instead of 24 scale rows; one specimen has only five 
upper labials, the third entering the orbit. The females give 
birth to two young. Embryos taken from one female measured 
56 and 54 millimeters; they seem almost entirely developed. 

This species is closely related to Brachymeles bonitse, but 
differs from it in the following characters: The leg stumps are 
even more reduced, the prefontals and frontoparietals are smal- 
ler, nuchals are present, the mental is much smaller, and the 
postmental is in contact with two instead of one labial, the second 
pair of divided chin shields are broader than the first pair and 
are separated by a single scale. 

I take pleasure in naming this species for Mr. Clark Burks, 
who assisted in making collections in western Mindoro. 

Brachymeles bonitse Dumeril and Bibron. Plate I, fig. 6. 

Brachymeles bonitse Dumeril and BlBRON, Erp. Gen. (1839), 5, 777; 
Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. (1845), 98; Boettger, Bericht. u. d. 
Senck. Nat. Gesel. (1886), 103; Boulenger, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. 
(1887), 3, 388. 

Description. — Rostral large, triangular, about as high as wide ; 
internasals present, large, separated; frontonasal large, a little 
wider than long, in contact laterally with a single frenal, form- 
ing sutures with rostral and frontal; prefrontals separated, in 
contact laterally with two frenals and first superciliary; frontal 
about as broad as long, in contact with two supra-oculars and nar- 
rowly with interparietal ; frontoparietals rather large, separated ; 




xn, d, 5 Taylor: Brachymeles 277 

parietals about three times as long as wide, forming a suture be- 
hind interparietal; nostril pierced in a minute nasal; no post- 
nasal ; first labial in contact with internasal, two enlarged f renals ; 
five supraciliaries, four supra-oculars, second widest; 
six supralabials, third and fourth entering orbit; tem- 
porals enlarged, nuchals slightly enlarged; mental 
large, followed by an enlarged postmental, which is in 
contact with a single lower labial ; four pairs of divided 
chin shields, first largest and widest ; fourth pair very 
small; ear hidden; limbs reduced to stumps with no 
digits ; 26 rows of scales about body ; eye small ; scales 
on point of snout thickened; length of legs twenty- 
eight times in axilla to groin distance. 
. Color in life. — Uniform purplish brown, lighter on throat and 
chin. Scales on snout lighter than other head scales. 

Measurements of Brachymeles bonitse Dumeril and Bibron. 

mm. 

Length, tail regenerated 113 

Length of head 9 

Width of head 5.5 

Axilla to groin 65 

Foreleg 2.3 

Hind leg 2.3 

Snout to foreleg 13.5 

Remarks. — This species stands much in the same relation to 
B. burksi as B. schadenbergi does to B. gracilis. The following 
differences are present: The mental is larger, the arrangement 
of the chin shields is essentially different, and the postmental is 
in contact "with a single labial instead of with two as in B. burksi. 
Several other minor differences are evident on a comparison of 
the two species. 

Described from No. 1151, private collection; Los Banos, La- 
guna, Luzon, on the side of Mount Maquiling, elevation about 
100 meters; April 10, 1917; E. H. Taylor, collector. 

Note: Since this paper has gone to press, two apparently 
new species of the genus Brachymeles have been discovered in 
the Sulu Archipelago. One is a pentadactyl form, the other 
has lost all external vestiges of limbs. They will be described 
in a forthcoming paper on Sulu reptiles. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Photographs by Bureau of Science.] 

Plate i 

Fig. 1. Brachymeles schadenbergi Fischer. 

2. Brachymeles gracilis Fischer. 

3. Brachymeles bicolor Gray. 

4. Brachymeles elerse sp. nov. 

5. Brachymeles burksi sp. nov. 

6. Brachymeles bonitse Durrieril and Bibron. 

TEXT FIGURES 
[Drawings by P. Moskaira.] 

Fig. 1. Brachymeles schadenbergi Fischer, chin shields. X 2. 

2. Brachymeles gracilis Fischer, chin shields. X 2. 

3. Brachymeles bicolor Gray, chin shields. X 2. 

4. Braciiymeles elerse sp. nov., type, chin shields. X 2. 

5. Brachymeles elerse sp. nov., cotype, chin shields. X 2. 

6. Brachymeles burksi sp. nov., chin shields. X 2. 

7. Brachymeles bonitse Dumeril and Bibron, chin shields. X 2. 

279 



Taylor: Brachymeles.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 5. 




PLATE I. SIX SPECIES OF THE GENUS BRACHYMELES. 



ICHNEUMONOID PARASITES OF THE PHILIPPINES, I 

RHOGADIN^ (BRACONIDiE), I 

By C. F. Baker 
(Los Banos, P. I.) 

In laying the foundations for work in economic entomology in 
the Philippine Islands, a comprehensive study of the hymenop- 
terous parasites occurring in the Archipelago is of the highest 
importance. A bare beginning in this work has been made. Of 
the marvelously rich fauna in these groups but very few and 
scattering species have been made known to science; many of 
these are to be credited to the activities of two Jesuit priests, 
Fathers Brown and Stanton, whose field work was practically 
confined to the garden of the Manila Observatory. A few were 
obtained by Semper, the German lepidopterologist, and by other 
travelers. 

Only two species of the subfamily Rhogadinae have been de- 
scribed from the Philippines, but this subfamily is represented 
here by many interesting and some peculiar genera and by a very 
considerable number of species. It is entirely probable that 
the twenty-one species of thirteen genera described herein 1 are 
but a small fraction of those existing in the Islands, since they 
have been obtained at a few widely separated localities and as a 
result of merely desultory collecting. The Rhogadinse are para- 
sitic on various Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and many of the 
species are of economic importance. 

This subfamily may be defined as cyclostomatous braconids 
with margined occiput and sessile or subsessile or even subpe- 
tiolate abdomen, having wings with three cubital cells, head 
transverse and narrowed behind the eyes, usually one or more 
abdominal tergites with median carina, and the abdominal dor- 
sum usually coarsely striate in large part. The degree of con- 
nation in the second abdominal suture is variable. The body 
is usually covered with rather long, sparse, white pubescence, 
this becoming shorter and thicker on the legs. The hind tibial 
spurs are of various types and furnish good classificatory char- 

1 Numerous species of the genus Rhogas will be described in a later 
paper. 

281 



282 The Philippine Journal of Science vni 

acters. The pronotum is extended in widely variable degrees; 
its anterior outline is very various and is difficult to describe. 
The mesonotum varies from deeply trilobed to evenly convex, 
and the notauli from deeply impressed to subobsolete. The 
scutellar foveas and the sculpturation of the metanotum and the 
abdominal tergites are good sources of diagnostic characters. In 
all Philippine species the lower angle of the metapleura is pro- 
duced in a broad tooth above the hind coxal cavity, and the form 
of this tooth presents considerable variety. The eye is always 
emarginate within in the large-eyed forms, although the depth 
of emargination is variable. The nervellus in the hind wings 
is almost always oblique, although it varies from straight to 
curved or even to angularly bent at the middle; it is rarely 
vertical as in Neorhyssalus. 

The following genera and species are described in this paper : 

Rhyssalus unicolor Ashmead. Megarhogas szepligetii sp. nov. 

Rhyssalus ashmeadii sp. nov. Trigonophatnus nigricornis sp. nov. 

Neorhyssalus compositus g. et sp. Trigonophatnus philippinensis sp. 

nov. nov. 

Heterogamus longicollis sp. nov. Rhogasella straminea g. et sp. nov. 

Colastomion abdominalis g. et sp. Rhogasella lineata sp. nov. 

nov. Pseudogyroneuron mindanaensis g. 

Macrostomion debilis sp. nov. et sp. nov. 

Macrostomionella philippinensis g. Paragyroneuron bicolor g. et sp. nov. 

et sp. nov. Gyroneuronella kokujeivii g. et sp. 

Macrostomionella similis sp. nov. nov. 

Megarhogas stigmaticus sp. nov. Hemigyroneuron speciosus g. et sp. 

Megarhogas philippinensis sp. nov. nov. 

Megarhogas mindanaensis sp. nov. Hemigyroneuron suffusus sp. nov. 

braconim; 

RHOGADIN^E 

Synopsis of the Philippine genera. 

a 1 . Metanotum laterally, partly or entirely, areolated; ovipositor long. 

b 1 . Recurrent vein entering second cubital cell; metanotum with antero- 
lateral areas only; radius in hind wings obsolete. 

Rhyssalus Haliday. 
b 2 . Recurrent vein entering first cubital cell; metanotum fully areolated. 

Neorhyssalus g. nov. 
or. Metanotum laterally not areolated; ovipositor short; recurrent vein 
entering first cubital cell or interstitial. 
c\ First abscissa of radius longer than second; second cubital cell quad- 
rate; terminal abdominal segments retracted; radius in hind wing 
obsolete; hind tibial spurs straight, very short, pubescent. 

Heterogamus Wesmael. 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 283 

c-. First abscissa of radius shorter than second. 
d 1 . Hind tibial spurs distinctly curved, naked entirely or in part; max- 
illary palpi with one or several joints modified or dilated. 
c\ Metanotum without lateral prominences posterior to spiracles; 
spiracles circular or oval. 
/*. Maxillary palpi with third joint enlarged, but not flattened; 
second cubital cell twice as long as high and not narrowed 
apically; metanotal spiracles raised on umbos; mesopleura 

with discal furrows Colastomion g. nov. 

f. Maxillary palpi with several joints flattened and sometimes 
twisted; second cubital cell three times as long as high and 
distinctly narrowed apically; metanotal spiracles not raised; 
mesopleura without discal furrows.... Macrostomion Szepligeti. 
e 2 . Metanotum with blunt lateral prominences posterior to the spir- 
acles; spiracle elliptical; second cubital cell nearly or quite 
three times as long as high and distinctly narrowed apically; 

vertex back of ocelli very short Macrostomionella g. nov. 

d 2 . Hind tibial spurs straight or nearly so, pubescent; maxillary palpi 
normal, slender, rarely with certain joints inflated, as in Pseudo- 
gyroneuron. 
g\ Transverse median and postmedian veins normal, straight. 
h 1 . Metanotum without distinct lateral prominences. 

?. Abdomen distinctly subpetiolate, the first segment long and 

strongly narrowed toward base; second abscissa of radius 

three or four times length of first; ocelli and eyes very 

large; malar area? and cheeks relatively small; abdomen 

conspicuously longer than head and thorax together. 

j 1 . Metathoracic spiracles elliptical; mesopleura with strong 

discal furrows; second abscissa of radius swollen at base 

(in Philippine species) ; size large. 

Megarhogas Szepligeti. 
y. Metathoracic spiracles round or oval; mesopleura without 
discal furrows or with rudiments only; size medium. 

Trigonophatnus Cameron. 
i 2 . Abdomen broadly sessile, the first segment very slightly nar- 
rowed toward base and very broad for the length; second 
abscissa of radius less than three times length of first; 
ocelli and eyes varying from large to small; abdomen not 
or but little longer than head and thorax together. 
k 1 . Submedian cell as long as median on the median vein, 
transverse median vein interstitial with basal; ocelli 
very small; radial vein of hind wings on basal third, 
suddenly, strongly curved toward costa. 

Rhogasella g. nov. 

kr. Submedian cell always longer than median on the median 

vein, usually much longer; ocelli large to small; radial 

vein of hind wings not suddenly curved toward costa, 

although radial cell broadened apically in some species. 

Rhogas Nees. 
h 2 . Metanotum laterally with strong prominences; mesonotum 
deeply trilobed; radius in hind wing curved toward costa. 

150687 2 



284 The Philippine Journal of Science m7 

P. Maxillary palpi with certain joints greatly dilated and mo- 
dified; metanotal prominences not toothed; nervellus in 
hind wings oblique, slightly curved. 

Pseudogyroneuron g. nov. 
Z\ Maxillary palpi normal, all joints slender, metanotal pro- 
minences extended in strong teeth; nervellus in hind wings 

bent at middle Paragyronenron g. nov. 

g 2 . Transverse median and part of postmedian veins, one or both, 
strongly curved; mesonotum not trilohed. 
i»\ Stigma very short and wide, twice as long as wide; postmedian 
vein not strongly swollen, but very strongly curved; meta- 
notum laterally with strong toothed prominences. 

Gyroneuron Kokujew.* 

nv. Stigma long and narrow, three or more times as long as wide, 

transverse median vein greatly swollen, although in some 

species not curved; metanotum without lateral prominences. 

vl. Xotauli distinct on disk of mesonotum; scutellum anteriorly 

bifoveate; postscutellum small and minutely bifoveate; 

abdomen distinctly longer than head and thorax together, 

terminal segments not retracted; ocelli of medium size and 

distant from eyes, vertex posterior of ocelli long; head and 

mesonotum nearly smooth; radius in hind wings obsolete. 

Gyroneuronella g. nov. 
n~. Xotauli obsolete on disk of mesonotum; scutellum anteriorly 
sexfoveate; postscutellum large and sexfoveate; abdomen 
not or scarcely longer than head and thorax together, 
terminal segments more or less retracted; ocelli of great 
size, approximating the eyes, vertex posterior of ocelli 
very short; head and mesonotum coarsely sculptured; ra- 
dius in hind wings distinct Hemigyroneuron g. nov. 

* This Indian genus is inserted for comparison. 

Genus RHYSSAITJS Haliday 
Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . Ovipositor shorter than hind tarsi; abdomen with three visible seg- 
ments; antennae yellowish white at base (five or six joints) and con- 
colorous with legs; stigma pale, clouded at apex; head and thorax 
smooth nnicolor Ashmead. 

a 2 . Ovipositor three times length of hind tarsi; abdomen with six visible 
segments; antennae unicolorous with the dark ferruginous body, the 
legs paler; stigma pale throughout ; head and thorax heavily sculp- 
tured ashmeadii sp. nov. 

Eiyssalus unicolor Ashmead. 

Rkyssalus unicolor Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 970. 
"Female. — Length 1.5 mm.; ovipositor shorter than the hind tarsi. 
Brownish yellow, the sutures of the three-segmented abdomen blackish; 
stemmaticum black; eyes purplish brown; antenna; toward base (the first 
five or six joints), the palpi, and the legs white or yellowish white. Wings 
hyaline, the stigma, except at apex, and the internal veins, except as here- 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 285 

after noted, yellowish white; the apex of the stigma, the radius, and the 
costal veins brownish. Head and thorax smooth, the metanotum with a 
forked carina. The abdomen is longitudinally striated, the segments sub- 
opaque. 

Type.— Cat. 8320, U. S. N. M. 

Manila. (Robert Brown.) One specimen." 

I have not collected this species; the structure of the type 
specimen should be described. 

Rhyssalus ashmeadii sp. nov. 

Dark ferruginous, antennae concolorous, legs and tegulse paler, 
maxillary palpi white; ovipositor guides piceous at the clavate 
extremities, ovipositor ochraceous; extreme base of hind tibise 
the color of body. Wings slightly, but evenly, obscured with 
smoky, veins and stigma darker. 

Female, length, 3 millimeters; ovipositor, 1. 

Head viewed from above with eye margins even with its 
general outline, not at all bulging ; vertex caudad of eyes heavily, 
transversely striate, rapidly narrowed posteriorly, length of ex- 
posed cheek margin about equal to distance between lateral ocelli 
and eyes; ocelli small, nearly as far from each other as from 
eyes; ocellar area, as far as to eyes and to face, irregularly 
rugose. Face broader than long and broader below than above, 
medially, slightly carinately ridged just below antennae, the 
surface finely and evenly rugose ; mouth opening very large and 
very broad; eyes only slightly emarginate opposite antennae. 
Head as viewed from side with upper part of face strongly 
bulging, malar space very large, longer than length of mandible ; 
cheeks broad below, narrowed above to half the width below ; eye 
outline large and subcircular; maxillary palpi reaching tegulse. 

Mesonotum with lateral arese shallowly rugose, median area 
nearly smooth; notauli fine, indistinct, not impressed, rapidly 
converging to posterior border, where they are separated by a 
short, smooth, median sulcus. Scutellum anteriorly with two 
transverse fovea?, backwardly curved at lateral ends and sepa- 
rated by a sharp median carina ; disk of scutellum smooth. Meta- 
notum with a sharp median carina on basal third which splits 
apically, the forks extending laterally in a broad curve and then 
cephalad to base of metanotum, where they are parallel to the 
median carina, the areas thus inclosed being longer than broad 
and smooth and shining; the remainder of metanotum is scarce- 
ly reticulate-rugose. Mesopleura coarsely, in part obliquely, 
striate. 

Abdomen subsessile, subclavate in general form, the segments 



286 The Philippine Journal of Science i9ii 

rapidly increasing in size caudad; second segment little more 
than half the length of first, third and fourth subequal ; fifth and 
sixth subequal; second and fifth tergites broadly depressed on 
basal third; all tergites very coarsely striate, the striae smooth 
and straight, and on most segments ending submarginally ; sixth 
tergite with the stria? continuously concentric beyond a cen- 
tral point and parallel to the broadly rounded hind margin. 
Hind tibial spurs very short, scarcely extending beyond tip of 
tibia. 

Stigma of medium size, four times as long as wide, lower 
margin subangulate at middle where radius is inserted; first 
abscissa of radius slightly more than half the length of second ; 
second cubital cell subtrapezoidal, about twice as long as high; 
both transverse cubitals oblique; recurrent nervure inserted at 
extreme apex of second cubital cell ; parallel vein inserted above. 
In the hind wings, the second recurrent joins anterior vein at 
origin of radius, which is entirely transparent. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao (coll. Baker). 

This species is named for the late W. H. Ashmead, former- 
ly custodian of Hymenoptera in the United States National 
Museum. 

Genus NEORHYSSALTJS novum 

Eyes very large, malar space and cheeks relatively small. Ver- 
tex posterior of ocelli long. Antennas longer than entire body, 
scape short and swollen, f unicle broad and half as long as scape ; 
flagellar joints more than twice as long as wide. Maxillary 
palpi very slender, long, surpassing tegulae, third to sixth joints 
subequal, terete. 

Scutellum sexfoveate anteriorly. Metanotum entirely with- 
out lateral prominences, but fully areolated, middle areae reticu- 
late-carinate ; spiracles small, round. Disk of mesopleura with 
a broad, crenulated, oblique furrow. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radius inserted at middle 
of the large, deep, subtriangular stigma. First abscissa of 
radius little more than half length of second ; second cubital cell 
short and somewhat narrowed apically. Recurrent nervure in- 
serted far from apex of first cubital cell. Submedian cell a 
little longer than median. Parallel vein inserted at lower fourth. 

Abdomen subsessile, as long as head and thorax together ; three 
large, long, flat abdominal tergites exposed, the remainder re- 
tracted and bent beneath; only the first tergite is distinctly 
medially carinate. Hind tibial spurs short, straight, and pubes- 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 287 

cent. Ovipositor long exserted, as long as abdomen, the hypopy- 
gidium small. . 

Type, Neorhyssalus compositus sp. nov. 

Neorhyssalus compositus sp. nov. 

Black; head except interocellar area, and mesonotum except 
lateral lobes, ferruginous; scape and funicle piceous; palpi, te- 
guke, venter, and coxae stramineous ; remainder of legs testaceous, 
tibia? and femora paler at base. Wings iridescent, faintly ob- 
scured; veins, and stigma except at base, brownish. 

Female, length of body, 3.5 millimeters; of ovipositor, 1.5. 

Head viewed from above with eye margins even with the gen- 
eral outline, not at all bulging ; vertex caudad of eyes smooth and 
shining, rapidly narrowed posteriorly; length of exposed cheek 
margin subequal to length of vertex back of ocelli and a little 
greater than width between lateral ocelli and eyes; ocelli small, 
somewhat nearer to each other than to eyes ; interocellar distance 
slightly greater than the diameter of an ocellus; depression be- 
tween anterior ocellus and scrobes abrupt, deep, and nearly 
smooth. Face subquadrate, medially subumbonate below an- 
tennas and strongly depressed in the lower lateral arese next to 
clypeus, surface nearly smooth, except for a few subobsolete punc- 
tures ; mouth opening broad, transversely elliptical ; clypeus some- 
what swollen, strongly convex. Head as viewed from side with 
face not strongly bulging, malar space very short; cheeks rather 
narrow, the margin parallel with eye margin ; eye outline irreg- 
ularly subelliptical, broadest at lower third, below which it is 
rapidly narrowed. Third joint of maxillary palpus slightly 
bent. 

Pronotum strongly sculptured and with a thin, shortly ex- 
tended, anterior margin. Mesonotum evenly convex, notauli 
strong but superficial, and the lateral lobes not raised; notauli 
crenulate, converging very gradually and posteriorly flanking the 
large flattened median area, the latter coarsely and very irreg- 
ularly rugose. Scutellum anteriorly sexfoveate, four median 
foveas long and narrow, two outer larger and rounded, all 
separated by low, sharp carinas; posterior disk of scutellum 
strongly convex, smooth, and shining; postscutellum medially 
bifoveate. Metanotum fully areolated, the two large median 
basal areas and four large lateral apical areas smooth within, 
median area and midlateral area strongly reticulate-carinate ; 
spiracles small and round; metapleura reticulate-rugose; upper 
anterior area of mesopleura finely rugose, remainder of surface 



288 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

smooth and shining, except for a large, deep, oblique, crenulated 
discal furrow, surface on either side of this furrow somewhat 
swollen. 

Abdomen subsessile, the three segments visible from above 
broadened from base to third segment ; basal width of first tergite 
two thirds the apical width and the length about twice; second 
tergite as long as first, its length one and a half times the basal 
width, the latter three fourths of the apical; third tergite sub- 
quadrate, basal margin strongly incurved, apical margin trun- 
cate; remaining segments small, short, smooth, and shining, 
and in the type specimen bent downward at right angles to re- 
mainder of abdomen; ffrst two tergites shining, strongly, longi- 
tudinally straight-striate, more strongly so on first; first with a 
strong median carina ; basal two thirds of third tergite with the 
striae directed obliquely toward lateral margins, posterior third 
with strong, curved, transverse striae. Hind tibial spurs short, 
straight, and pubescent. 

Stigma large, deep, strongly angled below at middle where 
radius is inserted ; first abscissa of radius more than half length 
of second; second cubital cell somewhat narrowed distad, the 
length twice the greatest width, first transverse cubital oblique, 
second vertical and decolored; recurrent nervure inserted a 
half of its length from apex of first cubital cell, intervening vein 
decolored. Radius in hind wings entirely obsolete; nervellus 
vertical. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker) . 

Genus HETEROGAMUS Wesmael 

While very few species have been described in this genus, they 
have a wide distribution, being found in Europe, North America, 
Central America, and New Guinea. It is rather to be expected, 
therefore, that several species will be found in the Philippines. 
The description of one Philippine species follows: 

Heterogamus longicollis sp. nov. 

Fulvo-ochraceous throughout, slightly darker on abdominal 
tergites ; interocellar area black. Wings slightly obscured, stig- 
ma and veins piceous, veins on distal half of wing, with proximal 
two thirds of stigma, paler. Palpi stramineous. Ovipositor 
black. 

Female, length, 5 millimeters; ovipositor very short and 
subapical. 

Head viewed from above with vertex back of ocelli very long, 
roundly narrowed back of eyes, entire surface finely and shallow- 



xn, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 289 

ly reticulate-rugose; eyes rather small; ocelli small, slightly 
farther from eyes than from each other and about three times 
as far from occipital carina as from each other; supra-antennal 
area strongly, transversely rugose. Face subquadrate, as broad 
as long, surface minutely roughened, medially short-carinate 
just below the antennae; mouth opening very narrow, upper 
margin strongly arched; eye margins very slightly emarginate 
opposite antennae. Head viewed from the side with face very 
strongly projecting to form a very prominent angle at lower 
margin of scrobes; malar space very large, as long as width of 
eye ; cheek broad below, strongly narrowed above ; ocelli not at all 
raised; eye outline very short and broadly elliptical; maxillary 
palpi reaching tegulse, very slender, third joint the longest. 

Pronotum coarsely rugose and greatly lengthened, as long as 
head to anterior ocellus. Mesonotum opaque, finely, shallowly 
reticulate-rugose; notauli barely indicated, straight, converging 
to posterior margin. Scutellum sculptured like mesonotum, 
anteriorly with six small foveae separated by sharp carinae and 
well separated from mesonotum ; posterior disk of scutellum 
small and pear-shaped. Metanotum coarsely, closely, and ir- 
regularly reticulate-rugose (as are the pleura), and with a con- 
tinuous median carina ; a straight lateral carina passes just below 
the circular spiracle to near the hind margin, where it turns at 
a right angle and extends irregularly to median carina. Meso- 
pleura coarsely rugose anteriorly, with a short, very coarsely 
crenulated, oblique furrow. Mesosternum anteriorly with a 
strong, transverse, submarginal carina, which extends a short 
distance on to mesopleura. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, with 
three large exposed segments ; the remainder retracted, of v/hich 
only the fourth is narrowly visible from above; first segment 
sessile, twice as broad apically as basally, length one and a half 
times the width at apex; second tergite a little longer than first 
and slightly widened apically and like the first with a continuous 
median carina; third tergite about as long as first, subquadrate 
and carinate; all tergites finely, irregularly, reticulate-rugose, 
the reticulations becoming much finer toward apex of third ter- 
gite; retracted segments smooth, shining, and stramineous; 
second suture slightly impressed and finely crenulate. Hind 
coxae slender, shorter than their trochanters, finely transversely 
striate. Hind tibiae with spurs short and nearly straight. 

Stigma large and broad, length about three times the breadth, 
angled below at origin of radius, which is a little nearer to apex 



290 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

than to base ; first abscissa of radius longer than second, second 
cubital cell very short, both transverse cubitals oblique, second 
decolored; recurrent nervure joining cubitus far from second 
cubital cell, intervening vein nearly as long as first abscissa of 
radius and decolored ; parallel vein inserted far below the middle. 
Hind wings similar to those of Macrostomionella. 
Luzon Laguna, Los Baiios (coll. Baker). 

' Genus C0LAST0MI0N novum 

Eyes of medium size, malar space and cheeks relatively large. 
Anterior ocellus distinctly farther from the two posterior than 
the distance between the latter. A narrow area about ocelli, 
except posteriorly, depressed and striate. Vertex back of ocelli 
of medium length. Antennae not as long as entire body; scape 
one and a half times as long as wide; funicle nearly as long as 
wide and a little less than half the width of scape; flagellar 
joints slightly more than twice as long as wide. Maxillary palpi 
slender, barely reaching tegulse; third joint as long as fourth 
and fifth together, somewhat flattened and expanded apically in 
side view; last three joints slender and terete, sixth longer than 
fifth, fifth more than half length of fourth. Labial palpi un- 
usually small and short. 

Mesonotum scarcely trilobate, notauli shallow, a little impres- 
sed anteriorly, posteriorly strongly converging and practically 
obliterating the posterior median area. Scutellum bifoveate 
anteriorly. Metanotum medially carinate on basal third, on 
apical two thirds with a large lozenge-shaped median area ; lateral 
areas very coarsely and strongly reticulate-rugose; spiracle 
large, round, and raised on a well-defined umbo. Mesopleura 
with an oblique crenulated discal furrow on posterior half. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radius inserted at basal 
two fifths of the large, deep, subtriangular stigma. First ab- 
scissa of radius less than half length of second; second cubital 
cell about twice as long as wide, first transverse cubital very 
oblique, the second vertical, curved, and decolored. Recurrent 
vein inserted a short distance from apex of first cubital cell. 
Submedian cell but slightly longer than median. Parallel vein 
strongly curved and inserted at lower third. 

Abdomen subpetiolate, longer than head and thorax together, 
beyond first segment rather broadly elliptical in outline, tergites 
all much wider than long, the surfaces of third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth somewhat swollen before their hind margins ; first and 
second tergites medially carinate. Second, third, and fourth 
sutures crenulate, broadly and sharply impressed and somewhat 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 291 

constricted. Hind tibial spurs as long as fourth tarsal joint, 
rather strongly curved and naked. Ovipositor very short ; hypo- 
pygidium very large, deeper than sixth segment, and as long as 
fifth and sixth tergites together. 

Type, Colastomion abdominalis sp. nov. 

The abdomen in this genus resembles that of Colastes Haliday, 
but other features are distinctive. 

Colastomion abdominalis sp. nov. 

Head fulvous; interocellar area black; antennae piceous; palpi 
ochraceous; thorax ferruginous, postscutellum darkened, tegu- 
lae ochraceous; metanotum black; legs ochraceous, hind coxae 
black, except at tips ; abdomen ochraceous below, tergites except 
lateral margins, and ovipositor, apically black; hypopygidium 
discally piceous. Wings slightly obscured, stigma and veins 
piceous. 

Female, length, 6 millimeters; ovipositor very short, not 
exceeding abdomen by 0.25 millimeter. 

Head viewed from above with vertex back of eyes roundly 
swollen beyond continuation of eye margin; vertex smooth, ex- 
cept near ocelli; ocellar area, except posteriorly, surrounded by 
radiating ridges, which do not reach the eyes ; vertex not rapidly 
narrowed caudad, length of exposed cheek margin greater than 
distance between posterior ocelli and eyes; ocelli farther from 
eyes than from each other and twice as far from occipital carina 
as from each other. Face subquadrate, broader than long, inner 
margins of eyes parallel; surface shining, minutely rugulose, 
medially carinately elevated just below antennae; mouth opening 
narrow, its upper margin nearly horizontal; eyes within very 
slightly emarginate at antennae. Head viewed from side with, 
face strongly and roundly bulging, malar space narrower than 
cheek; cheek broad, slightly narrowed above; vertex outline 
strongly raised just back of ocelli; eye outline ovate; maxillary 
palpi long, extending beyond tegulae, second article as long as 
next two together. 

Mesonotum smooth, shining, notauli very strong and deeply 
impressed, minutely crenulate anteriorly, very coarsely crenulate 
posteriorly, where the crenulae converge and become confluent. 
Scutellum anteriorly with two ovate foveae, rugose within and 
separated by a sharp carina ; disk of scutellum small and smooth. 
Metanotum coarsely reticulate-rugose throughout, basal third 
with a median carina, which splits posteriorly to form a large 
diamond-shaped area; spiracle circular, on a distinctly raised 
prominence. Metapleura shallowly rugose posteriorly, disk 



292 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

smooth. Mesopleura smooth and shining, with a very broad, 
short, longitudinal furrow on posterior half below the middle, 
from the anterior end of which a narrower furrow curves down- 
ward and f orward ; both of these furrows irregularly and partially 
crenulate. 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together, subpetiolate, 
subelliptical in outline; third, fourth, and fifth tergites widest; 
first tergite long, more than twice as wide at apex as at base 
and slightly longer than second tergite ; first and second tergites 
with strong median carinse ; third to sixth tergites much broader 
than long, third shortest, all swollen and with strongly constricted 
sutures; third, fourth, and fifth sutures strongly crenulate; first 
and second tergites coarsely, longitudinally, reticulate-rugose; 
third and fourth punctate-rugose on basal two thirds, becoming 
only sparsely punctate on the shining apical third; fifth shining 
and subobsoletely and sparsely punctate; sixth smooth and 
shining. Hind tibiae with two stout, curved spurs which are as 
long as fourth tarsal joint. 

Stigma large, twice as long as wide, lower margin obtuse, 
angulate at middle where the radius is inserted; first abscissa 
of radius about half length of second; second cubital cell twice 
as long as wide, first transverse cubital oblique, second vertical ; 
recurrent vein inserted near the first transverse cubital; inter- 
vening vein decolored; parallel vein inserted below. In hind 
wings the radius is subobsolete; nervellus oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao (coll. Baker). 

Genus MACROSTOMION Szepligeti 

Differs from the new genus Macrostomionella, in Philippine 
species, as follows : Metanotum without lateral prominences, but 
with an indistinct, lanceolate, median area; spiracles circular; 
median carina of abdominal tergites extending to middle of 
fourth segment. The enlarged maxillary-palpus joints flattened, 
fourth joint more or less strongly twisted ; stylate sixth joint with 
distinctly marked pseudojoints. Vertex back of ocelli long. 
Second cubital cell more strongly narrowed to apex. 

The above note, as well as the descriptions of the species that 
follow, will indicate that our Philippine species agree with 
previously described species of the genus except in characters 
of scarcely more than specific value. 

Macrostomion debilis sp. nov. 

Ochraceous throughout ; legs, antennae, palpi, and tegulae paler ; 
lateral lobes of mesonotum and abdominal tergites somewhat 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 293 

darker ; interocellar area piceous. Wings faintly obscured, veins 
piceous, except the decolored second transverse cubital; stigma 
very pale; its broad costal margin ochraceous. 

Male, length, 4.25 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with the medium-sized eyes strongly 
bulging; vertex back of ocelli long, gradually narrowed back of 
eyes; length of exposed cheek margins twice the distance from 
ocelli to eyes and equal to distance from ocelli to occipital carina ; 
occipital carina evenly incurved; surface smooth and shining; 
ocelli on a slightly raised prominence, but not so strongly turned 
side wise as in Macrostomionella philippinensis ; distance between 
ocelli slightly less than distance to eyes, distance to occipital 
carina four times width between posterior ocelli ; short radiating 
strise in front of the anterior ocellus. Face very short, broader 
than long, broadened above on account of the deeply emarginate 
eyes, surface medially long-umbonate below antennae, lateral 
arese and clypeus depressed, the former obscurely cross-striate ; 
mouth opening large, elliptical, the upper margin strongly curved. 
Head viewed from side, with face margin strongly curved and 
very prominent at antennal scrobes; malar space small, length 
more than half width of cheeks; cheeks less than half width of 
eye, the margin parallel to eye margin, ocelli strongly prominent ; 
eye large, its outline long and broadly subelliptical ; maxillary 
palpi six-jointed with last four joints greatly modified; the first 
of these joints flattened, dilated, and squamous; second about 
as long, flattened, half as wide, and linear; the next shorter, 
narrower, flattened, and spindle-shaped in outline; last as 
long as preceding, slender, terete, and subdivided into about six 
pseudojoints; second modified joint somewhat bent and slightly 
twisted. Labial palpi four-jointed. 

Pronotum narrowly exposed, its pleura nearly smooth. Meso- 
notum smooth and shining, notauli deeply impressed, especially 
anteriorly, indistinctly crenulate, straight and converging at the 
middle of posterior border ; lateral lobes strongly raised. Scutel- 
lum anteriorly with two deep and narrow fovese, which are sepa- 
rated by a sharp median carina and have outer margins curved, 
hind margins oblique ; posterior disk of scutellum small, smooth, 
and oval. 

Metanotum with entire surface irregularly, longitudinally 
rugose, leaving a lanceolate median depression with raised mar- 
gins, which is rough within; notum separated from pleura by 
a straight crenulated furrow just below the round spiracle ; meta- 
pleura smooth; mesopleura smooth, without discal furrow. 



294 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together, first tergite 
long trapezoidal, a little less than twice as wide apically as 
basally; length one and a half times width at apex; second ter- 
gite as long as first, gradually widened, its length a little greater 
than apical width; third, fourth, and fifth tergites shorter and 
broader, with a complete median carina running to middle of 
fourth tergite; first and second tergites and basal halves of 
fourth and fifth coarsely, irregularly, longitudinally striate; 
sixth and seventh tergites smooth and shining, sparsely punctate 
at base; first suture very strongly impressed, second, third, and 
fourth less so, all sutures indistinctly crenulate. Hind tibiae 
with two long, equal, curved spurs, which are as long as the 
three basal tarsal joints together; first hind tarsal joint slightly 
shorter than following three together. 

Stigma large, about four times as long as broad, scarcely 
angulate at insertion of radius, which is distinctly before the 
middle ; first abscissa of radius about half length of second ; sec- 
ond cubital cell somewhat narrowed apically, more than twice 
longer than high; first transverse cubital very oblique, second 
vertical and decolored; recurrent vein entering first cubital cell 
at extreme apex, nearly interstitial; parallel vein inserted far 
below middle ; submedian cell considerably longer than median. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (coll. Baker) . 

Genus MACROSTOMIONELLA novum 

Eyes very large, malar space and cheeks relatively small. 
Ocelli large, equidistant, rather strongly raised. Vertex back 
of ocelli rather short, about as long as ocellar area. Antennre 
longer than entire body; scape one and a half times as long as 
wide ; f unicle as long as wide and half length of scape ; flagellar 
joints about three times as long as wide. Maxillary palpi longer 
than anterior femora, with third and fourth joints terete, but 
very greatly enlarged; diameter of first gradually increasing 
proximad until it is more than twice the diameter of anterior 
femora ; fourth joint nearly as wide basally as the third apically 
and gradually narrowed to apex; first joint nearly twice as long 
as a mandible, fourth about three fourths as long, fifth joint 
short and broad, sixth stylate. Labial palpi stout, longer than 
long diameter of eye, second joint somewhat swollen and sub- 
equal to fourth in length, third shorter ; upper tooth of mandibles 
projecting far beyond lower tooth. 

Mesonotum trilobate, notauli deep, posterior median area very 
narrow and grooved. Scutellum quadrifoveate anteriorly. Me- 
tanotum with a very short median carina anteriorly, remainder 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 295 

of its surface coarsely reticulate-rugose except for two large, de- 
pressed, laterobasal arese. Spiracle elliptical, not raised; lateral 
arese with blunt lateral prominences slightly below and behind 
the position of the toothed prominences in Gyroneuron. Disk of 
mesopleura with a very broad, impressed, centrally crenulate, 
oblique groove. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radius inserted at basal 
two fifths of the long and rather narrow stigma. First abscissa 
of radius less than half length of second ; second cubital cell more 
than twice as long as wide; first transverse cubitus oblique, 
second vertical and decolored. Recurrent vein inserted a short 
distance from apex of first cubital cell. Submedian cell longer 
than median by nearly length of transverse median. Parallel 
vein inserted at lower third, sinuous a little before insertion. 

Abdomen sessile, longer than head and thorax together, beyond 
first segment narrowly elliptical in outline; second tergite as 
long as wide apically or longer, remainder broader than long; 
first and second tergites and basal half of third tergite medially 
carinate; sutures not depressed, but basal surfaces of fourth, 
fifth, and sixth tergites strongly depressed. Hind tibial spurs 
slender and longer than fourth tarsal joint, slightly curved and 
naked. 

Type, Macrostomionella philippinensis sp. nov. 

This genus belongs to the group of genera including Cysto- 
mastax, Macrostomion, and Pelecy stoma. In Macrostomion 
only has a species been described from the Oriental Region. The 
present genus is perhaps nearest to Cystomastax, described from 
Peru, but it differs in the structure of the metanotal spiracles, 
the radial vein, the submedian cell, and the first and second 
abdominal segments. The grouping of a series of genera on 
modified maxillary palpi is, I believe, unnatural; but it will 
have to be continued, in part, until the species and genera 
formerly described shall have been reexamined and more fully 
studied and characterized. It seems certain that the modified 
palpi have appeared in several distinct genetic lines. 

Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . Posterior ocelli nearer to occipital carina than once their diameter; 
abdominal tergites finely, longitudinally reticulate-rugose; stigma 
little narrowed to a blunt apex; second transverse cubital oblique. 

philippinensis sp. nov. 

a 2 . Posterior ocelli distant from occipital carina by one and two-thirds times 
their diameter; abdominal tergites very strongly and coarsely, longi- 
tudinally anastomose-rugose ; stigma rapidly narrowed to an acute 
apex; second transverse cubital vertical similis sp. nov. 



296 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Macrostomionella philippinensis sp. nov. 

Basal joints of antennae, vertex, prothorax, mesothorax, and 
middle and hind coxae bright ferruginous, the latter darker 
apically. Flagella, lower part of head, mandibles (excepting the 
black teeth) , palpi, fore coxae, and legs stramineous ; middle and 
hind femora apically tinged with yellow. . Wings slightly ob- 
scured, stigma and veins piceous, areas at apices of radial, third 
cubital, and third discoidal cells smoky. 

Female, length, 6.5 millimeters ; ovipositor very short, scarcely 
projecting. 

Head viewed from above with vertex back of ocelli very short, 
although well filled behind eyes, the surface obscurely, punc- 
tulately roughened; ocelli very large, nearer to eyes, to the 
occipital carina, and to each other than once their own diameter. 
Face somewhat longer than broad, narrowed at middle by the 
incurving of the eyes, medially long-umbonate and narrowly 
smooth below antennae, lateral areas horizontally striate; mouth 
opening large and elliptical; eyes strongly emarginate opposite 
antennas. Head viewed from side with umbonate portion of face 
very strongly projecting, malar space as long as width of eye; 
cheek broad, outer margin parallel to eye margin; eye outline 
very short and broadly elliptical; second to fourth joints of 
maxillary palpi enormously swollen, subequal in length; second 
joint long urn-shaped, twice as long as wide at the truncate tip ; 
third joint narrower than second, ovate; fourth joint half width 
of third and spindle-shaped; fifth joint stylate. 

Mesonotum shining; subobsoletely, punctulately roughened; 
notauli anteriorly very broad and crenulate, becoming obsolete 
posteriorly in a broad strong impression, which has a narrow, 
obscurely pitted, median groove. Scutellum anteriorly with two 
oblique foveas, smooth within and separated by a sharp carina; 
disk of scutellum smooth and nearly twice as long as broad. Me- 
tanotum coarsely and strongly reticulate-rugose, with a rudiment 
of a median carina at base and with a blunt projection on either 
side in the position of the spines in Gyroneuron, to the summits 
of which pass a number of radiating rugae; spiracles elliptical, 
not at all raised. Mesopleura smooth. 

Abdomen subsessile, subelliptical, lateral margins of first three 
tergites in a straight line; first tergite long and narrow, grad- 
ually broadened apically, twice as long as wide at apex; second 
tergite as long as first, gradually broadened apically; third and 
following, including the fully exposed seventh, progressively 
shorter and, after the third, narrower ; first and second and basal 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 297 

half of third with a sharp median carina; all tergites, except 
seventh, finely, longitudinally reticulate-rugose ; seventh shining, 
sparsely, shallowly punctate. Hind tibiae with two long, curved, 
subequal, naked spurs, which are longer than fourth tarsal joint. 

Stigma very long and narrow, more than four times as long 
as wide; radius inserted at basal third, apical two thirds only 
slightly narrowed to the rather blunt apex; first abscissa of 
radius about one third length of second ; second cubital cell three 
times as long as wide; both transverse cubitals oblique and 
decolored, the first angulate at middle ; recurrent vein inserted a 
short distance before first transverse cubital, intervening vein 
decolored; parallel vein inserted a little below middle. In hind 
wings second recurrent joins anterior vein at origin of radius, 
which is strong and dark like the other veins ; nervellus oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker). 

This very remarkable insect is unique among the Rhogadinaa 
of the Philippines, not only in its extraordinary maxillary palpi, 
but in the wing color, in the stigma, and in the sculpturing of face 
and of metanotum. 

Macrostomionella similis sp. no v. 

Ochraceous; borders of mesonotum piceous; interocellar area, 
mesonotum, and abdominal dorsum irregularly black on median 
half. Antennae piceous; wings faintly smoky, veins and stigma 
pale sordid stramineous ; costal margin of stigma much brighter ; 
basal vein dark. 

Male, length, 5.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with eyes strongly bulging beyond 
head outline, vertex back of eyes slightly shorter than ocellar 
area, but longer than exposed cheek margin; the surface with 
a few subobsolete punctures; ocelli very large, nearer to eyes 
and to each other than once their own diameter, but one and 
two-thirds times their diameter from the occipital margin. Face 
subquadrate, slightly broader than long, sides nearly parallel; 
surface subobsoletely punctate-rugose, medially very short-carin- 
ately elevated below antenna? ; mouth opening broadly elliptical ; 
clypeus semilunate, width one and one-half times the length, 
basal suture highly arched; clypeal pits twice their diameter 
from eyes; eyes very gently emarginate at antennae. Head 
viewed from side with upper part of face very strongly pro- 
jecting; malar space longer than lower width of cheek; cheek 
below, one third diameter of eye, gradually narrowing above; 
ocelli prominent ; eye outline broadly elliptical, broader on upper 



298 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

half than on lower half; maxillary palpi longer than anterior 
femora, with third and fourth joints a little flattened, but very 
greatly enlarged, diameter of first gradually increasing proximad 
until it is more than twice the diameter of anterior femora, fourth 
joint nearly as wide basally as third apically and gradually nar- 
rowed to apex; length of first joint nearly twice length of a man- 
dible, fourth about three fourths as long, fifth joint short and 
broad, sixth stylate. Labial palpi stout, longer than long diameter 
of eye, second joint somewhat swollen and subequal to fourth in 
length, third joint shorter. 

Mesonotum trilobate, shining, subobsoletely punctulate. No- 
tauli deeply impressed and strongly crenulate as far as the middle 
of the narrow postero-median area, which has a long, strongly 
pitted median groove. Scutellum anteriorly with two very large 
fovea?, each of which has a low, rudimentary median carina. 
Disk of scutellum punctulate, a little longer than broad. Meta- 
notum coarsely and strongly reticulate-rugose, a rudiment of 
median carina at base and a blunt projection on either side in the 
position of the spines in Gyroneuron, to the summits of which 
pass a number of radiating rugse; spiracle elliptical, not at all 
raised. Mesopleura smooth, posterior submargin crenulate, an- 
terior submargin indistinctly, sparsely, longitudinally striate, on 
posterior half of disk with a short and broad longitudinal furrow, 
which is crenulate only near the upper border. 

Abdomen subsessile and subelliptical ; lateral margins of first 
three segments, except base of first, in a straight line ; first tergite 
broad, the length one and one-half times the apical width, gradu- 
ally narrowing proximad on apical two thirds, but narrowed 
suddenly on basal third ; second tergite as long as first, gradually 
broadened apically ; third and following, including the very short 
seventh and eighth, progressively shorter and, after the third, 
narrower ; first and second tergites with a distinct median carina ; 
all tergites, except seventh and eighth, coarsely, strongly, longi- 
tudinally rugose with frequent anastomosings. Hind tibiae with 
two long, curved, subequal spurs, which are longer than fourth 
tarsal joint. 

Stigma long and narrow, more than four times as long as wide, 
radius inserted at basal third, apical two thirds rapidly narrowed 
to an acute apex; first abscissa of radius more than one third, 
but less than one half, length of second ; second cubital cell two 
and one-half times as long as wide; first transverse cubitus 
oblique and straight, the second vertical and decolored ; recurrent 
vein inserted a short distance before apex of first cubital cell, 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 299 

the intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein inserted a little below 
middle. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker). 

While Macrostomionella philippinensis and M. similis differ in 
a number of striking details, still they coincide in all important 
generic characters. In color pattern the latter species bears a 
remarkable resemblance to Rhogas cameroni sp. nov. 

Genus MEGARHOGAS Szepligeti 

This genus, based on two inadequately described species, ap- 
peared first in Szepligeti's Braconidse, 2 the two species, longipes 
and minor, being from Celebes. On Plate II, fig. 26, is illustrated 
a species called M. luteus Szepl., which is not otherwise men- 
tioned in the work, even in the Errata. 

No Philippine species shows the strongly clavate abdomen as 
illustrated for M. luteus, although our species are clearly con- 
generic. 

Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . First abscissa of cubitus and first transverse cubitus forming an acute 
angle. 
ft 1 . Radius in hind wings nearly parallel to costa; notauli, except an- 
teriorly, not distinctly crenulate; mesopleura with a strong, oblique, 
discal furrow; first abscissa of cubitus bisinuate; transverse median 

vein vertical; stigma piceous stigmaticus sp. nov. 

b'\ Radius in hind wings strongly upcurved at middle toward costal; 
notauli strongly crenulate; mesopleura without oblique discal fur- 
row; first abscissa of cubitus evenly upcurved; transverse median 

vein very oblique; stigma stramineous philippinensis sp. nov. 

a 2 . First abscissa of cubitus and first transverse cubitus forming a right 

angle; radius in hind wings strongly upcurved at middle toward costa. 

c\ Stigma largely piceous; general color obscure ferruginous; length, 10 

millimeters mindanaensis sp. nov. 

c\ Stigma piceous only on upper posterior border; general color ochra- 
ceous; length, 8 millimeters szepligetii sp. nov. 

Megarhogas stigmaticus sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous, the abdomen darker above ; interocellar area 
piceous ; antennas piceous, paler at extremities. Wings irregular- 
ly suffused with pale ochraceous on basal half, remainder very 
pale smoky; veins ochraceous; stigma piceous. 

Female, length, 16 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above not strongly transverse; eyes very 
large and very strongly bulging; vertex not rapidly narrowing 
back of eyes, but with the cheek margin strongly bulging; 

2 Wytsman's Genera Insectorum (1904), 83. 

150687—8 



300 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

occipital carina broadly incurved and subangulate at middle; 
length of exposed cheek margin one and a half times the 
distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter distance but little less 
than that from ocelli to occipital carina and subequal to long 
diameter of an ocellus; surface of vertex smooth and shining; 
ocelli large, separated by about half their long diameter ; surface 
at sides and in front of anterior ocelli shallowly, radiately 
wrinkled. 

Face about as long as wide above at the deeply emarginate 
eyes; eye margins strongly outcurved below; surface strongly, 
medially, subumbonately raised on upper half, on either side a 
short depressed area above clypeal pit; face shallowly, trans- 
versely wrinkled, discontinuously on umbo ; clypeus short, trans- 
verse, basal suture subobsolete, clypeal pits close to eyes; mouth 
opening very large and broad, broadly elliptical, lower clypeal 
margin nearly straight; entire surface of mandibles strongly, 
sparsely punctate. 

Head viewed from side with face somewhat prominent above ; 
cheeks broad throughout, half width of eye, outer margin parallel 
with eye margin, surface smooth and shining; malar space very 
small, its length less than half width of cheek, its surface together 
with a narrow curved area about lower margin of eye, cross- 
striate; eye short and very broadly subelliptical, broadest on 
lower half. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobate, smooth and shining, notauli deeply 
impressed, crenulae apparent only near anterior extremities, ter- 
minating posteriorly on the sides of a long, narrow, deep median 
furrow on posteromedian area. Scutellum anteriorly with two 
large and rather shallow fovese, separated by a sharp median 
carina ; posterior disk of scutellum smooth. Postscutellum with 
two small median fovea? separated by a sharp carina ; lateral ares 
rugose. Metanotum shallowly reticulate-rugose on anterior 
third, very strongly, but irregularly, transversely rugose on 
posterior two thirds, with a complete, but partly sinuous, median 
carina ; below the elliptical spiracle a longitudinal carina passes 
to anterior border, while posteriorly a foveated furrow extends 
to posterior border; metapleura shining, obscurely roughened; 
mesopleura smooth and shining, with a short crenulated furrow 
within an oblique discal impression in lower half; a few short 
vertical rugse below wing. 

Abdomen pedicellate, about twice the length of head and thorax 
together, gradually widened to third tergite, six tergites fully 
exposed ; first tergite very slender from base to spiracles, which 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 301 

are situated at two fifths of length from base, thence very 
gradually widened to apex, width at base about half that at 
spiracles and one fourth that at apex; length about two and 
one-half times width at apex ; length of second tergite a little less 
than twice width at apex and slightly longer than first; third 
and fourth tergites distinctly broadened apically, with the poste- 
rolateral angles prominent; fifth tergite subquadrate; third, 
fourth, and fifth tergites subequal in length and width and shorter 
and broader than second; fifth a little shorter, smooth and 
shining, decolored, narrowed somewhat to the incurved apex; 
sixth tergite retracted, first to fifth tergites longitudinally rugose, 
the rugae freely anastomosing, becoming obsolete at extreme 
apex of fifth tergite; a continuous median carina on first three 
tergites, finer on third; first suture sharply impressed, postero- 
lateral angles of first segment acutely produced; second and 
third sutures strongly depressed and crenulate, the latter con- 
stricted, fourth and fifth sutures slightly constricted, the former 
crenulated at sides; second tergite with shallow gastrocceli. 
Hind tibiae with two stout curved spurs, as long as fourth tarsal 
joint; hind tibiae and tarsi long and slender, the first tarsal 
joint as long as three following together. 

Stigma long and narrow, about four times as long as wide at 
insertion of radius, where the margin is straight and not at all 
angulate; first abscissa of radius about one fourth length of 
second; second cubital cell three times as long as wide, slightly 
broader at base; first transverse cubitus nearly vertical below, 
on upper third swollen and bent at beginning of swollen portion ; 
second transverse cubitus nearly vertical and decolored, second 
abscissa of radius swollen at base ; first abscissa of radius strong- 
ly bisinuate; recurrent vein joining cubitus at extreme apex of 
first cubital cell, intervening vein decolored; parallel vein in- 
serted at lower fourth; submedian cell considerably longer than 
median ; transverse median vein vertical. 

.Mindanao, Davao (coll. Baker). 

Megarhogas philippinensis sp. nov. 

Dark ochraceous; abdomen ferruginous; interocellar area, a 
large spot on propleura, two separated spots on disk of meso- 
pleura, and fore femora at extremities, piceous. Wings slightly 
suffused with ochraceous ; veins ochraceous. 

Female, length, 15 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above not strongly transverse, eyes very 
large and very strongly bulging; vertex back of ocelli short and 
rapidly narrowing behind eyes, occipital carina nearly straight, 



302 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

slightly trisinuate ; length of exposed cheek margin one and one- 
half times the distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter distance three 
fourths of that from ocelli to occipital carina or three fourths 
the long diameter of an ocellus ; surface of vertex smooth and shin- 
ing ; ocelli large, separated by about half their diameter ; surface 
in front of anterior ocellus shining and obscurely, sparsely, ra- 
diately striate. 

Face as long as wide above, where the eyes are rather deeply 
emarginate, narrowed below by the strongly curving eye margins ; 
surface slightly raised medially and with an obscure fold next to 
eye, shining and faintly, longitudinally wrinkled above, and with 
few scattered obscure punctures; mouth opening elliptical, very 
broad, its upper margin broadly curved; clypeus short, trans- 
verse, the basal suture subobsolete, clypeal pits close to eyes; 
outer surface of mandibles minutely roughened. 

Head viewed from side with face evenly curved below antennae ; 
cheeks rather broad below, about one third breadth of eye, 
slightly broader above ; malar space and cheek smooth and shin- 
ing; eye short and very broadly subelliptical, broadest on lower 
half. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobate, smooth or minutely roughened, 
shining, notauli deeply impressed, conspicuously crenulate and 
terminating posteriorly at the middle of the narrow, sharply 
rimmed, median furrow on posteromedian area. Scutellum ante- 
riorly deeply bifoveate, foveas separated by a sharp median 
carina; disk of scutellum nearly smooth, its tip crossed with 
piceous. Postscutellum with a large subcircular median fovea, 
which is rugose within. Metanotum strongly rugose, its surface 
very uneven; a shallow median furrow is crossed by irregular 
ruga?, but followed apically by a very short median carina; on 
either side of the median furrow at one third the length from 
apex is a low, irregular, crested area from which ruga? radiate; 
spiracle elliptical, an irregular, longitudinal carina passing for- 
ward from just below spiracle, a longitudinal depressed area with 
transverse rugae posterior to it ; metapleura rugose ; mesopleura 
below and anteriorly obscurely rugose, remainder nearly smooth, 
on posterior one fourth with a blunt vertical ridge; depressed 
area beneath wing broad and shallow. 

Abdomen subpedicellate, nearly twice the length of head and 
thorax together, widest at third tergite; six tergites fully ex- 
posed; first tergite very slender basally to spiracles, which are 
situated at one third of length from base, thence very gradually 
widening to apex, width at base about one half that at spiracles 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 303 

and one third width at apex; length of second tergite twice the 
width at apex and about equal to length of first; third, fourth, 
and fifth tergites quadrate, parallel-sided ; third and fourth about 
three fourths length of second; fifth a little shorter; sixth nar- 
rower than fifth and three fourths its length, narrowed toward 
the concave-margined apex, smooth and shining; first to fifth 
tergites thickly, longitudinally rugose, this becoming obsolete 
on apical half of fifth tergite ; a strong continuous median carina 
extends to apical fourth of third tergite ; a rudimentary median 
carina near base of fourth tergite ; first suture sharply impressed, 
its borders on both segments carinately margined, posterolateral 
angles of first segment acutely produced; second and third 
sutures somewhat depressed and . distinctly crenulated ; fourth 
suture a little constricted, but not crenulate ; second tergite with 
shallow gastiocoeli. Hind tibiae with two stout curved spines 
as long as fourth tarsal joint; hind tibiae and tarsi very long 
and slender ; first tarsal joint as long as three following together. 

Stigma long and narrow, four times as long as wide at in- 
sertion of radius where the margin is straight; first abscissa of 
radius about one fourth length of second; second cubital cell 
three times as long as high, not at all narrowed toward apex; 
first transverse cubitus nearly vertical below, on upper third 
swollen and bent at beginning of swollen portion ; second trans- 
verse cubitus nearly vertical and decolored; second abscissa of 
radius swollen at base ; first abscissa of cubitus strongly upcurved 
and inserted near costa; recurrent vein joining cubitus at ex- 
treme apex of first cubital cell, intervening vein decolored; 
parallel vein inserted at lower fourth; submedian cell a little 
longer than median ; transverse median vein very oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos ( coll. Baker) . 

Megarhogas mindanaensis sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous with darker shadings on lateral lobes of meso- 
notum, lateral areae of metanotum, apical half of first abdominal 
tergite, median line and two lateral spots on third tergite, apical 
half of fourth tergite, all of fifth and sixth tergites, and upper 
surface of hind coxae. Interocellar area piceous. Flagella bright 
ferruginous basally, paler apically. Wings suffused with a pale 
smoky tinge and with a broad, decolored, transverse band at 
two thirds of length from base. Veins in wings all ferruginous, 
stigma piceous in basal half, stramineous on apical half. 

Female, length, 10 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above not strongly transverse, eyes very 



304 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

large and very strongly bulging; vertex back of ocelli short and 
rapidly narrowing behind oyes, but with cheek margin not out- 
curved; occipital carina forming a very broadly obtuse angle 
at middle; length of exposed cheek somewhat more than twice 
distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter distance about half the 
distance from ocelli to occipital margin and half long diameter 
of an ocellus; ocelli very large, the two posterior separated by 
less than half their diameter, the anterior more widely sepa- 
rated; surface of vertex behind ocelli smooth and shining; sur- 
face in front of anterior ocelli shallowly, sparsely, radiately 
wrinkled. 

Face as long as wide above, where the eyes are deeply emar- 
ginate, narrowed below by the strongly outcurved eye margins; 
surface raised along median line, depressed on midlateral area? 
and obscurely and irregularly transversely rugose-punctate, 
except medially; clypeus transverse, basal suture subobsolete, 
apical margin little incurved; clypeal pits close to eyes; mouth 
opening broadly elliptical; second joint of labial palpi and third 
joint of maxillary palpi apically somewhat swollen; outer sur- 
face of mandibles minutely roughened. 

Head viewed from side with face strongly prominent below 
antenna?; cheek narrow, outer margin parallel with eye margin, 
below about one fourth breadth of eye ; malar space very small, 
its length about three fourths width of cheek; both malar space 
and cheek smooth and shining, but with a very small cross- 
striate area next to lower eye margin; eye very large, subellip- 
tical, broadest on lower half. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobate, smooth or minutely roughened, 
and shining; the notauli deeply impressed, minutely crenulate, 
and terminating posteriorly at the middle of the narrow median 
furrow on posteromedian area, scutellum anteriorly bifoveate, 
f oveae separated by a sharp median carina ; posterior disk nearly 
smooth, long-acute triangular. Postscutellum with four small 
fovea? separated by sharp carina?, median carina the strongest. 
Metanotum coarsely reticulate-rugose; a sharp-rimmed, median, 
lanceolate area crossed by three transverse ruga?; posterior 
lateral area? somewhat prominent, below with radiating ruga?; 
spiracle elliptical, a longitudinal carina just below it, extending 
one half length of metanotal margin; metapleura broadly de- 
pressed posteriorly, and with a few irregular ruga? about 
border of depressed area, very shallowly rugose anteriorly, a 
deep furrow near anterior margin is crenulate above; meso- 
pleura smooth and shining, posterior border crenulate, disk 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 305 

with a longitudinal, crenulate furrow, anteriorly bent downward, 
two small depressed areas beneath wings, anterior border finely 
rugose. 

Abdomen subpedieellate, about one and three-fourths times 
length of head and thorax together, widest at third, fourth, and 
fifth segments ; six segments fully exposed ; first segment slender 
basally to spiracles, which are two fifths of the length from base, 
thence very gradually widened to apex, width at base about two 
thirds that at spiracles and one third that at apex, the length 
about three times width at apex ; length of second segment one and 
one-half times the width at apex and slightly shorter than first ; 
third segment three fourths length of second, somewhat broad- 
ened apically, apical width a little greater than length; fourth 
and fifth segments quadrate, fourth subequal to third in length, 
fifth a little shorter ; sixth narrower than fifth and three fourths 
its length, narrowed toward the straight margined apex and 
smooth and shining; first to fifth tergites thickly, longitudinally 
rugose, this becoming obsolete on apical half of fifth tergite, 
where the surface is minutely and obliquely wrinkled; a strong 
continuous carina extends to near apex of third tergite; first 
suture slightly impressed, posterior lateral angles of first seg- 
ment acutely produced, median portion of hind margin some- 
what raised; second and third sutures broadly and shallowly 
depressed and long crenulate; second tergite with long narrow 
gastrocceli. Hind tibiae with two stout curved spines, as long 
as fourth tarsal joint; hind tibiae and tarsi not as long and 
slender as in M. philippinensis, the first hind tarsal joint as long 
as the three following together. 

Stigma long and narrow, three and one-half times as long as 
wide at insertion of radius, which is one third of the length 
from base, and here the margin is straight; first abscissa of 
radius about one third length of second, second cubital cell three 
times as long as wide, distinctly narrowed on apical half, first 
transverse cubitus oblique, slightly curved and decolored at lower 
extremity, bent and swollen at upper extremity; second trans- 
verse cubitus curved, nearly vertical, and decolored; second 
abscissa of radius strongly curved and swollen on basal third; 
first abscissa of cubitus curved downward on basal half; re- 
current vein joining cubitus near apex of first cubital cell, 
intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein inserted at lower eighth ; 
submedian cell a little longer than median, transverse median 
vein vertical. 

Mindanao, Davao (coll. Baker). 



306 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Megarhogas szepligetii sp. nov. 

Pale ochraceous, becoming bright ferruginous on antennae, 
hind coxa?, femora, and tibiae, and darker on fourth to sixth ter- 
gites ; interocellar area piceous. Wings faintly obscured, smoky, 
and with an indistinct paler transverse band on apical third; 
veins brown, upper basal margin of stigma darker. 

Male, length, 8 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above not strongly transverse, eyes very 
large and strongly bulging; vertex back of ocelli short, rapidly 
narrowing behind eyes, exposed cheek margin nearly straight; 
occipital carina straight, not incurved; length of exposed cheek 
margin scarcely twice the distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter 
distance more than half the distance from ocelli to occipital 
margin and two thirds the long diameter of an ocellus; ocelli of 
medium size, separated by about half their diameter; surface 
of vertex behind ocelli smooth and shining; surface in front 
of anterior ocellus wrinkled only over insertions of antenna?. 

Face about as long as wide above where the eyes are deeply 
emarginate, narrowed below by the strongly outcurved eye mar- 
gins; surface slightly raised along median line on upper half, 
slightly, longitudinally depressed on midlateral area?; lateral 
areae finely, shallowly, obliquely rugose ; clypeus transverse, basal 
suture subobsolete, apical margin broadly incurved; clypeal pits 
close to eyes; mouth opening broad, elliptical; outer surface of 
mandibles minutely roughened. 

Head viewed from side with face strongly prominent below 
antennae; cheeks narrow, outer margin parallel with eye mar- 
gins, below about one fourth width of eye; malar space very 
small, its length about three fourths width of cheek ; both malar 
space and cheek smooth and shining; eye very large, subellip- 
tical, broadest on lower half. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobate, smooth or minutely roughened, and 
shining, notauli deeply impressed, minutely, obscurely crenulate, 
more strongly so posteriorly, terminating posteriorly at middle 
of the narrow median furrow on posteromedian area. Scutellum 
anteriorly bifoveate, the foveae separated by a sharp median 
carina ; posterior disk nearly smooth, long triangular. Postscu- 
tellum with two small . median foveae separated by a sharp 
carina, their outer margins oblique. Metanotum reticulate- 
rugose; a sharp-rimmed, median, lanceolate area crossed by 
three transverse ruga? ; posterolateral area? somewhat prominent 
and below with radiating ruga?; spiracle elliptical, and below 
it a longitudinal carina passing forward; metapleura depressed 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 307 

on posterior third, and there with a few strong irregular rugae, 
anteriorly finely rugose; mesopleura smooth and shining on 
disk, an impressed crenulate furrow crossing entire disk in line 
of long axis of body; below wings with a marginal depressed 
area, anterior border and area below longitudinal groove shallow- 
ly rugose. 

Abdomen subpedicellate, one half longer than head and thorax 
together, widest at fourth segment, seven segments fully ex- 
posed; first segment slender basally, evenly broadened to apex; 
width at base nearly half that at apex, the length about two 
and one-half times the width at apex ; length of second segment 
about one and one-half times width at apex and slightly shorter 
than first segment ; third segment three fourths length of second, 
a little broadened apically, apical width slightly greater than 
length ; fourth and fifth segments quadrate, fourth slightly shorter 
than third, fifth a little shorter; sixth narrower than fifth and 
three fourths its length ; sixth one half length of fifth, smooth and 
shining, and its apical margin broadly incurved; only the point 
of seventh visible; first to fifth tergites thickly longitudinally 
rugose, this becoming obsolete on apical half of fifth tergite, 
where the surface is minutely roughened; a strong, continuous 
carina extends to apex of third tergite; first suture sharply 
impressed, posterolateral angles of first segment acutely pro T 
duced, median portion of hind margin somewhat raised; second 
suture shallowly, broadly depressed, and long crenulate; third, 
fourth, and fifth sutures more strongly and narrowly depressed 
and crenulate ; second tergite with small gastrocoeli. Hind tibiae 
with two short curved spines, the inner longer, as long as fourth 
tarsal joint; first hind tarsal joint as long as the three following 
together. 

Stigma long and slender, three and one-half times as long as 
wide at insertion of radius, which is one third of length from 
base, and here the margin is straight; first abscissa of radius 
about one third length of second ; second cubital cell twice as long 
as widest part, distinctly narrowed on apical half, first transverse 
cubitus oblique, straight and decolored at lower extremity, slight- 
ly bent, swollen at upper extremity; second transverse cubitus 
curved, nearly vertical, and decolored ; second abscissa of radius 
curved and swollen on basal third ; recurrent vein joining cubitus 
very near apex of first cubital cell, intervening vein decolored; 
parallel vein inserted at lower sixth ; submedian cell longer than 
median; transverse median vein slightly oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker). 



308 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

This species is similar to M. mindanaensis in most respects, 
but is strikingly distinct in the structure of its mesopleura. 

Genus TRIGONOPHATNUS Cameron 

Synopsis of the species. 

a\ Antennas and stigma piceous nigricornis sp. nov. 

a". Antennas and stigma pale ochraceous philippinensis sp. nov. 

Trigonophatnus nigricornis sp. nov. 

Ochraceous, slightly darker on abdominal tergites, ovipositor 
concolorous ; interocellar area and antennae piceous, scape paler ; 
wings faintly obscured, stigma and veins piceous, except de- 
colored second transverse cubital and transverse median. 

Female, length, 6 millimeters; ovipositor very short, about as 
long as sixth tergite. 

Head viewed from above with the medium-sized eyes strongly 
bulging; vertex back of ocelli long, roundly narrowed back of 
eyes ; length of exposed cheek margin nearly as great as distance 
from ocelli to occipital carina, the occipital carina very strongly 
curved; surface of vertex smooth and shining; ocelli small, far- 
ther from eyes than from each other, about four times as far 
from occipital carina as from each other, with short radiating 
striae about the anterior ocellus. Face short, broader than long, 
broader above, due to the fact that the eyes are deeply emargin- 
ate opposite antennae ; surface with a median carina to near cly- 
peus, lateral areae cross-striate, more strongly so above; mouth 
opening very large, subcircular, the upper margin thus strongly 
curved. Head viewed from side with face margin curved and 
strongly projecting at antennal scrobes; malar space rather 
small, length about half width of eye ; cheek very broad, broader 
than length of malar space and slightly broader above than 
below, the margin subparallel to eye margin; ocelli rather 
strongly projecting; eye outline short and broadly subelliptical ; 
maxillary palpi slender and very hairy, six- jointed, first two 
joints short, remainder subequal in length; labial palpi four- 
jointed. 

Mesonotum smooth and shining ; notauli very deep, broad, and 
coarsely crenulated anteriorly, becoming much smaller and 
weaker, disappearing in the posterior median depression, which 
has a small median groove. Scutellum with two subcircular 
foveas anteriorly, which are separated by a sharp carina and 
are smooth within; posterior disk of scutellum smooth. Meta- 
notum with six or eight discal striae on posterior half, which 
converge at apical border; at the side above the large round 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 309 

spiracle is an oblique crenulate depression, passing to apical 
margin; below the spiracle a fine lateral carina curves about 
the lower half of spiracle and thence passes irregularly to apical 
margin; below this carina, on the pleura, an oblique crenulated 
depression; remainder of pleura smooth. Mesopleura smooth 
and shining, without discal furrow. 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together ; first segment 
sessile, twice as broad at apex as at base, length one and one- 
half times width at apex; second tergite as long as first, width 
at apex nearly equal to length; third, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
subequal in length, fourth very broad; first tergite medially 
carinate only on basal half, second only on basal three fourths; 
first four tergites finely, densely, longitudinally reticulate-rugose ; 
fifth weakly punctate-striate at base only, the remainder of 
fifth together with sixth smooth and shining; third and fourth 
sutures only, deeply impressed and crenulate. Hind tibiae with 
two long, equal, curved spurs; first hind tarsal joint as long as 
three following together. 

Stigma large, about five times as long as broad, not at all 
angulate at insertion of radius, this being nearer to base than 
to apex; first abscissa of radius a little less than half length of 
second; second cubital cell more than twice as long as high; 
first transverse cubital very oblique, second nearly vertical; re- 
current vein interstitial; parallel vein inserted below middle; 
submedian cell considerably longer than median. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker). 

Trigonophatnus philippinensis sp. nov. 

Ochraceous throughout; legs, antennae, palpi, and tegulse 
somewhat paler; interocellar area piceous; wings faintly ob- 
scured, stigma and veins on apical half of wing ochraceous, on 
basal half piceous, second transverse cubital and recurrent veins 
decolored. 

Female, length, 6.5 millimeters; ovipositor as long as sixth 
tergite; hypopygidium very large. 

Head viewed from above with the medium-sized eyes strongly 
bulging, vertex back of ocelli short, strongly narrowed back of 
eyes; length of exposed cheek margin nearly twice the distance 
from ocelli to eyes and greater than the distance from ocelli to 
occipital carina; occipital carina subangulate at center; surface 
of vertex smooth and shining ; ocelli on a distinctly raised prom- 
inence and directed strongly sidewise, of medium size, dis- 
tance between them subequal to the distance to eyes; distance 
to occipital carina twice width between posterior ocelli; short 



310 The Philippine Journal of Science 191-7 

radiating striae in front of anterior ocellus. Face very short, 
broader than long, broadened above on account of the deeply 
emarginate eyes, surface medially long-umbonate below antennae, 
lateral areae and clypeus depressed, the former obscurely cross- 
striate above; mouth opening very large, subcircular, upper 
margin very strongly curved. Head viewed from side with face 
margin strongly curved and very prominent at antennal scrobes ; 
malar space small, length a little more than half width of cheeks ; 
cheeks broad, more than half width of eye, margin parallel to eye 
margin ; ocelli strongly prominent ; eye large, its outline long and 
broadly subelliptical ; of last four joints of maxillary palpi the 
second is longest. 

Pronotum nearly hidden by the strongly projecting middle 
lobe of mesonotum. Mesonotum shining and nearly smooth; 
notauli very deep, coarsely crenulated anteriorly, becoming 
broader, shallower, and more obscurely crenulated where they 
enter the very wide posterior depression, the last with a. short 
median groove, anterior to which the surface is obscurely punc- 
tate-striate. Scutellum anteriorly with two large subquadrate 
foveae, separated by a sharp median carina, roughened within, 
and with curved outer margins; posterior disk of scutellum 
smooth. 

Metanotum with a thick median carina and on either side a 
submedian, finer carina, these forming an elongate median area, 
which is broader posteriorly ; remainder of surface irregularly and 
obscurely punctate-rugose; below the round spiracle, which is 
set in a circular depressed spot, is an oblique crenulated furrow 
passing to apical margin; remainder of metapleura smooth; 
mesopleura rugose anteriorly and below, disk without oblique 
furrow. 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together ; first segment 
twice as wide apically as basally, length one and one-half times 
width at apex; second as long as first, gradually broadening 
apically, the length more than apical width; third and fourth 
subequal (much shorter than second) ; fifth a little longer; sixth 
a little shorter, fourth widest ; first four tergites finely longitudi- 
nally reticulate-rugose; fifth segment at base obscurely punc- 
tate-rugose, remainder and sixth segment smooth and shining; 
first and second tergites with distinct median carina on basal 
halves only ; second, third, and fourth sutures shallowly depressed 
and crenulate. Hind tibiae with two long, equal, curved spurs; 
first hind tarsal joint as long as three following together. 

Stigma large, about three times as long as broad, broadest 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 311 

and subangulate at insertion of radius, this being a little before 
middle; first abscissa of basal vein somewhat swollen; first 
abscissa of radius about half length of second; second cubital 
cell more than twice longer than wide; first transverse cubital 
very oblique, second nearly vertical; recurrent vein joining 
cubitus a little before first transverse cubitus, intervening vein 
decolored; parallel vein inserted far below middle; submedian 
cell considerably longer than median. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (coll. Baker). 

Genus RHOGASELLA novum 

Eyes large, cheeks narrow, but malar space relatively large. 
Ocelli small, equidistant or the anterior somewhat removed. 
Vertex back of ocelli of medium size, longer than ocellar area 
and with or without an impressed median line. Antennae longer 
than entire body ; scape slender, little narrowed proximally, twice 
as long as wide; funicle longer than wide and half length of 
scape; flagellar joints twice as long as wide. ^Maxillary palpi 
longer than anterior femora, with third and fourth joints long, 
subequal, and terete. 

Mesonotum strongly trilobed; notauli deep; posterior median 
area grooved and very narrow; scutellum bifoveate anteriorly, 
each fovea partially subdivided by a rudimentary carina. Meta- 
notum sparsely rugose, with a short median carina anteriorly, 
behind passing into an irregular lozenge-shaped area, which 
may have an irregular median groove; midlateral areas with 
slight prominences; spiracle large, elliptical, not raised. Disk 
of mesopleura with a broadly impressed, centrally crenulate, 
oblique groove. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radius inserted near 
middle or at basal two fifths of the long, narrow stigma. First 
abscissa of radius about half length of second; second cubital 
cell twice as long as wide; first transverse cubitus oblique; 
second vertical and decolored. Recurrent vein inserted a short 
distance from apex of first .cubital cell. Submedian cell as long 
as median on the median vein, transverse median vein intersti- 
tial with basal. Parallel vein inserted at lower third, but ap- 
pearing interstitial by reason of the posterior vein being obsolete 
beyond second discoidal cell. 

Abdomen sessile, longer than head and thorax together, 
narrowly elliptical in outline, with six fully exposed tergites in 
female; second tergite at apex wider than long and subequal to 
first, remainder subequal and about two thirds length of first; 



312 The Philippine Journal of Science isii 

first or first and second tergites, medially carinate; all tergites 
shallowly striate, the stria? on lateral portions of third, fourth, 
and fifth tergites somewhat oblique; second suture crenulately 
impressed and strongly curved; basal surfaces of fourth and 
fifth tergites strongly depressed. Hind tibial spurs short, 
straight, and pubescent. 

Type, Rhogasella straminea sp. nov. 

Synopsis of the species. 

a>. Ocelli set in a depressed area, the anterior not farther removed than 
distance between posterior; occipital margin (viewed from above) wade 
and deeply incurved; first and second tergites with a distinct median 
carina; dorsum of abdomen not medially piceous.... straminea sp. nov. 

a'. Ocelli not set in a depressed area, the anterior much farther removed 
than distance between posterior; occipital margin narrowed and nearly 
straight; first tergite only with distinct median carina; dorsum of 
abdomen medially piceous lineata sp. nov. 

Rhogasella straminea sp. nov. 

Antennae and thorax ochraceous; head, abdomen, and legs 
stramineous; abdomen and tarsi distally darkened. A small 
mark at base of metanotum, interocellar area, and sutures of 
flagella piceous. Wings very faintly obscured, stigma and veins 
stramineous, the latter darker basally. Ovipositor ochraceous, 
longer than depth of last abdominal segment and hypopygium 
together. 

Female, length, 5.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with large nonbulging eyes, which 
deeply enter head ; vertex back of ocelli long and with a median 
incised line ; occipital margin wide and broadly, deeply incurved ; 
exposed margin of cheek as long as twice distance from ocelli 
to eyes, posterior length of vertex three times the latter 
distance; surface of vertex smooth and shining; ocelli small, 
seated in a depressed area, separated by a little less than 
their long diameter, the anterior not farther removed, the pos- 
terior slightly farther from eyes than their long diameter. Face 
subquadrate, as long as broad, subobsoletely, transversely, and 
irregularly punctate-striate ; medially umbo-carinately raised just 
below antenna?; mouth opening narrow, subelliptical; clypeus 
with basal suture highly arched, apical margin less strongly 
curved; clypeal pits distant from eyes about twice their diam- 
eter. Head viewed from side with face margin strongly pro- 
jecting, especially at antenna?, but very slightly curved at middle ; 
ocellar area not raised; cheeks narrow, about one fourth the 
lower width of eyes, outer margin parallel to eye margin ; malar 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 313 

space long, its length about twice the lower width of cheek ; eye 
large, its outline very broad and bluntly elliptical, but a little 
narrower on lower half. Maxillary palpi slender, terete, third 
and fourth joints long, subequal in length, and longer than fifth 
and sixth together. Antennae longer than entire body, scape 
slender, little narrower at base, twice as long as wide; funicle 
narrower and half as long as scape; flagellar joints twice as long 
as wide. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobed; median lobe strongly extended 
forward; notauli deeply impressed, straight, in part indistinctly 
crenulate, rapidly converging to hind margin, flanking a narrow, 
median basal area, which is provided with a lanceolate median 
groove having several indistinct cross rugae; scutellum anteriorly 
bifoveate, foveae rather long and narrow, median carina low 
and weak, and each fovea subdivided behind by a weak, rudi- 
mentary, median carina ; posterior disk of scutellum smooth and 
shining. Postscutellum bifoveate medially, each fovea opening 
anterolateral^. Metanotum irregularly, sparsely rugose, a 
rudimentary median carina at base; median area with distinct 
outlines of a large, broad, lozenge-shaped area, which is rugose 
within and with an irregular, narrow, sharp-rimmed median 
furrow; from either angle of the lozenge-shaped median area 
a transverse carina passing to near the midlateral blunt prom- 
inence; spiracle large and elliptical, an irregular longitudinal 
carina passing beneath it; metapleura smooth anteriorly, in- 
distinctly roughened posteriorly; mesopleura smooth and shin- 
ing, disk with a broad, gradually depressed groove, which is 
medially obscurely crenulate. 

Abdomen a little longer than head and thorax together, sessile,, 
with six exposed tergites, gradually broadened to third seg- 
ment; first segment suddenly narrowed near base, basal width 
about one third the apical, length one and one-third times the 
apical width; second tergite a little shorter than first, apical 
width a little greater than length ; third to sixth tergites subequal 
in length and two thirds length of second, beyond third rapidly 
narrower, sixth truncate apically ; all tergites longitudinally, shal- 
lowly striate, with interstriae shagreening, apically more finely 
so, striae not reaching hind margins of fourth, fifth, and sixth 
segments; striae somewhat oblique on lateral portions of third, 
fourth, and fifth tergites ; first and second tergites with a distinct 
median carina; second suture strongly curved, impressed, and 
crenulate; fifth and sixth segments broadly depressed at base; 
hypopygium short but deep. 

Stigma long and narrow, about five times as long as broad; 



314 The Philippine Journal of Science i»i7 

radius inserted at the proximal two fifths ; first abscissa of 
radius about half length of second ; second cubital cell about 
twice as long as" wide; first transverse cubital oblique; second 
vertical and decolored ; cubitus becoming obsolete shortly beyond 
second cubital cell; recurrent vein joining cubitus a short dis- 
tance before first transverse cubitus, intervening vein decolored ; 
parallel vein inserted at lower third, but appearing interstitial 
by reason of the posterior vein being obsolete beyond second 
cubital cell; transverse median vein interstitial with basal; ra- 
dial vein in hind wing at one third of its length, strongly and 
suddenly curved toward costa, beyond this obsolete; nervellus 
oblique, slightly curved on upper half. 
Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (coll. Baker). 

Rhogasella lineata sp. nov. 

Antennae and abdomen pale sordid ferruginous; flagellar 
sutures darkened ; legs and tegulse stramineous. A more or less 
distinct and in part subcontinuous, narrow, discal, piceous stripe 
on metanotum and abdominal dorsum. Interocellar area pice- 
ous. Palpi entirely decolored. Wings very slightly obscured, 
costa ochraceous, stigma stramineous, veins darkened. Ovipos- 
itor ochraceous, as long as depth of last exposed segment and 
hypopygidium together. 

Female, length, 5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with large nonbulging eyes, which 
deeply enter head; vertex very rapidly narrowing back of eyes, 
occipital margin very narrow; length of exposed cheek margin 
not twice distance of ocelli to eyes and less than distance from 
ocelli to occipital margin (which is nearly straight) ; entire 
surface of vertex, including area in front of ocelli, smooth and 
shining; ocelli small, distance from eyes a little more than half 
distance from occipital margin; anterior ocellus a half again 
as far from posterior ocelli as these are from each other, the 
latter nearer to each other than their long diameter and a little 
farther from eyes than their long diameter. Face subquadrate ; 
broader than long; subobsoletely, transversely, and irregularly 
punctulate-striate ; medially umbo-carinately raised just below 
antennae; mouth opening narrow, subelliptical ; clypeus trans- 
verse, basal and apical margin broadly curved and subparallel; 
clypeal pits distant from eyes about four times their diameter. 
Head viewed from side with face very strongly projecting, espe- 
cially at antenna?, but very slightly curved at middle; cheek 
narrow, about one fourth the lower width of eye, outer margin 
parallel to eye margin ; malar space long, twice the lower width 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 315 

of cheek ; eye large, its outline very broad and bluntly elliptical, 
but narrower on the lower half. Maxillary palpi slender, terete, 
third and fourth joints long, subequal in length and longer than 
fifth and sixth together. Antennae longer than entire body, 
scape slender, little narrower at base, twice as long as wide; 
funicle narrower than scape and half as long; flagellar joints 
twice as long as wide. 

Mesonotum deeply trilobed; median lobe strongly extended 
forward; notauli deeply impressed, straight, in part indistinctly 
crenulate, rapidly converging to hind margin, flanking a narrow 
median basal area, which is provided with a lanceolate median 
groove having several indistinct cross rugae. Scutellum ante- 
riorly bifoveate, foveas rather long and narrow, median carina 
low and weak, and each fovea subdivided behind by a weak 
rudimentary median carina; posterior disk of scutellum oval, 
smooth, and shining. Postscutellum bifoveate medially, each 
fovea open anterolateral^. Metanotum irregularly rugose and 
with a rudimentary median carina at base; median area with 
partial outline of a large lozenge-shaped area, rugose within, but 
broken by three stout transverse rugae; midlateral area with a 
blunt prominence; spiracle large, elliptical; a weak, irregular, 
longitudinal carina passing beneath spiracle; metapleura nearly 
smooth anteriorly, indistinctly roughened posteriorly; meso- 
pleura smooth and shining, disk with a broad, gradually im- 
pressed groove on posterior two thirds, which is medially, 
obscurely crenulate. 

Abdomen a little longer than head and thorax together, sessile, 
with six exposed segments, gradually broadened to third seg- 
ment; first segment suddenly narrowed near base, basal width 
one third the apical, length subequal to apical width; second 
tergite subequal in length to first, apical width much greater 
than length; third to sixth tergites subequal in length and two 
thirds length of second, beyond third rapidly narrower, sixth 
truncate apically; all tergites longitudinally, finely, shallowly 
striate, with interstrial shagreening, striae not reaching hind 
margins of fourth, fifth, and sixth segments; striae somewhat 
oblique on lateral portions of third, fourth, and fifth tergites; 
only the first tergite with a distinct median carina ; second suture 
connate, strongly curved, impressed, and crenulate; fifth and 
sixth segments broadly depressed at base. Hypopygium short 
and deep. 

Stigma long and narrow, about five times as long as broad, 
radius inserted near the middle; first abscissa of radius about 

150687 4 



316 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

half length of second; second cubital cell about twice as long- 
as wide, first transverse cubital oblique, second vertical and 
decolored; cubital vein becoming obsolete shortly beyond second 
cubital cell; recurrent vein joining cubitus a short distance 
before first transverse cubitus, intervening vein decolored ; paral- 
lel vein inserted at lower third, but appearing interstitial by 
reason of the posterior vein being entirely obsolete beyond 
second discoidal cell; transverse median vein interstitial with 
basal ; radial vein in hind wing at one third of its length strongly 
and suddenly curved toward costa, beyond this obsolete; nervel- 
lus oblique, slightly curved on upper half. 
Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (coll. Baker). 

Genus RHOGAS Nees 

The numerous Philippine species of this well-known genus will 
be described in a subsequent paper. 

Genus PSEUDOGYRONEURON novum 

Eyes very large ; malar space long, due to a strong narrowing 
of mouth. Vertex back of ocelli of medium length. Antennae 
longer than entire body, scape short and swollen, funicle broad 
and three fourths length of scape, flagellar joints more than 
twice as long as wide. Maxillary palpi of great size, reaching 
to end of metanotum, third to sixth joints strongly modified, 
third swollen, fourth, fifth, and sixth flattened. Labial palpi with 
third joint elongate and flattened. 

Scutellum quadrifoveate anteriorly. Metanotum with a nar- 
row, lanceolate, high-rimmed median area and with strong, blunt 
prominences on the posterior lateral areae; spiracles small and 
round. Disk of mesopleura with a short, oblique, noncrenulate 
furrow. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radial vein inserted at 
basal two fifths of the length of the long, rather narrow, stigma. 
Thickened first abscissa of radius about half length of second; 
second cubital cell nearly twice as long as broad, not narrowed 
apically, both transverse cubiti more or less oblique. Recurrent 
vein inserted a short distance from apex of first cubital cell. 
Submedian cell a little longer than median. Parallel vein in- 
serted at lower third. Radius of hind wings curved toward 
costa. Type, Pseudogyroneuron mindanaensis sp. nov. 

Pseudogyroneuron mindanaensis sp. nov. 

Stramineous, with piceous shading on lateral lobes of meso- 
notum anteriorly, on anterior portions of mesopleurae, on pros- 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 317 

ternum, on anterior portion of metanotum, and on scape and 
f unicle ; flagella piceous ; interocellar area black. Wings faintly 
smoky, veins testaceous; media, basal, and first abscissa of 
radius darker; stigma pale, decolored anteriorly. 

Female, length, about 5.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above transverse, not rapidly narrowing 
behind, eyes strongly bulging beyond head outline ; exposed cheek 
margin a little shorter than length of vertex back of ocelli; 
occipital carina subangulately bent; length of exposed cheek 
margin one third greater than distance from ocelli to eyes, inter- 
ocellar distance less than the diameter of the large and strongly 
prominent ocelli and equaling about half the distance from ocelli 
to eyes; vertex back of ocelli smooth and shining; surface in 
front of anterior ocelli radiately wrinkled and not depressed. 

Face very short, broader than long and broader below than 
above, medially slightly raised, smooth, with a few subobsolete 
punctures. Mouth opening very narrow. Clypeus transverse, 
smooth, upper and lower margins subparallel, the latter rather 
strongly impressed. Mandibles with outer surface roughened. 
Head viewed from side with face evenly curved; malar space 
very long, due to narrowing of mouth, its length somewhat 
greater than width of cheek below; cheek about one third of 
width of lower half of eyes, cheek margin subparallel to eye 
margin; eye very broad, subelliptical, and a little broader on 
lower half. 

Maxillary palpi of great size, extending to end of metanotum; 
third to sixth joints strongly inflated; third as broad apically 
as posterior femora and slightly longer than depth of eye, sub- 
terete, strongly narrowed to base, slightly flattened toward lower 
edge ; fourth as long as third, nearly a& wide basally as third at 
apex, then narrowed apically; fifth, three fourths length of 
fourth and much narrowed, as broad apically as basally; sixth, 
two thirds length of fifth, much narrower and spindle-shaped 
in outline; fourth, fifth, and sixth segments much flattened; 
labial palpi reaching tegulse, fourth joint elongate and flattened. 

Mesonotum trilobed, shining, slightly roughened, notauli deep- 
ly impressed anteriorly, broad and irregularly crenulate poste- 
riorly, where they rather suddenly converge to a narrow, 
impressed, median basal groove. Scutellum anteriorly quadrifo- 
veate, the separating carinas low ; posterior disk of scutellum 
strongly convex and smooth. Postscutellum very shallowly 
bifoveate. Metanotum very coarsely, irregularly rugose; a 
strongly rimmed, narrowly lanceolate, median area with irregular 



318 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

margins broken at several points by rugae ; posterior lateral areas 
with strong, blunt prominences from which radiate rugae; spir- 
acle small and round ; lateral carina complete, though irregular ; 
metapleura smooth with a somewhat rugose median ridge poste- 
riorly; mesopleura smooth and with a short, sharply impressed, 
oblique, noncrenulate discal furrow. 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together, sessile, broad, 
gradually widened to third segment; first segment but little 
wider at apex than at base, length about one and one-half times 
width at apex ; second about as long as first but wider, gradually 
widening apically, length and apical width subequal ; third much 
shorter than second and twice as wide as long; fourth, fifth, 
and sixth subequal in length, slightly shorter than third, and 
successively narrower ; seventh segment very short, its hind mar- 
gin slightly incurved, the subangulate point of eighth a little 
exposed; all tergites coarsely, sharply, longitudinally striate, 
minutely reticulate-punctate between the striae; sculpturing on 
sixth segment distinct only at base; median carina distinct only 
on first two tergites; first suture impressed only at middle; 
second suture narrowly and slightly impressed; third, fourth, 
and fifth sutures deeply impressed and strongly crenulate. Hind 
tibiae with two straight, hairy spurs, which are about as long as 
fourth tarsal joint. 

Stigma long, rather narrow, about five times as long as wide, 
widest and obtusely angled at two fifths of length from base 
where radius is inserted ; thickened first abscissa of radius about 
half length of second ; second cubital cell nearly twice as long as 
wide, not narrowed apically; first transverse cubitus strongly 
oblique, second slightly so and decolored; first recurrent vein 
nearly straight, enteringJirst cubital cell a short distance before 
apex; the parallel vein inserted at lower third; submedian cell 
a little longer than median. Radius of hind wings curved 
toward costa. 

Mindanao, Butuan (coll. Baker). 

Genus PARAGYRONEURON novum 

Eyes of medium size, malar space long, cheeks broad. An- 
tennae as long as body, scape large, one and one-half times as 
long as broad, f unicle much narrower and not half as long ; length 
of flagellar joints one and one-half times the width. Maxillary 
palpi normal, short and slender. 

Scutellum bifoveate anteriorly, metanotum medially carinate 
on anterior half, a median lanceolate area on posterior half, 
surface very coarsely rugose and two strong prominences on 



xn, d, 6 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 319 

midlateral areas, which are extended into stout teeth; spiracle 
large and broadly elliptical. Mesopleura with a very large, deep, 
crenulated discal furrow, on posterior half. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radius inserted at basal 
two fifths of the large, long stigma. First abscissa of radius 
more than half length of second; second cubital cell not twice 
as long as wide, not narrower apically, and with both transverse 
cubiti oblique. Recurrent vein inserted near apex of first cubital 
cell. Submedian cell longer than median. Parallel vein in- 
serted at lower fifth. Radius of hind wings curved toward cos- 
tal; nervellus curved and bent at middle. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, a little shorter than head and thorax 
together; first abdominal tergite very broad, length equaling 
apical width; remaining segments much broader than long; 
first and second tergites medially carinate. Hind tibial spurs 
stout, curved, and hairy. 

Type Paragyroneuron bicolor sp. nov. 

Paragyroneuron bicolor sp. nov. 

Ochraceous; flagella black; hind tarsi and stigma piceous; 
scape and funicle obscure ferruginous. Wings basally with 
veins ochraceous ; on and beyond basal vein smoky, veins dark, a 
piceous cloud along basal vein. 

Female, length, 10 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with eyes suboval and very strongly 
bulging, vertex caudad of eyes smooth, gradually narrowed, very 
long, occipital carina very strongly raised; ocelli small, trans- 
parent, much nearer to each other than to eyes and twice as 
far from occipital carina as from eyes. Face long, narrower at 
lower margins of eyes, gently arched, surface smooth; eyes in 
front view kidney-shaped, strongly emarginate opposite anten- 
nas. Head as viewed from side with malar space long; cheeks 
very broad, as broad as eyes, margin parallel to outer margin of 
eyes; eye outline semicircular. 

Mesonotum smooth, notauli smooth, but anteriorly profoundly 
excavated ; scutellum anteriorly with two large, suboval, smooth, 
deep foveas, separated by a sharp median carina. Metanotum 
with coarse, wavy ruga?, becoming finely reticulate-rugose near 
anterior border, With a sinuous median carina splitting on 
posterior half, forming a lanceolate, wavy-margined, median 
area; rugae separate, leaving smooth areae between the lanceo- 
late median area and the large lateral teeth; numerous short 
rugae radiately arranged about the base of each tooth; teeth 
large and bluntly tipped ; spiracle broadly elliptical. Mesopleura 



320 The Philippine Journal of Science mm 

smooth, sparsely, shallowly punctate; with an oblique shallow 
furrow crossed by numerous short rugse. 

Abdomen very broad, broadly sessile; fourth and fifth seg- 
ments slightly swollen; the second to fourth sutures broad, 
somewhat strongly constricted and crenulate ; first segment about 
as broad as long and slightly narrower at base ; second segment 
subquadrate, a little longer than first and a little broader than 
long; first and second segments coarsely, longitudinally rugose, 
medially carinate, and with a strong submedian carina, which 
on first segment at base becomes a ridge; third to fifth tergites 
more finely sculptured, becoming punctate-rugose. Hind tibial 
spurs very short, subequal, not as long as third tarsal joint; 
first tarsal joint slightly longer than next three together ; second 
as long as third and fourth together. 

Stigma very large, about three times as long as broad, lower 
margin evenly curved ; radius inserted near middle ; first abscissa 
of radius slightly more than half length of second ; second cubital 
cell subtrapezoidal, less than twice as long as wide, both trans- 
verse cubitals oblique ; recurrent vein inserted near apex of first 
cubital cell; parallel vein inserted far below, near to posterior 
vein. In hind wings, nervellus subangulately bent at middle. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (coll. Baker). 

Genus GYRONEURONELLA novum 

Eyes very large, malar space and cheeks relatively small. 
Ocelli of medium size. Vertex back of ocelli long. Antennae 
longer than entire body. Maxillary palpi normal. 

Head and mesonotum nearly smooth. Notauli distinct on disk 
of mesonotum; scutellum anteriorly bifoveate; postscutellum 
short and minutely bifoveate; metanotum without lateral prom- 
inences and medially with a lanceolate area; spiracles narrowly 
elliptical. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radial vein inserted at 
two fifths length from base of the broad stigma. First abscissa 
of radius more than half length of second; second cubital cell 
twice as long as wide, abruptly narrowed at apex. Recurrent 
vein inserted some distance before apex of first cubital cell; 
submedian cell much longer than median and with the transverse 
median vein strongly curved and enlarged. Median vein normal. 
Parallel vein straight at insertion. 

Abdomen longer than head and thorax together; terminal 
segments not retracted. 

Type, Gvroneuronella kokujewii sp. nov. 



xn, d, 6 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 321 

Gyroneuronella kokujewii sp. nov. 

Ochraceous, paler on lower part of head, pronotum, sternum, 
and basal segments of abdomen and darker on abdominal dor- 
sum. Interocellar area black. Antennae darker distally, to 
piceous at tips. Wings slightly suffused with smoky across 
middle third; veins ochraceous, except the dark stigma, basal 
vein, first abscissa of radius, and other veins across middle third 
of wing. 

Female, length of body, 4.5 millimeters; of ovipositor, 1. 

Head viewed from above with eyes large, but not strongly 
bulging; vertex back of ocelli long, occipital carina strongly 
but regularly incurved, length of exposed cheek margin twice 
distance from eye to ocelli and distinctly less than distance from 
ocelli to occipital margin ; surface of vertex smooth and shining, 
with a distinct median impressed line from ocelli to occipital 
margin; ocelli of medium size, distance between them slightly 
less than distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter distance sub- 
equal to diameter of an ocellus, distance to occipital margin 
about the diameter of an ocellus; surface in front of anterior 
ocellus smooth. Face subquadrangular, a little longer than 
wide, above broadened somewhat toward emargination of eyes; 
surface obscurely roughened and gently arched; mouth opening 
small and narrow, lower margin of clypeus nearly straight. 
Head viewed from side with face rather strongly prominent 
below antenna?; cheeks narrow, barely one fourth width of eye, 
slightly narrowed above ; malar space very small, length distinct- 
ly less than width of cheeks below; eye very large, its outline 
very broadly subelliptical. 

Mesonotum smooth, shining; notauli shallow and coarsely cren- 
ulate, but little impressed anteriorly, posteriorly reaching hind 
margin at sides of the broad, rugose, median depressed area. 
Scutellum anteriorly with two very large, smooth fovese, with 
a strong, median, separating carina; posterior disk of scutellum 
as long as broad at base, very gradually narrowed to the rounded 
apex. Metanotum with a narrow, percurrent, sharp, but ir- 
regular, margined, median area, which is acute anteriorly and 
parallel-sided posteriorly ; each lateral area with several more or 
less distinct longitudinal rugse converging toward petiolar mar- 
gin; an irregular, sinuous, partially crenulate, longitudinal fur- 
row below the narrowly elliptical spiracle; metapleura and 
mesopleura shining, the latter with a short, deep, oblique, discal 
furrow. 

Abdomen a little longer than head and thorax together, sub- 



322 The Philippine Journal of Science isn 

sessile, and gradually widening to third segment; first segment 
three times wider apically than basally, length but slightly 
greater than apical width; second segment very slightly wider 
at apex than at base, its length subequal to that of first, and 
a little more than half apical width; third to sixth segments 
short, transverse, two thirds to three fourths length of second, 
somewhat swollen, and progressively narrower ; all tergites some- 
what irregularly but evenly, longitudinally striate, except to- 
ward apex of sixth segment; first and second tergites with 
distinct median carina? ; first suture slightly impressed at middle, 
second to fifth sutures rather deeply constricted and crenulate. 
Hind tibiae with two straight, equal spurs, which are about as 
long as fourth tarsal joint; first hind tarsal joint subequal in 
length to next two together. 

Stigma large and wide, about four times as long as wide, sub- 
angulate at two fifths of length from base where radius is 
inserted ; first abscissa of radius distinctly more than half length 
of second; second cubital cell about twice as long as high, 
narrowed at apex, first transverse cubitus very oblique, second 
vertical and white; recurrent vein joining cubitus a distance of 
more than half the length of first transverse cubitus from apex 
of first cubital cell, intervening vein decolored; parallel vein 
inserted at middle; submedian cell much longer than median, 
strongly rounded apically, the curved transverse median vein 
as well as adjoining portions of median and posterior veins, 
greatly enlarged. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (coll. Baker). 

Named for Mr. N. R. Kokujew, a well-known Russian student 
of the Ichneumonoidea. 

Genus HEMIGYRONEURON novum 

Eyes very large, malar space and cheeks relatively small. 
Oaelli very large, subapproximate to eyes. Vertex back of ocelli 
very short. Antennae shorter than body. Maxillary palpi 
normal. 

Head and mesonotum coarsely sculptured; notauli obsolete on 
disk of mesonotum; scutellum anteriorly multif oveate ; postscu- 
tellum large and mutifoveate. Metanotum without lateral prom- 
inences and medially carinate, spiracles round, oval, or broadly 
elliptical. 

Radial cell reaching apex of wing. Radial vein inserted at two 
fifths length from base of the broad stigma. First abscissa of 
radius half length of second or less ; second cubital cell twice as 
long as wide or less, not abruptly narrowed at apex. Recurrent 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 323 

vein inserted very near apex of first cubital cell or at some 
distance from it; submedian cell much longer than median and 
with the transverse median vein strongly curved and enlarged, 
together with postmedian and apical third of median, the last 
angulated at juncture with normal portion of median. Parallel 
vein strongly curved at insertion. 

Abdomen not or very little longer than head and prothorax 
together, terminal segments more or less retracted. 

Type, Hemigyroneuron speciosus sp. nov. 

Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . Notauli entirely obsolete; posteromedian mesonotal area without longi- 
tudinal groove; face carinate on upper half; body extensively orna- 
mented with black; antenna? banded speciosus sp. nov. 

a 2 . Notauli distinct only on anterior border of mesonotum; posteromedian 
mesonotal area with a deep, strongly rimmed, longitudinal groove; 
face carinate on lower half; body without black, except between ocelli; 
antennas not banded suffusus sp. nov. 

Hemigyroneuron speciosus sp. nov. 

Ochraceous, extensively ornamented with black. Antennae 
piceous, middle third stramineous, apical third paler than basal ; 
clypeus and entire vertex black. Thorax black as follows: A 
spot on propleura, lateral areae of mesonotum, middle area ex- 
tending back in a sharp point on basal two thirds, scutellum, 
sides of postscutellum, entire metanotum, upper anterior angle 
and lower half of mesopleura, and mesosternum. Hind coxae, 
except tips, piceous. Abdomen with a transverse black band on 
middle third of first tergite, basal halves of remaining segments 
black ; third and following segments apically sordid stramineous. 
Fore and middle legs, except coxae, pale ferruginous, coxae stra- 
mineous; hind femora ferruginous, their trochanters, basal two 
thirds of tibiae, and tarsi stramineous ; apical third of hind tibiae 
piceous. Wings iridescent and faintly smoky, costa and stigma 
ochraceous, veins dark smoky, those on basal half of wing much 
darker. 

Male, length, 9 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above, narrowly transverse, eyes very large 
and extending far into vertex ; vertex caudad of ocelli very short, 
occipital carina deeply, but very broadly, incurved; length of 
exposed cheek margin many times the distance from eye to ocelli 
and distinctly more than distance from ocelli to occipital margin ; 
surface of vertex rugose-shagreened ; ocelli of great size, the two 
posterior set in impressed, rimmed pits, the anterior slightly 
raised and strongly directed forward; ocelli very close to each 



324 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

other and to eyes, the latter distance being about one fourth the 
distance from ocelli to occiptal carina, the last distance being 
less than the diameter of an ocellus ; surface in front of anterior 
ocellus shagreened. 

Face longer than wide, broader above than below on account 
of the deeply emarginated eyes; surface not strongly raised, 
entirely, transversely rugose and with a low median carina on 
upper half ; clypeus very large, but narrow, strongly semilunate, 
its surface reticulate-rugose; mouth opening subcircular; outer 
surface of mandibles longitudinally rugose to near apices. Head 
viewed from side with face a little prominent below antennse; 
cheek narrow, barely one fourth width of eyes, cheek margin 
parallel to eye margin ; length of malar space greater than width 
of cheek; both malar space and cheek finely rugose; eye outline 
irregularly subelliptical, broader at lower half, lower end more 
narrowly rounded than upper. 

Mesonotum full and broadly arched, finely rugose-shagreened, 
slightly depressed lines marking position of notauli anteriorly; 
posteromedian depressed area shallow, elongate, and finely rugose. 
Scutellum anteriorly with six small, subequal f ovese, separated by 
equally strong longitudinal carinse; posterior disk of scutellum 
subtriangular, bluntly pointed, surface finely rugose-shagreened ; 
postscutellum large, sexf oveate, fovea? separated by equally strong 
longitudinal carinas, two central foveas twice as broad as lateral 
foveas. Metanotum entirely coarsely reticulate-rugose and sha- 
greened, and with a sharp median carina on basal half; spiracle 
large, broadly elliptical, standing above a sharp, sinuate, longi- 
tudinal carina, this carina flanking, just below, a narrow crenu- 
late furrow; metapleura discally, concentrically, finely rugose, 
upper anterior angle reticulate-rugose and shagreened; meso- 
pleura with disk not furrowed, but concentrically, finely rugose, 
upper anterior angle coarsely reticulate-rugose. 

Abdomen slightly longer than head and thorax together, 
broadly sessile, gradually widening to third segment, remaining 
segments rapidly narrower and together not longer than third 
segment; first segment two thirds as broad basally as apically, 
length one and one-third times the apical breadth; second seg- 
ment gradually broadened apically, length less than apical width 
and three fourths the length of first segment; third segment a 
little broader and three fourths the length of second, the length 
subequal to one half width; remaining segments all very short, 
fifth longest, all smooth and shining; first and second tergites 
and base of third tergite finely longitudinally rugose and me- 
dially carinate, rugae on third tergite posteriorly oblique, curving 



xii, d, 5 Baker: Ichneumonoid Parasites 325 

away from median line; first suture slightly impressed; second 
suture narrowly, but more deeply, impressed and crenulate. 
Hind tibiae with two large, stout, straight spurs, the inner the 
longer, this spur as long as second tarsal joint. 

Stigma large and wide, about four times as long as wide ; sub- 
angulate at two fifths of length from base, where radius is 
inserted ; first abscissa of radius distinctly more than half length 
of second; second cubital cell twice as long as high, not at all 
narrowed to apex, first transverse cubital very oblique, second 
vertical and decolored; recurrent vein joining cubitus a distance 
before second cubital cell of half length of first cubital cell, in- 
tervening vein decolored; parallel vein inserted at lower third 
and strongly curved just before insertion; submedian cell much 
longer than median, subangularly rounded at apex; the straight 
transverse median vein, the postmedian, and apical third of 
median vein enlarged, the median being angularly bent at begin- 
ning of normal portion. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao (coll. Baker). 

Hemigyroneuron suffusus sp. no v. 

Ferruginous, antennae darkened toward tips, legs slightly paler. 
Interocellar space piceous. Wings suffused with pale ochraceous, 
veins ochraceous; stigma entirely concolorous; apex of basal 
vein, basal curved part of parallel vein, and adjoining portion 
of recurrent piceous. 

Male, length, 7 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above rather broadly transverse, eyes very 
large and strongly bulging; vertex caudad of ocelli very short 
and rapidly narrowed caudad, occipital carina deeply but evenly 
incurved; length of exposed cheek margin twice the distance 
from ocelli to eyes or from ocelli to occipital margin, the last two 
distances being subequal; surface of vertex shallowly rugose; 
ocelli of great size, set on a slight eminence, separated by less 
than half their diameter, which is about twice the distance to 
eyes or to occipital carina; surface in front of anterior ocellus 
smoothly excavated. 

Face longer than wide, rapidly broadened above to the deep 
emargination of eyes; surface irregularly, transversely rugose, 
raised at middle, thence to clypeal border, medially, sharply cari- 
nate; clypeus with a narrow, rimmed depression on either side, 
which gradually broadens toward anterior margin; basal suture 
of clypeus very strongly, narrowly arched and impressed; sur- 
face of clypeus rugose; mouth opening small, narrow, subcir- 
cular ; outer surface of mandibles minutely, longitudinally striate 



326 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

to near apices. Head viewed from side with face margin evenly 
and gently curved below antennas, but with clypeus abruptly 
elevated; cheeks narrow, below scarcely one fifth the width of 
eye, broader above ; length of malar space one and one-half times 
width of cheek, transversely rugose; eye much broader on lower 
half. 

Mesonotum full and broadly arched, thickly and finely rugose, 
with a suggestion of shagreening, but slightly impressed on 
anterior margin at notauli; notauli faintly indicated by coarser 
rugae; posteromedian area occupied by a broad, sharp-rimmed 
furrow, which is cross-striate within. Scutellum anteriorly with 
six small foveas (the outer broader) , separated by equally strong 
longitudinal carinas; posterior disk of scutellum finely rugose 
and oval, the point obliquely flattened and smoother; postscu- 
tellum large, two large deep foveas at middle, two others on each 
side much shallower, all separated by longitudinal carinas. Meta- 
notum coarsely reticulate-rugose, with a sharp, complete, median 
carina which is posteriorly sinuous; two large, submarginal, 
irregular foveas near posterolateral angles on either side ; spiracle 
oval, a strong, continuous, longitudinal, lateral carina passing 
immediately below it; metapleura coarsely rugose, a small area 
at center smooth, two small, sharply rimmed areas at anterior 
angle ; mesopleura with anterior third coarsely rugose, remainder 
nearly smooth and with large, scattering punctures, beneath 
wing with a broad vertical depressed area, which is strongly 
rimmed on anterior border. 

Abdomen nearly as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, gradually broadening to third segment; remaining seg- 
ments rapidly narrowed and retracted, so that only their borders 
are exposed, together about as long as third segment; first 
segment four fifths as wide basally as apically, length slightly 
more than apical breadth ; second segment slightly broadened to 
apex, subequal to first in length, its width and length subequal; 
third segment slightly broader than second and three fourths its 
length, its length less than half its apical width ; first and second 
tergites and basal three fourths of third coarsely, longitudinally 
rugose, with a strong, continuous, median carina reaching on 
to basal half of third tergite; remaining tergites smooth, shin- 
ing, and decolored ; first suture strongly, sharply depressed, sec- 
ond less so and weakly crenulate. Hind tibias with two stout, 
straight spurs, the inner longer, about as long as third tarsal 
joint. 

Stigma large, wide, about four times as long as wide, widest 
at two fifths of length from base, where radius is inserted; 



XII ' D - 5 Baker: Ichneumonoicl Parasites S27 

first abscissa of radius less than half the length of second ; second 
cubital cell more than twice as long as wide, distinctly narrowed 
toward apex; first transverse cubital very oblique, decolored, 
and a little curved; second vertical and colored; recurrent vein 
curved and joining cubitus a very short distance from apex of 
first cubital cell, intervening vein not decolored ; parallel vein in- 
serted at lower two fifths and strongly curved just before inser- 
tion ; submedian cell much longer than median, strongly rounded 
at apex; curved transverse median, curved postmedian, and 
apical third of median greatly enlarged, the median being 
angularly bent at beginning of normal portion. 
Mindanao, Davao (coll. Baker). 



NITIDULIDjE (COLeOPTeRES) DES ILES PHILIPPINES 
ReCOLTeS par c. f. BAKER, II 

Par A. Grouvellb 

(Paris, France) 

Brachypeplus (Selis) decoratus sp. nov. 

Ovatus, circiter ter longior quam in maxima latitude latior, 
modicissime convexus, nitidulus, capite prothoraceque glaber, 
abdomine tenuissime flavo-pubescens rufo-testaceus ; antenna- 
rum clava capiteque infuscatis; prothoracis margine basilari 
medio, scutello elytrorum marginibus suturalibus anguste, late- 
ralibus sat late, apicalibus late nigris; abdominis tribus ultimis 
segmentis disco subnigris vel fortiter infuscatis. Caput trans- 
versissimum convexiusculum crebre punctatum; epistomo sub- 
quadrato, convexo, antice truncato, postice a f ronte sulco arcuato, 
vix integro, separato; oculis mediocriter productis, oris internis 
antice fortiter convergentibus. Prothorax convexiusculus, an- 
tice quam postice magis angustatus, lateribus arcuatus, in ma- 
xima latitudine plus duplo latior quam longior, crebre et capite 
paulo minus valide punctatus ; margine antice truncato ; angulis 
anticis rotundatis; marginibus lateralibus anguste marginatis; 
angulis posticis obtusis; basi truncata quam lateribus magis 
tenuiter marginata. Scutellum semiorbiculatum, crebre punc- 
tulatum. Elytra parallela, simul latiora quam longiora, apice 
latissime separatim arcuata, lineato-punctulata, linearum inter- 
vallis sat tenuiter bilineato-punctatis ; marginibus lateralibus 
praecipue ad apicem anguste marginatis. Abdominis segmenta 
crebre punctulata; ultimo apice subinflexo, obtuse acuminate 

Longueur, 5.5 millimetres. 

Ovale, attenue vers l'extremite' de l'abdomen, environ trois 
fois plus long que large dans sa plus grande largeur, mediocre- 
ment convexe, assez brillant, glabre sur la tete et le prothorax, 
couvert sur Tabdomen d'une pubescence flave, tres fine et tres 
courtl ; roux testace; tete et massue des antennes enfumees; 
milieu de la marge basilaire du pronotum, ecusson, marges sutu- 
rales des elytres etroitement, marges laterales largement, marges 
apicales encore plus largement noirs ; disque des segments abdomi- 
naux plus ou moins noiratres. Antennes courtes; l er article 

329 



330 The Philippine Jownal of Science 1m 

arque, dilate en-dedans; massue a peine plus longue que large; 
articles serres, le dernier plus etroit que le precedent, termine 
par un bouton acumine; 8 me article de l'antenne tres transver- 
sal, amorcant la massue. Tete legerement convexe, deux fois 
plus large au niveau des yeux que longue, tres densement et 
finement punct'uee sur le front, tres finement sur l'epistome; 
celui-ci assez convexe, saillant, en forme de rectangle, s'avangant 
au milieu de la marge anterieure, en avant des bases des anten- 
nes, separe du front par une impression arquee, s'etendant entre 
les bases des antennes, tres marquee vers celles-ci, effacee au 
milieu. Yeux peu saillants, allonges, leurs bords internes tres 
convergents; angles posterieurs aigus; tempes tres petites, labre 
bien visible. Prothorax assez convexe, plus retreci en avant 
qu'a la base, arque sur les cotes, presentant sa plus grande lar- 
geur vers le premier tiers de la longueur a partir de la base, tres 
nettement plus de deux fois plus large dans cette plus grande 
largeur que long, couvert d'une ponctuation un peu plus forte 
que celle de la tete, tres serree, subrugueuse vers les cotes. Bord 
anterieur subtronque; angles anterieurs arrondis; cotes bordes 
par un fin bourrelet s'etendant sur Tangle anterieur et par une 
cannelure etroite; angles posterieurs obtus; base tronquee, bor- 
dee plus etroitement que les cotes. Ecusson presque demi circu- 
late, tres densement et finement pointille. Elytres subtronques a 
la base, brievement arrondis aux epaules, paralleles, largement 
arrondis aux angles apicaux externes, tres largement et separe- 
ment arques au sommet, environ une fois et un sixieme plus larges 
ensemble que longs, assez finement stries-pointilles ; intervalles 
des stries presentant chacun deux lignes de points plus forts que 
ceux des stries. Marges laterales pliees, inflechies, bordees par 
un fin bourrelet, se continuant en s'attenuant sur la marge api- 
cale et par une cannelure assez marquee a la base, elargie vers le 
milieu de la longueur, attenuee vers le sommet. Segments de 
Tabdomen tres densement pointilles ; le dernier termine en angle 
tres obtus. Dessous roux testace ; sternites impressionnes sur les 
cotes; dernier subtronque a l'extremite. Sillons antennaires 
tres convergents. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker) , 1 exemplaire male, collection 
A. Grouvelle. 

Brachypeplus denticeps sp. no v. 

Oblongus, circiter quater longior quam in maxima latitudine 
latior, mediocriter convexus, opaculus, subtilissime flavocinereo- 
pubescens, ater; antennis pedibusque plus minusve dilute rufo- 
piceis ; prothoracis marginibus lateralibus anguste ruf escentibus. 



xii, d, 5 Grouvelle: Nitidulidse des lies Philippines 331 

Caput transversissimum, fronte sub depressum et crebre puncta- 
tum; punctis sat validis, haud profundis; epistomo antice trun- 
cate, utrinque sinuato vix punctulato, transversim subconvexo, 
basi utrinque impresso; oculis modice productis, oris internis 
antice sat f ortiter convergentibus ; angulis posticis f ortiter acuto- 
productis. Prothorax transversim convexiusculus, antice angus- 
tatus, basi subparallelus, plus duplo latior quam longior, crebre 
punctatus; punctis sat validis, tenuiter impressis, ex parte con- 
fluentibus; margine antico truncato, anguste pulvinato margina- 
to; angulis anticis rotundatis; marginibus lateralibus sublate 
concavo-explanatis ; angulis posticis breviter rotundatis; basi 
striato-marginata, medio truncata, extremitatibus retrorsum vix 
inflexa. Scutellum transversissimum, subpentagonale, paralle- 
lum, convexiusculum, tenuissime punctulatum. Elytra subparal- 
lela, apicem versus vix perspicue ampliata, angulis posticis 
rotundata, apice separatim vix arcuata, paulo longiora quam 
simul latiora, lineato punctata; intervallis linearum angustis, 
subasperis, vix perspicue striatis. Abdominis ultimum segmen- 
tum vix longior quam latior, transversim subconvexum, lateribus 
sublate marginatum. 

Longueur, 4 millimetres. 

Oblong, environ quatre fois plus long que large dans sa plus 
grande largeur, mediocrement convexe, presqu'opaque, tres fai- 
blement pubescent, noir ; antennes, sauf la massue et le premier 
article qui sont plus f onces, roux de poix ; pattes plus ou moins 
brun de poix, tarses plus clairs, marges laterales du prothorax 
rougeatres. Antennes courtes ; l er article transversal, fortement 
dilate arrondi en dedans; massue a peine plus longue que large, 
articles serres, le dernier plus etroit que le precedent, termine 
par un bouton acumine. Tete subdeprimee, plus de deux fois 
plus large au niveau des yeux que longue, couverte sur le front 
d'une ponctuation assez grosse, superficielle, tres serree, lui don- 
nant un aspect un peu rugueux; epistome tronque en avant, 
sinue de chaque cote jusqu'a la base de l'antenne, transversale- 
ment subconvexe, a peine ponctue, assez fortement impressionne 
de chaque cote de la base, vers la naissance de l'antenne; angles 
posterieurs de la tete tres aigus et tres saillants ; yeux peu sail- 
lants, allonges, leurs bords internes convergents. Base de la 
tete tronquee, un peu saillante, en arriere, aux extremites, en 
forme de lobe arrondi. Prothorax transversalement subconvexe, 
retreci en avant, parallele dans sa^ partie basilaire, tres nette- 
ment plus de deux fois plus large vers la base que long, couvert 
d'une ponctuation semblable a celle de la tete mais plus forte. 
Bord anterieur tronque, borde par un etroit bourrelet plus accen- 

150687 5 



332 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

tue vers les extremites ; angles anterieurs arrondis, marges late- 
rales assez largement explanees-concaves, s'etendant sur les 
angles anterieurs et posterieurs; ceux-ci emousses; base striee- 
rebordee, tronquee, legerement inflechie en arriere aux extremi- 
tes. Ecusson plus de deux fois plus large a la base que long, 
parallele, en angle largement obtus au sommet, legerement con- 
vexe, tres finement pointille. Elytres legerement arques a la 
base, brievement arrondis aux epaules, droites sur les cotes, a 
peine elargis vers le sommet, fortement arrondis aux angles 
apicaux externes, separement et tres faiblement arrondis au 
sommet, environ une fois et un cinquieme plus longs que larges 
ensemble vers le sommet, assez fortement ponctues en lignes in- 
flechies en dedans; intervalles des stries tres finement chagrines, 
a peine visiblement stries, points des lignes ponctues-serres, assez 
profonds, atteignant presque le sommet. Marges laterales in- 
fiechies plus fortement sur les regions humerales et apicales, 
bordees par un fin bourrelet. que se prolonge, sur les marges 
apicales des elytres, en restant legerement au-dessous de leur 
surface. Segments de l'abdomen densement ponctues; dernier 
segment a peine plus long que large, largement emousse a l'ex- 
tremite, borde de chaque cote par une carene peu accentuee. 
Dessous brun de poix, un peu brillant, tres finement pointille; 
segments 3 et 4 etroitement bordes de fiave au sommet, 2, 3 
et 4 impressionnes de chaque cote. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao {Baker), 1 exemplaire femelle, col- 
lection A. Grouvelle. 

Voisin comme aspect general de B. hispidulus Grouv. 

Brachypeplus marginellus sp. nov. 

Oblongo-elongatus, plus quater longior quam in maxima lati- 
tudine latior, modicissime convexus, nitidus, glaber, rufulus; 
capite, elytrorum apice et marginibus refiexis plus minusve sub- 
infuscatis. Caput transversum, fronte convexiusculum et dense 
punctulatum; epistomo ante antennarum bases anguloso-producto, 
apice hebetato, subtiliter punctulato; oculis mediocriter produc- 
es, oris internis subrectis, antrorsum mediocriter convergenti- 
bus; temporibus minutis, angulis posticis acutis. Prothorax 
transversim convexus, antice quam postice vix angustatus, late- 
ribus modice arcuatus, circiter in maxima latitudine sesquilatior 
quam longior, quam caput validius punctatus, punctis ad latera 
attenuatis ; margine antico vix perspicue sinuato ; extremitatibus 
breviter retorsum infiexo; angulis anticis modice obtusis; mar- 
ginibus lateralibus canaliculo et pulvino angustis marginatis; 
angulis posticis vix obtusis; basi subtruncata, extremitatibus 



xii, d, 6 Grouvelle: Nitidulidxdes lies Philippines 333 

subtiliter marginata. Scutellum triangulare, trans versum, punc- 
tatum. Elytra fere parallela, apicem versus vix ampliata, an- 
giitis posticis breviter rotundata, apice separatim vix oblique 
truncata, circiter 1 et % longiora quam simul in maxima lati- 
tudine latiora, lineato-punctata ; lineis dorsalibus paulo ante 
apicem evanescentibus, margine apicali subtilissime punctulato; 
linearum punctatorum intervallis quam punctis multo latioribus. 
Abdomen subtiliter punctulatum; ultimo segmento paulo elon- 
gato, apice late hebetate 

Longueur, 4 millimetres. 

Oblong, plus de quatre fois plus long que large dans sa plus 
grande largeur, mediocrement convexe, brillant, glabre, rougea- 
tre; tete, massue des antennes, moitie apicale et extremes 
marges laterales des elytres, un peu assombries. Antennes assez 
courtes; l er article arque, dilate, arrondi en-dedans, 4 me a 8 me 
s'epaississant progressivement, 7 me et surtout 8 me tres transver- 
saux; massue piriforme, environ une fois et un tiers plus longue 
que large, dernier article a peine plus etroit que le precedent, 
legerement separe du suivant, termine par une partie acuminee, 
tres surbaissee. Tete assez convexe, environ deux fois plus large 
avec les yeux que longue, densement pointillee sur le front, tres 
legerement impressionnee de chaque cote vers la base de l'an- 
tenne; epistome saillant anguleusement en avant des bases des 
antennes, a peine sinuee sur les cotes, emousse au sommet, tres 
finement pointille ; yeux peu saillants, allonges, echancrant a peine 
les marges du front; leurs bords internes mediocrement con- 
vergents. Prothorax transversalement subconvexe, un peu plus 
retreci en avant qu'a la base, mediocrement arque sur les cotes, 
presentant sa plus grande largeur vers le milieu de la longueur, 
environ une fois et demie plus large dans sa plus grande largeur 
que long, plus fortement ponctue que le front. Bord ante- 
rieur a peine sinue, brievement et un peu obliquement reflechi en 
arriere aux extremites; angles anterieurs mediocrement obtus; 
marges laterales inftechies, subpliees, bordees par un fin bourre- 
let et par une etroite cannelure; angles posterieurs faiblement 
obtus; base subtronquee, finement rebordee. Ecusson triangu- 
laire, environ deux fois plus large que long, subegal a la base au 
tiers de la largeur des elytres, assez eparsement pointille. Ely- 
tres subarques ensemble a la base, en angles obtus aux epaules, 
alors a peu pres aussi larges ensemble, que le prothorax dans 
sa plus grande largeur, droites sur les cotes, a peine visiblement 
elargis vers le sommet, arrondis aux angles apicaux externes, 
separement et un peu obliquement subtronques au sommet, en- 
viron une fois et un cinquieme plus longs que larges ensemble 



334 The Philippine Journal of Science .im 

dans la plus grande largeur, assez finement ponctues en lignes; 
lignes ponctuees arretees pres du sommet, laissant libre une 
marge tres finement pointillee; intervales des lignes ponctues, 
plans, beaucoup plus larges que les points; marge apicale tres 
etroitement subinflechie, finement rebordee; marges laterales 
lisses, inflechies, a peine pliees, tres inflechies au dessous du 
calus humeral. Segments de l'abdomen tres finement et peu 
densement pointilles ; dernier segment a peine plus long que large, 
largement emousse au sommet; carenes laterales a peine mar- 
quees, reduites presqu'a de simples lignes. Dessous du corps roux 
fauve, finement et peu densement pointille. . Tibias anterieurs 
armes a Tangle apical externe de deux petites epines separees. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling (Baker), 1 exemplaire fe- 
melle, collection A. Grouvelle. 

Appartient au meme groupe que B. nitidus Grouv. de Sumatra. 

Ithyphenes bakeri sp. nov. 

Elongatus, antice paulo latior, depressus, nitidus, glaber, rufo- 
testaceus; elytris praeter basin nigris; mandibulis et abdominis 
ultimis segmentis infuscatis. Caput transversum, fronte sub- 
convexiusculum, in disco tenuiter et plus minusve, parce, an- 
tice paulatim tenuissime punctulatum; margine antico medio 
quadrato-producto et utrinque bi-sinuato ; epistomo antice bre- 
viter fortiter que impresso, basi in longitudinem sulcato. Pro- 
thorax transversus, basin versus angustatus, plus minusve parce 
punctulatus ; margine antice modice arcuato, extremitatibus vix 
sinuato; angulis anticis vix obtusis, hebetatis; lateribus antice 
arcuatis, subparallelis, postice rotundatis; angulis posticis vix 
perspicue indicatis, late rotundatis; basi truncata; marginibus 
lateralibus anguste rotundato-inflexis. Scutellum subtriangula- 
re, transversissimum. Elytra circiter 1 et % longiora quam 
simul latiora, angulis postico-externis latissime rotundatis, apice 
subtruncata, validius quam prothorax et plus minusve parce 
punctulata; punctis apicem versus attenuatis, ad basin in lineas 
inaequalissimas dispositis. Abdominis ultimum segmentum sub- 
dense punctulatum. 

Longueur, 8.5 millimetres. 

Environ cinq fois plus long que large, un peu attenue vers 
l'arriere, deprime, brillant, glabre, roux testace ; elytres noirs, 
sauf une large bande basilaire; mandibules, extreme marge an- 
terieure de la tete et dernier sternites enfumes. Antennes 
courtes; massue forte, brusque, environ une fois et demie plus 
longue que large; l er article legerement separe des suivants. 
Tete environ une fois et un quart plus longue que large, tres 



xii, d, 5 . Grouvelle: Nitidulidas des lies Philippines 335 

legerement convexe sur le disque; plus ou moins eparsement 
ponctuee, encore plus finement sur la marge anterieure; inter- 
valles des points a peine visiblement et tres eparsement poin- 
tilles; tempes arquees, subparalleles, tres allongees; cotes entre 
les yeux et la base des antennes tres convergents ; bord anterieur 
saillant en forme de rectangle au milieu, bisinue de chaque cote ; 
l er sinus entre la saillie de l'epistome et la mandibule, prolonge 
en arriere par une impression; 2 me entre le bord interne de la 
mandibule et la naissance de l'antenne, fortement inflechi en 
avant ; epistome fortement inflechi, brievement redresse, explane 
en avant, saillant en angle obtus, longitudinalement et brieve- 
ment sillonne sur sa partie basilaire ; marges laterales fortement 
inflechies; yeux petits, un peu saillants, lateraux. Prothorax 
tres retreci a la base, un peu plus de deux fois plus large dans 
sa partie anterieure que long, environ aussi large dans cette partie 
que la tete, couvert d'une ponctuation fine, irregulierement 
eparse. Bord anterieur tres faiblement arque, a peine subsinue 
aux extremites, tres finement reborde de chaque cote; angles 
anterieurs faiblement obtus, emousses; cote subparallele, faible- 
ment arque dans la partie anterieure, fortement arrondi dans la 
partie basilaire; marges laterales tres fortement inflechies, 
tres finement rebordees, cachees dans la partie anterieure lorsque 
Finsecte est vu de dessus; angles posterieurs presque com- 
pletement effaces, largement arrondis; base tronquee, rebordee. 
Ecusson subtriangulaire, environ deux fois et demie plus large 
a la base que long; presque lisse. Elytres inflechis un peu 
obliquement de chaque cote de l'ecusson, brievement arrondis 
aux epaules,- alors plus etroits que le prothorax dans sa plus 
grande largeur, droits sur les cotes, faiblement elargis vers le 
sommet, tres largement arrondis aux angles posterieurs-ex- 
ternes, tres largement arrondis ensemble au sommet, environ une 
fois et un quart plus longs que larges ensemble dans leur plus 
grande largeur, couverts d'une ponctuation un peu plus forte 
et plus serree que celle du prothorax, attenuee vers le sommet, 
disposee en lignes tres irregulieres sur la partie basilaire; 
marges laterales fortement inflechies surtout a la base, finement 
rebordees. Segments abdominaux progressivement plus dense- 
ment et plus fortement pointilles vers l'extremite. Dernier 
sternite un peu plus large que long, arrondi au sommet. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao {Baker), 1 exemplaire femelle, 
collection A. Grouvelle. 

Vient se placer a cote de /. ustipennis Fairm. dans le tableau 
publie. 1 

'Rev. d'Ent. (1908), 26, 3. 



336 The Philippine Journal of Science \m 

Platynema angusta sp. nov. 

Subparallela, circiter septies longior quam in maxima latitudine 
latior, subdepressa, nitida, praeter abdominis marginibus la- 
teralibus glaber, rufo-testaceus, vix perspicue infuscatus; anten- 
narum clava, elytris praeter marginem basilarem et abdominis 
segmento ultimo plus minusve infuscatis. Caput sesquilongius 
quam latius, ante antennarum bases subparallelum, antice utrin- 
que transversim truncatum, medio subinflexum, quadrato-pro- 
ductum et sat profunde sinuatum, in medio frontis disco subdense 
punctatum, punctis circum attennatis. Prothorax subelongatus, 
lateribus arcuatus, postice quam antice angustior, transversim 
modice convexus, parce tenuiterque punctulatis, in longitudi- 
nem vix striatus; margine antico truncato; angulis anticis 
obtusis, posticis late rotundatis; basi vix arcuata, extremitatibus 
impressa. Scutellum latissimum, transversissimum, apice late 
obtuse angulosum. Elytra apicem versus aliquid ampliata, ses- 
quilongiora quam simul in maxima latitudine latiora, apice 
separatim latissime subarouata, punctato-striata ; striis prope 
apicem evanescentibus, punctis fortiter attenuatis; angulis pos- 
ticis rotundatis. Abdominis ultimum segmentum elongatum, 
apice rotundatum, dense punctatum, lateribus subconcavum. 

Longueur, 5.5 millimetres. 

Subparallele, environ sept fois plus long que large dans sa 
plus grande largeur, subdeprime, brillant, glabre sauf des poils 
flaves, plus ou moins dresses, inseres sur les marges laterales 
des elytres et de l'abdomen; roux testace; massue des antennes, 
une tres large bande au sommet des elytres et dernier segment 
de l'abdomen plus ou moins enfumes. Antennes courtes; mas- 
sue forte, brusque, plus d'une fois et demie plus longue que 
large; l ei article legerement separe du second. Tete environ 
une fois et demie plus longue que large, subrectangulaire entre 
la base et la naissance des antennes, deprimee sur le front, 
couverte d'une ponctuation fine, plus forte sur le disque que 
sur les cotes; bord anterieur transversalement tronque contre 
les bases des antennes, saillant au milieu (epistome) en forme 
de rectangle legerement inflechi, assez profondement sinue au 
milieu du bord anterieur; marges laterales fortement inflechies, 
surtout contre les yeux; ceux-ci un peu allonges, peu saillants, 
lateraux. Prothorax retreci a la base, arque sur les cotes, sur- 
tout dans la moitie basilaire, presentant sa plus grande largeur 
vers le premier tiers de la longueur a partir de la base, environ 
une fois et demie plus long que large dans cette plus grande 
largeur, subdeprime sur le disque, couvert d'une ponctuation 



xii, d, 5 Grouvelle: Nitidulidas des lies Philippines 337 

plus fine que celle de la tete, plus ou moins eparse sur le disque, 
un peu plus forte vers les cotes, laissant au milieu un espace 
longitudinal lisse, tres finement strie sur sa partie basilaire. 
Bord anterieur tronque; angles anterieurs obtus, marges late- 
rales fortement inflechies contre les angles anterieurs, lisses; 
bord lateral cache en avant lorsque l'insecte est vu de dessus; 
angles posterieurs a peine marques, paraissant par suite forte- 
ment arrondis; base a peine arquee, finement rebordee aux 
extremites; marge basilaire tres brievement inflechie, impres- 
sionnee de chaque cote contre Tangle posterieur. Ecusson sub- 
triangulaire, tres large et tres transversal, a peine ponctue, 
transversalement substrie, a la base, de chaque cote. Elytres 
subsinues de chaque cote de l'ecusson, arrondis aux epaules, 
alors a peu pres aussi larges ensemble que le prothorax dans sa 
plus grande largeur, presque droite sur les cotes, tres faiblement 
elargis vers l'extremite, largement arrondis aux angles poste- 
rieurs-externes, subarques separement au sommet; environ une 
fois et demie plus longs que larges ensemble dans leur plus 
grande largeur, ponctues-stries ; stries ponctues disparaissant, 
pres de l'extremite, dans une ponctuation tres fine, confuse 
et tres eparse; intervalles des stries plus larges sur le disque 
que les points. Marges laterales fortement inflechies dans la 
region des epaules et contre la base, moins fortement vers le 
sommet, et encore moins fortement sur la partie apicale. Seg- 
ments dorsaux de l'abdomen progressivement plus fortement 
ponctues vers l'extremite; le l er eparsement, le 2 me un peu 
moins eparsement, le dernier beaucoup plus densement. Dernier 
c-egment pres d'une fois et un tiers plus long que large, subacu- 
mine a l'extremite, borde a la base et sur les cotes, sauf sur 
la partie apicale, par une carene un peu obtuse, enfermant un 
espace transversalement subconvexe au milieu, concave contre 
les carenes. Dernier segment de l'abdomen rugueusement ponc- 
tue vers le sommet, tronque chez le male. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling (Baker), 1 exemplaire male, 
collection A. Grouvelle. 

Amystrops monticola sp. nov. 

Breviter oblongus, convexiusculus, nitidulus, tenue flavo-pu- 
bescens, fulvus; elytris infuscatis, circa scutellum paulo dilutio- 
ribus. Antennae fere breves ; 1° articulo subelongato, incrassato 
intus mediocriter rotundato-dilatato ; clava piriform!, plus duplo 
longiore quam latiore, articulis vix densatis. Caput trans- 
versum, subdepressum, fronte dense punctulatum; epistomo 
trapeziformi, prope antennarum bases producto, transversim 



338 • The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

subconvexo, subtiliter ponctulato, basi utrinque juxta antennam 
impresso; oculis subprominulis, oris internis fortiter conver- 
gentibus. Prothorax antice fortiter, postice vix angustatus, 
lateribus mediocriter arcuatus, in maxima latitudine plus duplo 
latior quam longior, quam caput minus dense sed paulo validius 
punctulatus ; margine antico medio vix emarginato ; angulis anti- 
cis arcuato subproductis ; lateribus anguste marginatis; angulis 
posticis subacutis, retrorsum productis; basi truncata, utrinque 
ante scutellum breviter sinuata, extremitatibus retrorsum ar- 
cuata. Scutellum triangulare, transversum dense punctulatum. 
Elytra rotundata, lateribus arcuata, vix ampliata, apicem versus 
attenuata, apice separatim oblique subtruncata minus longiora 
quam simul in maxima latitudine latiora, subdense et capite 
validius punctulata ; punctis subasperis ad latera apicemque atte- 
nuatis. Pygidium convexiusculum, apice rotundato-acumina- 
tum, dense subtiliterque punctulatum. 

Longueur, 1.7 millimetres. 

Oblong, environ une fois et demie plus long que large dans 
sa plus grande largeur, mediocrement convexe, brillant, couvert 
d'une pubescence flave tres fine, roux fauve; elytres un peu 
rougeatres, plus claires sur la region scutellaire. Antennes 
assez courtes; l er article un peu allonge, epais, dilate, arrondi 
en dedans ; 2 me encore epaissi, plus long que large ; 3 me plus 
de deux fois plus long que large, un peu plus long que le 2 me ; 
4 me allonge; 5 me encore un peu plus allonge; 6 me et 7 me subtrans- 
versaux, 8^ transversal, amorcant la massue ; celle-ci piriforme, 
un peu plus de deux fois plus longue que large, subegale au 
tiers de la longueur totale de l'antenne, dernier article pres- 
qu'aussi long que les deux premiers reunis, termine par une 
partie conique. Tete environ deux fois plus large avec les yeux 
que longue, subdeprimee et densement pointillee sur le front ; 
epistome saillant en forme de trapeze, presque contigu a la 
base aux naissances des antennes, transversalement subconvexe, 
tronque au bord anterieur, tres finement pointille, separe du 
front de chaque cote vers la base de l'antenne par une faible 
impression; labre bien visible, arrondi sur les cotes, echancre 
en triangle ; tempes effacees ; yeux mediocrement saillants, echan- 
crant a peine les marges du front, leurs bords internes tres 
convergents. Prothorax faiblement convexe dans la longueur, 
fortement dans la largeur, assez fortement retreci en avant, 
tres faiblement a la base, arque sur les cotes, presentant sa 
plus grande largeur tres pres de la base, un peu plus de deux 
fois plus large dans sa plus grande largeur que long, couvert 
d'une ponctuation faiblement rugueuse, un peu moins serree et 



xii, d, 5 Grouvelle : Nitidulidae des lies Philippines 339 

un peu forte que celle de la tete. Bord anterieur largement et 
faiblement echancre, saillant legerement en avant aux extre- 
mites en forme de lobe arque, par suite angles anterieurs arron- 
dis ; bords lateraux etroitement bordes ; angles posterieurs aigus, 
saillants en arriere ; base tronquee, arquee a l'arriere vers les ex- 
tremites, brievement sinuee de chaque cote de l'ecusson, bordee 
aux extremites par le prolongement de la bordure des cotes. 
Ecusson triangulaire, environ dieux fois plus large a la base 
que long, densement pointille. Elytres subtronques a la base, 
largement arrondis aux epaules, arques sur les cotes, a peine 
elargis, presentant leur plus grande largeur pres de la base, 
attenues separement et un peu obliquement subtronques au som- 
met, nettement plus courts que larges dans leur plus grande 
largeur, couverts d'une ponctuation nettement plus ecartee et 
plus forte que celle du prothorax, subrugueuse, attenuee vers les 
marges laterales et apicales; ces dernieres tres finement rebor- 
dees. Pygidium subdeprime, densement et finement pubescent; 
pygidium du male tronque, complete par un segment supple- 
mentaire. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling (Baker), 1 exemplaire male, 
collection A. Grouvelle. 

Carpophilus (Eidocolastus) subplanus sp. nov. 

Breviter oblongus, fere planus, nitidus fere omnino glaber, 
ruf o-testaceus ; capite antennarum clava et scutello satis, pro- 
thorace abdomineque vix, infuscatis; elytris dilute ochraceo- 
testaceis. Antennae subbreves; clavae 1° articulo ab secundo 
disjuncto. Caput transversum, fronte sat convexum, dense punc- 
tulatum, utrinque ad antennae basin impressum; epistomo se- 
paratim convexiusculo, subtrapezoidali, antice truncato, lateribus 
fortiter sinuato; oculis subprominulis, oris internis convergen- 
tibus ; temporibus haud manifestis. Prothorax transversim con- 
vexus, antice quam postice paulb magis angustatus, lateribus 
arcuatus juxta basin vix perspicue sinuatus, in maxima latitudine 
plus duplo latior quam longior, in disco quam caput minus 
dense valideque punctulatus, punctis ad latera densioribus vali- 
dioribusque; margine antico subsinuato; angulis anticis obtu- 
sis; lateribus., anguste marginatis; angulis posticis acutis; basi 
medio vix sinuata, utrinque subrecta, anguste marginata. Scu- 
tellum transversum, subtriangulare, lateribus juxta basin arcua- 
tum, in disco subtiliter punctulatum. Elytra humeris angulosa, 
lateribus arcuata, vix perspicue ampliata, angulis apicalibus hebe- 
tata, apice separatim oblique subtruncata, disco depressa, dense 
et quam caput minus valde punctulata; punctis subasperis, ad 



340 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

latera apicemque attenuatis. Pygidium convexiusculum, apice 
subacuminatum, crebre subrugoseque punctulatum. 

Longueur, 2.5 millimetres. 

Oblong, environ deux fois et un tiers plus long que large 
dans sa plus grande largeur, a peine convexe, brillant, glabre 
sur la tete, le prothorax et les elytres, a peine pubescent sur 
l'abdomen, roux testace; tete, massue des antennes et ecusson 
un peu enfumes; prothorax et abdomen encore moins enfumes; 
elytres testace jaunatre clair; suture, marges laterales et api- 
cales tres etroitement rembrunies. Antennes assez courtes; l er 
article epais, arque, dilate en dedans ; 2 ne encore epais, plus long 
que large; 3 me plus de trois fois plus long que large, 4 me et 5 me 
un peu allonges, 6 me et 7 me subtransversaux, 8 m( ' transversal, 
amorcant legerement la massue; celle-ci brusque, moins d'une 
fois et demie plus longue que large ; l er article separe du second. 
Tete un peu plus de deux fois plus large avec les yeux que 
longue, assez convexe sur le front, densement pointillee, impres- 
sionnee de chaque cote vers la naissance de l'antenne; epistome 
subtrapezoi'dal, transversal, tronque au bord anterieur, f ortement 
sinue sur les cotes, legerement convexe, separe du front par 
une legere depression arquee, s'etendant entre les impressions 
des bases des antennes ; yeux mediocrement saillants, echancrant 
legerement les marges laterales du front, leurs bords internes 
convergents; tempes effacees. Prothorax transversalement con- 
vexe, un peu plus retreci au sommet qu'a la base, arque sur 
les cotes, tres brievement subsinue contre la base, presentant 
sa plus grande largeur un peu apres le milieu de la longueur, 
un peu plus de deux fois plus large dans sa plus grande largeur 
que long, moins densement ponctue sur le disque que la tete. 
Bord anterieur subsinue; angles anterieurs obtus; cotes bordes 
par un fin bourrelet et par une fine cannelure, encore plus etroite 
au sommet, s'arretant contre Tangle posterieur; celui-ci un peu 
aigu, tres legerement reflechi en arriere; base subtronquee, 
brievement et tres faiblement arquee vers l'arriere aux extre- 
mites, tres etroitement rebordee. Marges laterales convexes; 
marge basilaire tres brievement inflechie contre la bordure mar- 
ginale. Ecusson en forme de triangle curviligne a courbure tres 
accentuee sur les cotes contre la base, plus de deux fois plus 
large a la base que long, tres finement ponctue sur sa partie 
mediane. Elytres deprimes, subtronques a la base, en angles 
un peu obtus aux epaules, arques sur les cotes, a peine elargis, 
presentant leur plus grande largeur vers le premier tiers de 
la longueur a partir de la base, mediocrement attenues vers le 
sommet, emousses aux angles apicaux externes, separement et 



xii, d, 5 Grouvelle: Nitidulidas des lies Philippines 341 

un peu obliquement subtronques au sommet, environ une fois 
et un sixieme plus larges ensemble, dans leur plus *grande lar- 
geur, que longs, densement ponctues, mais moins fortement que 
la tete: ponctuation subrugueuse, attenuee vers la base et vers 
le sommet. Marge basilaire fortement et tres etroitement in- 
flechie, tres finement rebordee; marges laterales subpliees, bor- 
dees par un fin bourrelet et par une etroite cannelure; marge 
apicale tres finement rebordee. Pygidium subconvexe subtrian- 
gulaire, presqu'acumine au sommet, tres densement et subru- 
gueusement ponctue. Dessous du corps rougeatre; abdomen 
densement pointille. 

Mindanao, Zamboanga {Baker), 1 exemplaire femelle, collec- 
tion A. Grouvelle. 

Carpophilus sinuatus sp. nov. 

Breviter oblongus, convexus, nitidus, glaber, piceus : antennis, 
praeter clavam, capitis anguste margine antico et prothoracis 
angulis posticis rufo-piceis. Antennae subelongatae ; clavae 1° 
articulo ab secundo disjuncto. Caput transversum, fronte sat 
convexum, dense punctulatum, utrinque ad antennae basin te- 
nuiter impressum; epistomo depresso, subtrapezoidali, antice 
truncato et angustissime inftexo, lateribus profunde sinuato et 
anguste inflexo, subtiliter punctulato; oculis vix prominulis, oris 
internis subsinuatis, convergentibus ; temporibus haud mani- 
festis. Prothorax in longitudinem vix transversim, sat fortiter 
convexus, antice satis, postice vix perpicue, angustatus, lateribus 
antice arcuatus, postice subparallelus, circiter in maxima lati- 
tudine duplo latior quam longior, in disco quam caput minus 
dense, sed paulo fortius punctatus, punctis ad latera densio- 
ribus et minoribus; margine antico emarginato; angulis anticis 
obtusis, antrorsum productis; lateribus subtiliter marginatis; 
angulis posticis acutis, retrorsum productis, basi medio vix 
utrinque paulo magis sinuata. Scutellum transversum, sub- 
triangulare; lateribus juxta basin arcuatis; disco subtilissime 
punctulato. Elytra humeris angulosa, lateribus arcuata, sub- 
ampliata, angulis posticis hebetato-obtusa, apice separatim obli- 
que truncata, in maxima latitudine latiora quam longiora, fere 
sicut caput punctata ; marginibus lateralibus breviter fortiterque 
inflexis, anguste marginatis. Pygidium convexiusculum, apice 
subacuminatum, crebre subrugoseque punctulatum. 

Longueur, 2.2 millimetres. 

Oblong, un peu plus de deux fois plus long que large dans 
sa plus grande largeur, convexe, brillant, glabre, brun de poix; 
prothorax, ecusson et extreme marge apicale des elytres a peine 



342 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

plus claire; antennes sauf la massue et bord anterieur de la 
tete roux teinte de couleur de poix. Antennes mediocrement 
courtes; l er article epais, arque, dilate en dedans; 2 me encore 
epais, un peu plus long que large; 3 me environ deux fois plus 
long que large, plus long que le 2 me , 4 me et 5 me subcarres, 6 me 
et 7 me transversaux, 8 me tres transversal, amorcant faiblement 
ia massue ; celle-ci brusque, environ une fois et demie plus longue 
que large; l er article separe du 2 me , 3 me plus etroit que le 2 m<? . 
Tete relativement large, un peu plus de deux fois plus large avec 
les yeux que longue, convexe sur le front, densement pointillee, 
faiblement impressionnee de chaque cote vers la naissance de 
Tantenne; epistome subtrapezoi'dal, transversal, assez saillant, 
deprime fortement et brievement inflechi en avant et sur les 
cotes, tronque au bord anterieur, profondement sinue sur les 
cotes, tres finement pointille; yeux assez gros, peu saillants, 
echancrant legerement les marges laterales du front ; leurs bords 
internes convergents; tempes effacees, bord basilaire de la tete, 
de chaque cote du cou, oblique. Prothorax faiblement convexe 
dans la longueur, surtout vers les marges laterales, retreci en 
avant, a peine visiblement a la base, arque en avant sur les 
cotes, subparallele dans la partie basilaire, un peu plus de deux 
fois plus large dans cette partie que long, moins densement, 
mais plus fortement ponctue sur le disque que la tete ; ponctuation 
un peu plus serree et plus fine sur les cotes, laissant libre sur 
le disque un espace longitudinal, court et etroit. Bord anterieur 
largement et peu profondement echancre, brievement et tres 
fortement inflechi aux extremites; angles anterieurs obtus, un 
peu saillants en avant ; marges laterales brievement et fortement 
inflechies, finement bordees; angles posterieurs aigus, saillants 
en arriere, assez largement subdeprimes sur leur region apicale; 
base faiblement sinuee au milieu, plus fortement de chaque 
cote, surtout. vers les extremites, finement rebordee. Ecusson 
subtriangulaire, environ deux fois plus large a la base que long, 
arrondi sur les cotes contre la base, tres finement ponctue sur 
le milieu. Elytres subtronques a la base, arques aux extremites, 
en angles obtus aux epaules, arques, un peu elargis sur les 
cotes, presentant leur plus grande largeur vers le premier tiers 
de la longueur a partir de la base, en angle obtus emousse aux 
angles apicaux externes, obliquement et separement tronques 
au sommet, presqu'une- fois et demie plus larges dans leur 
plus grande largeur que longs, ponctues comme la tete, mais 
moins densement ; points attenues et plus serres vers le sommet ; 
intervalles des points a peine visiblement chagrines, un peu 
plus visiblement sur la marge apicale. Marges laterales for- 



xii, d, 5 Grouvelle: Nitidulidse des lies Philippines 343 

tement inflechies surtout au-dessous du calus humeral, bordees 
par un tres fin bourrelet et par une cannelure beaucoup plus 
large. Pygidium subconvexe, subtriangulaire, transversal, pres- 
qu'acumine a l'extremite, tres denseme.nt et subrugueusement 
ponctue. Dessous du corps roux de poix, pattes plus claires. 
Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker), 1 exemplaire, collection 

A. Grouvelle. 

• 

Prometopia bakeri sp. nov. 

Subparallela, paulo plus duplo longior quam latior, convexa, 
nitidula, setis vix incrassatis, subbrevibus, flavo-albidis, inclinatis 
subparce vestita, pilis multo tenuioribus intermixtis ; capite pro- 
toraceque rufo-fuscis, elytris nigris, singulo rufo bimaculato; 
1° macula discoidali, ad longitudinis primum trientem, oblonga, 
obliqua; 2° discoidali, ad longitudinis ultimum quadrantem, subr 
orbiculari. Antennae subelongatae ; clava piriformi plus duplo 
longiore quam latiore. Caput transversum fronte convexius- 
culum et subdense granulatum; epistomo subdepresso, antice 
truncato; labro transversissimo, antice rotundato; oculis sat 
prominulis, granis sat validis. Prothorax lateribus modicissime 
arcuatus, suparallelus, antice aliquid angustatus et capite paulo 
latior, in maxima latitudine paulo plus duplo latior quam longior, 
punctis ocellatis, ad latera magis validis plus minusve parce 
punctatus, margine antico late marginato ; angulis anticis acutis 
antrorsum productis, lateribus auguste marginatis; angulis pos- 
ticis subrectis; basi ante scutellum truncata, utrinque sinuata, 
extremitatibus retrorsum producta, angustissime marginata. 
Scutellum subtriangulare, transversissimum. Elytra basi sat 
longe parallela, apice conjunctim rotundata, circiter 1 et £ 
longiora quam simul basi latiora, dense subrugoseque punctata; 
punctis ad apicem attenuatis, lateribus striate rufo-marginatis. 

Longueur,- 3.5 millimetres. 

Presque parallele, faiblement attenue vers l'arriere, un peu 
plus de deux fois plus long que large dans sa plus grande 
largeur; mediocrement convexe dans la longueur, plus fortement 
dans la largeur, assez brillant, couvert d'une vestiture compre- 
nant: 1° des poils squamiformes, assez courts, inclines, flave 
blanchatre plus ou moins un peu ecartes; 2° des poils petits, 
tres fins, un peu plus fonces, plus serres que les premiers; 
couleur noir tres faiblement rougeatre sur la tete et le pro- 
notum; antennes et extremes marges iaterales du prothorax et 
des elytres et dessous du corps roux testace; sur chaque elytre 
deux taches rouges: la l er discoidale, apres le premier tiers de 
la longueur a partir de la base, oblongue, inclines vers l'extre- 



344 The Philippine Journal of Science 

mite, la 2 me egalement sur le disque, vers le dernier quart de 
la longueur, suborbiculaire. Antennes un peu allongees; l er 
article epais, un peu plus long que large, dilate arrondi en 
dedans ; 2 me encore un peu epais, suballonge ; 3 me a peine epaissi. 
environ quatre fois plus long que large, 4 me a peine allonge, 
5 me et 6 me subcarres, 7 me et 8 me progressivement a peine epaissis, 
a peine allonges; 9 me et ll me formant une massue subpiriforme, 
legerement dissymetrique, moins d'une fois et demie plus large 
que longue, dont le dernier article plus etroit que le precedent 
est termine par une partie emoussee. Tete moins de deux fois 
plus large avec les yeux que longue, legerement convexe, sur 
le disque du front, etroitement inflechie de chaque cote, au 
dessus des yeux, contre l'epistome en arc saillant en avant, celui- 
ci subdeprime, trapezoidal, assez saillant en avant des bases 
des antennes, tronque au bord anterieur; front couvert de gra- 
nulations peu serrees et peu marquees, tres finement striees- 
entourees, devenant plus faibles sur l'epistome. Yeux lateraux, 
saillants presqu'en forme de demi circonference, plus fortement 
arrondis en avant qu'en arriere; facettes assez fortes. Mandi- 
bules saillantes; labre tres transversal, arrondi, un peu inflechi 
en avant, subrugueux. Prothorax a peine convexe dans la 
longueur, plus fortement dans la largeur, subparallele, arque, 
un peu retreci en avant, a peine plus de deux fois plus large 
a la base que long, couvert de points superficiels, ocelles, petits 
et espaces sur le disque, plus forts, plus serres et subrugueux 
sur les marges laterales; intervalles tres finement et peu den- 
sement pointilles. Bord anterieur largement echancre, legere- 
ment arque en avant au milieu, tres etroitement reborde aux 
extremites; angles anterieurs aigiis, saillants en avant; cotes 
bordes par un fin bourrelet et par une cannelure tres etroite 
a la base, un peu plus large vers l'avant s'etendant sur Tangle 
anterieur; angles posterieurs presque droits, emousses; base 
tronquee devant l'ecusson, largement sinuee, legerement inflechie 
vers l'arriere de chaque cote, etroitement rebordee, striee. Ecus- 
son subtriangulaire, tres transversal, legerement enfonce, poin- 
tille a la base. Elytres arques a la base en angles obtus aux 
epaumes, subparalleles, assez longuement attenues vers le som- 
met, brievement arrondis ensemble, environ une fois et un tiers 
plus longs que larges ensemble, densement et subrugueusement 
ponctues; points attenues vers le sommet; marges laterales 
etroitement bordees par un fin bourrelet et par une fine cannelure 
qui s'atteignent vers le sommet. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling (Baker), 1 exemplaire male, 
collection A. Grouvelle. 



THE CARPENTER BEES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By T. D. A. Cockerell 
(University of Colorado, Boulder) 

The carpenter bees (Xylocopidae), so-called because they nest 
in wood, are easily recognized by their large size and robust 
form ; the wings are often brilliantly iridescent. They are com- 
monly seen about houses. Two genera may be recognized, 
Mesotrichia Westwood and Xylocopa Latreille. Koptorthosoma 
Gribodo, Platynopoda Westwood, and Cyaneoderes Ashmead are 
here regarded as divisions of Mesotrichia. In Mesotrichia the 
hind part of the thorax is flattened (at least in the females), 
the scutellum having a sharp rim, and this posterior thoracic 
truncation faces a similar basal truncation of the abdomen. 
The basal segment of the abdomen contains a pouch, which opens 
on the anterior face, and in this pouch will be found mites 
of the genus Paragreenia Cockerell (family Gamasidse). In 
true Xylocopa the hind part of the thorax is rounded as in 
other bees, and the first abdominal segment also lacks a sharp 
or angular rim above its basal declivity. 

For my Philippine material of this group I am indebted to 
Professor C. F. Baker. It was principally collected for him 
by Mr. Julian Valdez, who visited many of the islands for the 
purpose. 

Genus XYLOCOPA Latreille 

Species. 

a\ Face of male narrow, the area below antennae about as broad as long; 
sexes differently colored, the male with a good deal of olive-brown 
hair, the female black, with the abdomen dark green. 

fuliginata Perez. 
a'. Face of male broad, the area below antennae much broader than long. 
b\ Wings brilliant rosy purple, with the apical field peacock green; an- 
terior wing of female 28 millimeters long; abdomen black, without 

green tints (China) dissimilis Lep. 

b'. Wings otherwise colored, not so brilliant. 

&. Abdomen black; male with only a small part of clypeus (band at 

upper end) light mimetica Ckll. 

c 2 . Abdomen distinctly greenish; male with larger part of clypeus pale. 

fallax Maidl. 
345 



346 The Philippine Journal of Science m/ 

Xylocopa fuliginata Perez; 1901. 

Mindanao, Dapitan, Iligan, and Davao (Baker) ; Basilan 
(Bake?-) ; Luzon, Benguet, Baguio, and Laguna, Mount Maqui- 
ling (Baker). Probably the commonest species in the Philip- 
pines. Perez described it from Mindanao and Palawan; the 
former is to be considered the type locality. 

Xylocopa mimetica Cockerell, 1915. 
Palawan. 

Xylocopa fallax Maidl, 1912. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker) , 2 males. 

The three following species of Xylocopa have not been seen 
from the Philippines by me, and their presence there, though 
reported, requires confirmation: 

Xylocopa dissimilis Lepeletier, 1841. 

Probably the Philippines supposed dissimilis was fallax. 

Xylocopa tranquebarica (Fabricus), 1804. 

This is more generally known as X. rufescens Smith. It is a 
large ferruginous insect, quite unlike anything I have seen from 
the Philippines. It has the curious habit of flying at night. 

Xylocopa sonorina Smith, 1874. 

Sunda Island; probably not in the Philippines. The female 
has the pubescence all black, except on anterior tarsi beneath, 
where it is ferruginous; wings fuscohyaline, with darker cloud 
beyond cells, rfnd with bright purple and coppery iridescence. 

Genus MESOTRICHIA Westwood 

Species. 

a 1 . Thorax covered with bright yellow hair above, abdomen black, wings 

very dark (Sumatra, etc.) confusa Perez, $. 

or. Thorax with fox-red hair above (with some black), abdomen black. 

cuernosensis Ckll. 
a 3 . Thorax and abdomen covered with greenish or tawny hair. 

b\ Hair of thorax yellowish; anterior wing a little over 17 millimeters. 

bakeriana Ckll., c?. 
b 2 . Hair of thorax green or greenish. 

c\ Anterior wing about 20 millimeters euchlora Perez, <$. 

c 2 . Anterior wing about 23 millimeters; very large, robust insect. 

major Maidl, d". 

a*. Thorax with at least the disk dark, abdomen with not more than first 

segment covered with light hair. 

d\ Thorax wjth a yellow band in front and behind and first abdominal 

segment yellow-haired ghilianii Gribodo. 



xii, d, 5 Cocker ell: Carpenter Bees 347 

cf. Thorax with a yellow band behind and first abdominal segment 
yellow; a smaller species than the last., philippinensis chlorina Ckll. 
d*. Much like the last, but thorax with two patches instead of a band 
posteriorly; wings dark rosy purple (green in chlorina). 

philippinensis Smith. 
a\ Thorax dark above; first abdominal segment without light hair. 
e 1 . Very large, anterior wing over 25 millimeters. 
f 1 . Scape enlarged at end. 

g\ Wings brilliant green, brassy apically, purple at extreme base; 

male with anterior legs greatly modified latipes (Drury). 

g 2 . Wings purple latipes basiloptera Ckll. 

f. Scape not enlarged at end; scutellum hairy (nude in latipes). 

hombiformis Smith. 
e'\ Much smaller, anterior wing not nearly 25 millimeters long. 

h 1 . Small species; anterior wing about 14 millimeters long; wings 

brassy dapitanensis Ckll. 

h 2 . Much larger. 

i 1 . Wings brassy and coppery bakeriana Ckll., $. 

v. Wings green and purplish amauroptera Perez. 

The species tabulated are before me. I include some partic- 
ulars in the following list concerning species that I do not possess : 

Mesotrichia adusta (Perez), 1901. 

Female. Mindanao. Like M. nobilis as to size, and anterior 
and posterior borders of thorax yellow, but abdomen all black. 
In M. nobilis, adusta, and occipitalis the abdomen is very hairy, 
the surface being more or less completely covered. In M. ghi- 
lianii, which has similar yellow markings, the abdomen is less 
hairy, so that the surface is visible. 

Mesotrichia amauroptera (Perez), 1901. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa {Baker), 1 female. 

Mesotrichia bakeriana Cockerell, 1914. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios, and Mount Maquiling {Baker), 
females. What I suppose to be the male comes from Mount 
Maquiling; it resembles M. euchlora, but is smaller and more 
tawny, not distinctly green. 

Mesotrichia bombiformis (Smith), 1874. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio; Laguna, Los Bafios and Mount Ma- 
quiling (Baker). A large black insect; the wings purple, 
apically dark greenish. The hairy scutellum at once distin- 
guishes it from M. latipes. 

Mesotrichia clavicrus (Maidl), 1912. 

Luzon and Ceylon, according to Maidl. Male near volatilis 
Smith ; hind femora extremely broad. Clypeus reddish yellow. 

150687 6 



348 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Mesotrichia confusa (Perez), 1901. 

Reported as aestuans (which is African) and bryorum (which 
is Australian). It occurs in Java, Sumatra, etc.; I have no 
Philippine specimens. 

Mesotrichia cuernosensis Cockerell, 1915. 
Negros (Baker). 

Mesotrichia dapitanensis Cockerell, 1915. 
Mindanao (Baker). 

Mesotrichia euchlora (Perez), 1901. 

Mindanao, Dapitan and Zamboanga (Baker), males. Maidl 
suggests that this is the male of M. philippinensU, which seems 
very probable. 

Mesotrichia ghilianii (Gribodo), 1891. 
Mindanao, Iligan (Baker). 

Mesotrichia major (Maidl), 1912. 

Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao (Baker). Only the male known. 

The type was collected in the Philippines by von Schadenberg 
in 1890. 

Mesotrichia occipitalis (Perez), 1901. 

Female. Mindanao. Differs from M. adusla by yellow collar 
on prothorax, hair of abdomen black, etc. 

Mesotrichia philippinensis (Smith), 1854.. 
Luzon, Tayabas, Malinao (Baker). 

Mesotrichia philippinensis bilineata (Friese), 1914. 

Female. Luzon, Smaller, pleura black- haired, hind margin 
of thorax with broader, yellower hair band. Length, 15 milli- 
meters. Is this not a distinct species? I have not seen it. 

Mesotrichia philippinensis chlorina Cockerell, 1915. 
The common form at Los Bahos, Luzon. 

Mesotrichia sulcifrons (Perez), 1901. 

Female. Palawan. Length, 15 to 16 millimeters; allied to 
amauroptera. Wings only a little reddened, semitransparent. 
Hair of clypeus black. 

Mesotrichia tricolor (Ritsema), 1876. 

A species allied to nobilis, 27 millimeters long, from the Sula 
Islands. Its occurrence in the Philippines needs confirmation. 



xii, d, 5 Cocker ell: Carpenter Bees 349 

Mesotrichia trifasciata (Gribodo), 1891. 

Female, 21 to 22 millimeters long. Mindanao. Very close 
to M. nigroplagiata, but head densely gray-haired. The first 
abdominal segment is densely yellow-haired. 

Mesotrichia vachali (Perez), 1901. 

Male from Palawan. Very near to M. confusa; the yellow 
hair of thorax tinted with red ; on abdomen the tint is olivaceous, 
becoming dusky from the admixture of black hairs. This also 
is related to M. euchlora. 

Subgenus Platynopoda Westwood 

Mesotrichia latipes (Drury), 1773. 

Negros, Cuernos Mountains (Baker), 1 female. 

Mesotrichia latipes basiloptera subsp. nov. 

Female. — Length, about 28 millimeters; anterior wing, 28; 
wings very dark, splendid deep purple, the basal half with some 
bluish green tints. Scape broadened at end; lateral frontal 
basins extending above lateral ocelli. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker, 6298). 

Mesotrichia tenuiscapa (Westwood), 1840. 

Differs by the simple scape of antennae, not distinctly enlarged 
at end. It occurs in India, and I have not seen Philippine 
specimens. 



A NEW PHILIPPINE GENUS OF DELPHACID^E 

By Frederick Muir 
(Honolulu, Hawaii) 

Genus VIZCAYA novum 

Head narrower than thorax; vertex longer than broad (1.70 
to 1), base slightly wider than apex, mediolateral carina? meeting 
well before the apex, Y-shaped carina obsolete, length of face 
nearly two and one-half times the width at apex (1 to 2.4), apex 
wider than base, sides nearly straight, lateral carina? distinct, 
a single median carina faint on apical half and obsolete on basal 
half, a distinct carina across gena from base of antenna to the 
lateral corner of base of clypeus; clypeus shorter than face, 
tricarinate; head in profile rounded at junction of vertex and 
face. Antennse nearly twice the length of head and pro- and 
mesothorax together, second joint more than one half longer 
than first (1.6 to 1), first joint flattened, wide, thin, second 
joint terete, evenly covered with raised sense organs and short 
spines. Hind margin of pronotum slightly and evenly emargi- 
nate, carina? obsolete; mesonotum with three very fine carina?. 
Legs long and slender, hind tibiae with one basal, one medio- 
apical, and five apical spines; hind tarsi not quite half the 
length of tibia, basal joint longer than the other two together 
(1 to .70), spur not as long as the basal joint, cultrate, convex 
on both sides, seven teeth on hind margin and one at the apex. 
Tegmen long, narrow, median vein not touching the radius. 

This is a very distinct genus belonging to the Alohini and 
coming nearest to Proterosydne. It has some affinity, at least 
superficially, to Lanaphora of the Tropidocephalini. 

Vizcaya bakeri sp. nov. 

Male. — Orange or ochraceous orange; vertex (except a trian- 
gular patch at each corner of base), base of face, and base of 
clypeus shiny black, antennas dark brown, second joint darkest, 
tarsi fuscous, abdomen dark brown or black. Costal area to 
near apex and basal third of tegmen hyaline, rest of tegmen 
dark fuscous, darkest over apical third and fading toward base, 
veins concolorous with membrane, very fine granules bearing 
fine black hairs. 

351 



352 The Philippine Journal of Science 

Anal segment larger, longer than wide, lateral edges turned 
ventrad forming a trough on ventral side, anus about middle; 
lateral edges of pygofer angularly produced halfway along anal 
segment; medioventral edge produced into two short, horizon- 
tally flattened, blunt spines; styles broadest at base, gradually 
narrowed to apex, flattened, forming a half spiral inward. 

Length, 3.9 millimeters; tegmen, 4.6. 

Female. — Similar to the male. 

Length, 5 millimeters; tegmen, 5.4. 

Luzon, Nueva Vizcaya Province, Imugan (C. F. Baker). 
Cotype in Bureau of Science collection. This interesting del- 
phacid is named for Prof. C. F. Baker. 



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CONTENTS 

Page. 

TAYLOR, EDWARD H. Brachymeles, a genus of Philippine 

lizards 267 

BAKER, C. F. Ichneumonoid parasites of the Philippines, I 

Rhogadinae (Braconidas), 1 281 

GROUVELLE, A. Nitidulida? (Coleopteres) des iles Philippines 

recoltes par C. F. Baker, II 329 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. The carpenter bees of the Philippine 

Islands 345 

MUIR, FREDERICK. A new Philippine genus of Delphacidae.... 351 



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THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
and Anthropology 

VOL. XII NOVEMBER, 1917 No. 6 

SNAKES AND LIZARDS KNOWN FROM NEGROS, WITH DESCRIP- 
TIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND NEW SUBSPECIES 

By Edward H. Taylor 

(From the Section of Fisheries, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science, 

Manila) 

TWO PLATES AND TWO TEXT FIGURES 

This paper is based for the most part on collections made by 
myself in Occidental Negros, P. I. Two principal localities are 
represented : one is Isabela and the near-by mountains ; the other, 
Mount Canlaon, or Malaspina, a volcano rising to a height of 
2,461 meters in the north-central part of the island. 

The most fertile field for collecting was on Canlaon Volcano at 
from 600 to 1,000 meters' elevation. Four trips were made to 
this mountain, and many specimens were taken. The mountain 
receives much rainfall during a large part of the year, and for 
the most part the collecting was done in a heavy downpour. 
Few places can boast of more mosquitoes. Two new species and 
three new subspecies of snakes and three new species and one 
new subspecies of lizards were collected. Many of the known 
species found exhibited marked variations from the lowland 
forms ; this was especially noticeable in Sphenomorphus steerei 
and Sphenomorphus jagori. Most specimens, of both snakes and 
lizards, were noticeably colored on the ventral surface with can- 
ary yellow, a color that is usually wanting on the same species 
living in the lowlands. 

The number of new and unusual species taken leads me to 
believe that when the mountain is thoroughly explored many 
other new species will be found. 

160932 353 



354 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Mr. Homer McNamara, superintendent of the La Carlota 
Agriculture Experiment Station, who accompanied me on two 
of my four trips to Canlaon, made a considerable collection of 
reptiles at the agricultural farm, which he very kindly presented 
to me. 

The following new species and new subspecies 1 are described 
in this paper: 

SNAKES 

Typhlops canlaonensis. Calamaria gefvasii iridescens. 

Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis. Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis. 
Pseudorhabdium mcnamarse. 

LIZARDS 

Lepidodactylus christiani. Siaphos auriculatu.771. 

Sphenomorphus arbor ens. Leiolepisma pulchellum grande. 

SNAKES 
Typhlops braminus Daudin. 

Common in certain localities. Mr. McNamara collected more 
than a hundred specimens of this diminutive snake on the 
agricultural farm at La Carlota. Most of these are dark 
purplish brown, other specimens are dull pearl-gray. This color 
does not seem to be caused by age, by disease, or wholly by the 
fact that the individual is on the point of shedding its skin, since 
young, old, and newly shed specimens are among the lot. Care- 
ful study revealed no other variation save that the scales, es- 
pecially those on the head, seemed thicker and the eye was dim or 
totally obscured. 

Typhlops canlaonensis sp. nov. 

Type. — No. 241, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Ne- 
gros, P. I. ; December 25, 1915 ; elevation about 750 meters.. E. 
H. Taylor, collector. 

Description of type. — Head depressed, a little wider than 
body; snout projecting moderately; rostral elliptic, distinctly 
wider behind than at tip of snout and failing to reach level of 
eyes by half the width of prefrontal, more than one third the 
width of head; nostrils lateral, not visible from above; nasals 
large, not in contact behind rostral, not completely divided by 
nasal cleft, which arises from second labial and passes through 
nostril and to a point about halfway from nostril to rostral ; nasal 
in contact with first three labials; preocular present, narrowed 
to a point above, its greatest width, equal to that of ocular, occurs 
below level of eye ; narrowly in contact with supra-ocuiar above 

1 All specimens, unless otherwise noted, are in my private collection. 



xii, d, 6 Taylor: Snaked and Lizards of Negros 355 

and with only the third labial below ; practically the same length 
as ocular; the latter somewhat rectangular in outline, rapidly 
narrowed to a point above and below, in contact with third and 
fourth labials; ocular bordered posteriorly by two somewhat 
enlarged body scales (three on left side) ; prefrontal wider than 
deep, distinctly larger than frontal, which is somewhat wider 
than long and narrowly in contact with prefrontal ; supra-oculars 
larger than either of these scales and about equal in size to 
parietals, which are a little more elongate and more than half 
lying behind oculars ; interparietal scale not as large as frontal. 
Eye visible near anterior border of ocular, much below the 
point of contact with supra-ocular; eye rather large, pupil dis- 
tinct and whitish; 30 scale rows about the body; tail ending in 
a sharp spine. 

Measurements of the type of Typhlops canlaonensis sp. nov. 

mm. 

Length 122 

Length of tail 2.5 

Width of head 4.2 

Width of body 3.5-3.66 

Width of tail 3 

Color in life. — Above shiny greenish black (appearing 
greenish in certain lights); snout dark brown; underside of 
snout, belly, and entire tail pinkish yellow. The dark and the 
yellow areas are well defined, the black covering 15 scale rows. 
Head with narrow lighter lines, outlining, more or less, the head 
scales. 

Remarks. — This species is related to T. ruficauda Gray, but 
differs much in color. The rostral does not reach the level of 
eye and is wider; the tail is wider than long. In coloring it 
resembles T. jagori Peters, from Luzon ; but the nasals are not 
completely divided and do not touch behind the rostral; the 
second labial is far from twice as large as the first; the tail is 
pinkish yellow. It is impossible to tell whether the specimen at 
hand is adult or not. However, it is probable that it is a smaller 
form than the other two above-mentioned species. Only one 
specimen was found, although the locality was very thoroughly 
searched. It was found burrowing under a decayed log. 

Python reticulatus Schneider. 

Various specimens have been observed in captivity in Negros. 
There is none in the collections I have studied. Mr. McNamara 
reports that he killed two of these snakes on the agricultural 
farm. Each was more than 3 meters in length. 



356 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



Chersydrus granulatus Schneider. 

Common along the coasts of Negros; three specimens in the 
collection are from Hinigaran. 

Natrix spilogaster Boie. 

Reported from Negros by Boulenger ; I have seen no specimen 
of this species from Negros. 

Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis subsp. nov. 

Type. — No. 128, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Occi- 
dental Negros", P. I. E. H. Taylor, collector. 

Description of type. — Rostral fairly large, nearly twice as 
wide as high, upper edge curved and distinctly visible from 






a c 

Fig. 1. Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis aubsp. nov., head ; a, top ; 6, side ; c, underside. 

above; its sutures with nasal little longer than those with 
internasals; the latter longer than broad, the suture between 
them equals their sutures with prefrontals, which is less than 
that with nasals ; prefrontals much broader than long, narrowed 
on the sides, forming coequal sutures with internasal and frontal, 
the shortest suture with the supra-ocular; frontal longer than 
broad, wider, but not as long as supra-oculars, somewhat shield- 
shaped, longer than its distance from the end of snout, shorter 
than parietals ; the latter longer than broad, bordered laterally by 
two elongate temporals, in contact with only one postocular ; nos- 
tril between two nasals, which differ greatly in shape, but are of 
nearly the same size; loreal nearly square, touching second and 
third labials ; one elongate preocular, twice as high as wide, and 



xii, d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 357 

wider at the top than at the bottom, semidivided ; three small 
postoculars (four on right side) ; temporals 2 + 3 ; fourth, fifth, 
and sixth labials entering eye; mental broadly triangular; ten 
lower labials, sixth and seventh largest; first five in contact 
with the first chin shield, which is noticeably shorter that the 
second. Nineteen rows of scales; the outer largest, faintly 
keeled, all the others strongly keeled; scales with two apical 
pits easily discernible; anal divided; ventrals, 164; subcaudals, 
97. Eye very large. 

Color in life. — Reddish brown to olive, with a median series 
of dark, more or less distinct, spots or bars at intervals of 0.5 
centimeter; on the sides and as continuations of the dark bars 
is a series of dark spots continuous vertically with the others. 
Below pinkish white with a series of small, more or less regular, 
black spots on each ventral and subcaudal. Bars on the neck 
very much wider than elsewhere. Top of head brownish olive. 
Labials brownish white with dark areas between the first three 
labials; a distinct black line runs from behind eye to posterior 
part of eighth supralabial, where it turns and continues down- 
ward to the first ventrals. Scales on the head minutely edged 
with black. 

Measurements of the type of Natrix dendrophiops negrosensis subsp. not?. 

mm. 

Length 730 

Snout to vent 526 

Vent to tip of tail 204 

Width of head 11 

Length of head 20 

Diameter of eye 5 

Variation. — The postoculars show a tendency to increase to 
four; one specimen has the third, fourth, and fifth labials 
entering the eye, and a second specimen shows four labials enter- 
ing on the right side. 

Remarks. — The following characteristics seem to warrant the 
separation of this subspecies from typical Natrix dendrophiops. 
There is a tendency to increase the number of postoculars from 
3 to 4. There is only a single preocular. Specimens of N. den- 
drophiops, from northern Mindanao, have 2 distinct preoculars ; 2 
there is an average of 10 more ventrals and there are constantly 
19 instead of 17 rows of scales. The eye is somewhat smaller, 
and the loreal is lower. 

'Only one in the type, see Giinther, Ann & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1883), V, 
11, 136, fig. 



358 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



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xii. d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros . 359 

Cyclocorus lineatus Bernhardt. 

More than twenty specimens were captured on the volcano; 
many others seen were not taken. A single young specimen 
killed by Mr. McNamara is the only specimen obtained from the 
lowlands. 

The following differences in scalation are noted between the 
Negros and Mindanao forms. In the former an average of 15 
more ventrals and 4 less subcaudals is found in the males; in 
the females there are 8 more ventrals and 4 less subcaudals than 
are found in Mindanao specimens. The number of labials touch- 
ing the chin shields in Negros specimens is 4 to 5 ; in Mindanao 
specimens, 3 to 4, the larger percentage having 3. Three speci- 
mens have the anterior part of the body decidedly coppery red 
to maroon. 

Ophites aulicus Linnaeus. 

Nine specimens were taken by Mr. McNamara. A dead speci- 
men seen at Isabela was not preserved. 

Dendrophis pictus Gmelin. 

Common in the lowlands of the island, but I have not found 
it in the mountains. The several specimens in the collection are 
from Isabela, Hinigaran, Bacolod, and La Carlota. 

Oligodon modestus Giinther. 

I have not seen this snake. The type is from southern Negros. 

Elaphe erythura Dumeril and Bibron. 

Common in the lowlands. Specimens were taken at Hini- 
garan and Isabela; three were taken by Mr. McNamara at La 
Carlota. All of these specimens have blackish tails, but other- 
wise agree with the same species from other islands. 

Gonyosoma oxycephalum Boie. 

A single specimen in the Bureau of Science collection was 
taken at Dumaguete by Mr. Eskridge, of Silliman Institute. 

Dendrelaphis modestus Boulenger. 3 

8 Dendrelaphis fuliginosus Griffin. — An examination of the type of this 
species convinces me that it is a specimen of D. modestus. The color on 
which the species seems to have been based appears to have been caused 
by some preserving fluid, since the flesh and the intestines are likewise 
discolored. The type has a few more ventrals and subcaudals than the 
type of D. modestus, but no other difference worthy of mention could be 
found. 



360 The Philippine Journal of Science mi 

Two specimens of this species were found — one by Mr. 
McNamara at La Carlota, the other by myself in the mountains 
near Isabela. 

Dendrelaphis terrificus Peters. 

It appears that Dendrelaphis caeruleatus Griffin is a discolored 
specimen of this species.* A careful comparison of the type 
with specimens of D. terrificus, from Mindanao, reveals no dif- 
ferences in scalation. One specimen in the Bureau of Science 
collection is from Negros. 

Calamaria gervaisii iridescens subsp. nov. 

Type. — No. 201, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Occi- 
dental Negros, P. I. ; elevation about 900 meters. E. H. Taylor, 
collector. 

Adult female. — Rostral a little deeper than broad, the part 
visible above equal to the suture between prefrontals; inter- 
nasals absent; prefrontal very large, about as broad as long, 
touching two labials laterally ; loreal absent ; frontal much longer 
than its distance from the end of snout, twice as wide as supra- 
oculars, shorter and not as wide as parietals; nostril pierced 
in a minute nasal ; latter fan-shaped ; one preocular, very small ; 
supra-ocular scarcely twice as long as wide; one small post- 
ocular ; five upper labials, last largest, third and fourth entering 
eye; an elongate posterior temporal behind the fifth labial, 
bordering the parietal ; mental as deep as wide, touching the chin 
shields; three labials touch the first pair of chin shields, which 
are much larger and slightly wider than the second pair; scales 
in 15 rows; ventrals, 178; subcaudals, 14; anal single; total 
length, 306 millimeters ; tail, 14. 

Color in life. — Dark iridescent brown above, with a very in- 
distinct series of four darker lines, each minutely powdered 
with a lighter color. Series of white dots begin on the outer row 
of scales and continue regularly to the base of tail. A second 
row of dots begins on the second row of scales, but continues 
only a short distance. Top of head mottled with dark brown, 
the labials almost covered with yellowish white. Lower labials 
and scales on neck and chin yellow, with brown maculations. 
Ventrals barred across belly with blackish brown and canary- 

4 The color on which Griffin's species appears to have been founded seems 
to be the result of the specimens having been preserved in formalin, since 
specimens of the species of Dendrelaphis, Dryophis, and Crysopelea turn 
this blue and lose almost all their original markings and color when pre- 
served in formalin. 



XII, D, 6 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 



361 



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362 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

yellow bars, less heavy in front of anus ; underside of tail with a 
median dark line. 

Variation. — Five specimens taken agree very well, save that 
the barring on the belly is much less distinct in very young 
specimens. 

It will be observed that the females have more ventrals and 
less subcaudals than the males. 

Remarks. — It seems that the separation of this form is well 
justified. 5 The females have an average of 13 more ventrals 
and 1 more subcaudal than the average of 20 specimens available 
for counts from other parts of the Islands. The males have an 
average of 8 more ventrals and 1 more subcaudal than 12 males 
available for counts from other islands. Moreover the species 
grows to a larger size than the typical form, and the eye is 
larger. 

Genus PSEUDORHABDIUM Jan 

Rabdion, part., Dumeril and Bibron, Mem. Acad. Sci. (1853), 23, 

441; Erp. Gen, (1854), 7, 115. 
Pseudorabdion Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. (1862), 2, 10. 
Oxycalamus Gunther, Rept. Brit. Ind. (1864), 199. 
Pseudorhabdium Boulenger, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. (1894), 2, 328. 

Maxillary teeth, 10 to 12, subequal ; anterior mandibulary 
teeth slightly longer than the posterior. Head not distinct from 
neck; eye small, with round pupil; nostril pierced in a minute 
nasal; internasals small; loreal present or absent; preocular 
small or absent; no temporals, parietals in contact with labials. 
Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 15 rows ; 
ventrals rounded. Tail short; subcaudals in 2 rows. Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago. Three species of this genus are 
known, and all of them are found in the Philippines. 

Key to the species of Pseudorhabdium. 

a 1 . No loreal present. 

b 1 . Frontal longer than broad. Preocular usually present. Supraocular 

small longiceps Cantor. 

b 1 . Frontal little broader than long; supraoculars smaller still. Pre- 
ocular wanting- oxycephalum Gunther. 

a 5 . Loreal present. Frontal broader than long'; no preocular. 

mcnamarse sp. nov. 

' Boulenger lists a specimen from Negros having the anterior part of 
the body black ventrally; it is not at all improbable that this represents a 
specimen of this subspecies. 



XII, D, 6 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 



363 



Pseudorhabdium mcnamarae sp. nov. 

Type. — No. 196, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Occi- 
dental Negros, P. I., December 24, 1915 ; elevation about 900 
meters. E. H. Taylor, collector. 

Description of type. — Rostral small, about as wide as high, 
a large part visible from above ; internasals moderate, five-sided, 
sutures with nasal and prefrontal equal; forms its shortest 
suture with the loreal; prefrontals nearly three times as large 
as internasals, entering eye, touching frontal, loreal, internasal, 
and supra-ocular ; longest suture with loreal, shortest with supra- 
ocular ; frontal hexagonal, a little wider than long, sides touching 
supra-oculars shortest, parietal sides longest; parietals at least 
twice as long as wide, six-sided, in contact with fifth labial ; nasal 
rectangular, much elongate, with nostril pierced near anterior 
edge close by the rostral; behind this a very much enlarged, 






a , • c 

Fig. 2. Pseudorhabdium ■mcnamarse sp. nov., head ; a, top ; 6, side ; c, underside. 

elongate, coffin-shaped loreal, in contact with second and third 
labials, entering eye; supra-ocular extending over only posterior 
part of eye and somewhat behind; postocular fused with supra- 
ocular ; no anterior temporals ; a single large posterior temporal 
lies behind fifth labial, bordering on the parietal; five upper 
labials, fifth largest, in the following order of size: 5, 3, 4, 2, 
1; third and fourth enter eye; lower labials five; mental small, 
in contact with anterior chin shields, separating first labials; 
three labials touch anterior chin shield; second pair of chin 
shields slightly smaller; anal undivided; ventrals, 140; sub- 
caudals, 22 ; eye very small ; scales smooth, in 15 rows. 

Color in life. — Above very shiny, more or less iridescent, dark 
blackish brown to bluish brown; about the neck is a more or 
less distinct yellow collar (dim or almost wanting in adults) 



364 The Philippine Journal of Science lan 

formed above by three or four small yellow spots; a cream- 
colored spot on the fifth upper labial ; below canary to yellowish 
cream with a dark area on the outer edges of each ventral ; latter 
ventrals mottled and subcaudals almost uniformly dark; occa- 
sional dark areas on the middle part of the ventrals. 



Measurements of the type of Pseudorhabdium mcnamarse sp. 



nor 



mm. 



Length 242 

Snout to anus 220 

Tail 21 

Width of head 5.5 

Width of body 5 

Variation. — Males and females differ in the number of ven- 
trals and subcaudals, the average for males being: ventrals, 
131 ; subcaudals, 28 ; for females : ventrals, 142 ; subcaudals, 22. 
Four specimens show the postocular fused with the supra-ocular, 
and No. 197 has a preocular present. There is some variation 
in the relative length and width of the frontal. Some specimens 
have them equal and in one or two the length slightly exceeds 
the width. The females have the underside of the tail uniformly 
dark, while the males have it mottled and lighter ; Nos. 192, 193, 
194, and 195 have the second and the third lower labials fused, 
thus leaving only two labials touching the first chin shields. 

Remarks. — Rather common at altitudes of 800 to 900 meters 
on the volcano. Specimens were not taken at a higher or a 
lower altitude. They were found under logs and rotting trash. 
They feed on earthworms and are in turn preyed upon by 
Cyclocorus lineatus, which is plentiful in the same locality. The 
females taken in December contained three undeveloped eggs. 

I take pleasure in dedicating this species to Mr. Homer 
McNamara, superintendent of the La Carlota Agricultural 
Station, who rendered able assistance in making collections on the 
volcano. 

This species represents a distinct section of the genus in having 
a loreal present. Specimens were usually found in pairs, a male 
and a female in the same place. (See Table III.) 

Pseudorhabdium oxycephalum Giinther. 

There is a specimen in the British Museum from Negros. I 
have not been able to examine specimens of this diminutive snake. 

Hurria rhynchops Schneider. 

Not uncommon along the coasts. Two specimens in the collec- 
tion from Hinigaran. 



XII, D, 6 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 



365 



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366 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Psalmodynastes pulverulentus Boie. 

A specimen of this widely distributed species was taken on 
Mount Canlaon at an elevation of about 1,000 meters. It is 
very light yellowish brown, the ventral surface is canary. A 
second specimen from Negros is in the Bureau of Science collec- 
tion. 

Dryophis prasinus Boie. 

A single specimen was taken in the foothills about Mount 
Canlaon. Probably not as common in Negros as in some other 
islands. 

Boiga angulata Peters. 

A single specimen in the Bureau of Science collection was 
taken by Dr. F. W. Foxworthy on Mount Marapara in Negros. 

Lapemis hardwicki Gray. 

Common along the coasts, where it is frequently taken in fish 
corrals. Several specimens in the collection from Hinigaran. 

Crysopelea ornata Shaw. 
Reported from Negros by Boulenger. 

Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis subsp. nov. 

Type. — No. 432, young female, E. H. T. collection. Isabela, 
Occidental Negros, P. I., September 12, 1915. E. H. Taylor, 
collector. 

Description of type. — Head triangular, very distinct from the 
neck, nearly 1.5 times as long as wide; rostral about as wide as 
high, not visible from above, bordered behind by two enlarged 
internasals; latter narrowly in contact, being nearly separated 
by three small scales; nasal bordered above by the internasal, 
two supranasals, and a postnasal folded over the canthus ros- 
tralis, the dorsal part much larger than the lateral; nasal large, 
longer than wide, nostril pierced near anterior margin, bordered 
behind by postnasal and seven or eight small intercalated scales, 
completely separating nasal from loreal and the latter from first 
labials ; pit surrounded by the median preocular and two loreals ; 
anterior loreal much larger than posterior, in contact with 
second labial and one supralabial; three preoculars, the middle 
one largest, the lower very small ; two small subequal postoculars ; 
a narrow, crescentic, elongate subocular, separated from the 
labials by a series of supralabials ; supra-ocular region covered 
by four enlarged scales, supra-ocular somewhat longer than wide ; 



xii. d, e Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 367 

this is bordered by another scale along its inner side, nearly 
as large; a third somewhat smaller scale joins these behind 
and a fourth borders them in front; supra-ocular and the scale 
in front in contact with superior preocular; temporals subequal, 
about four lateral rows; upper labials 11 (10 on the right side) ; 
third and fourth largest; first and second subequal in size; 12 
lower labials, only one in contact with anterior pair of chin 
shields; latter large, followed by 3 smaller pairs; head scales 
above strongly keeled, 14 to 15 rows between supra-ocular scales ; 
scales in 23 rows, faintly keeled, with a slight notch indicated 
on each side of the scale; ventrals, 163; subcaudals, 50; anal 
entire. 

Color in life. — Above bluish green, growing yellowish green 
laterally and greenish white below; body crossed with 26 very 
narrow white lines, not continuing ventrally ; tail barred laterally 
with narrow white and blackish lines; point of tail whitish; a 
slight line behind eye to angle of jaw ; top of head more blue than 
green, side of head lighter green with no markings. Length, 
370 millimeters; tail, 62. Tail prehensile. 

Remarks. — Only a single specimen has been collected. It was 
found in the low mountains of central Negros. I believe this 
to be the first specimen belonging to this genus taken in the 
island. Superficially it resembles the common T. wagleri, but 
differs sufficiently to warrant a separation from this species. 
The most important differences are as follows: It has 29 more 
ventrals than the average of 17 counts of Philippine speci- 
mens; the arrangement of the supra-ocular scales is quite 
different ; - a larger number of scales between the supraocu- 
lars, which is five or six more than in the Philippine specimens 
of T. wagleri; the separation of nasal and loreal; the notching 
of the body scales that is evident in this form does not occur 
in the other forms of T. wagleri. 

LIZARDS 

Gymnodactylus philippinicus Steindachner. 

Four specimens were taken in the low mountains near Isabela. 
They vary in the distinctness of the transverse bars on the 
back. All of them are females and were found under logs or 
flat rocks. 

Gekko gecko Linnaeus. 

Very common in the lowlands, where it can be found in practi- 
cally all houses. Almost every clump of bamboo is inhabited 



368 The Philippine Journal of Science wn 

by one or more individuals. I obtained it also in the low moun- 
tains at Isabela, but not on Mount Canlaon save at its base. I 
doubt if this species is found above an altitude of 500 meters in 
the Islands. There are 22 specimens in the collection. 

Gekko monarches Dumeril and Bibron. 

A single specimen taken in the mountains near Isabela has 
been referred to this species. It is an immature female. The 
spots on the back are blurred, not distinct as in other specimens 
examined. However, I do not doubt that it is correctly placed 
with this species. 

Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron. 

This species is very common in the lowlands, but probably 
does not ascend to any great altitude. It is found under rocks 
on the cogon-covered hills on the central-western coast. This 
species is the only one of the four common house geckos that I 
have found in such a habitat, the others preferring houses and 
trees. However, this species is also very common in houses. 
Numerous specimens were taken. 

Peropus mutilatus Weigmann. 

Common in houses everywhere in the lowlands. Two speci- 
mens taken at Isabela in the mountains were distinctly spotted 
with dark brown over the -ventral surface of body and tail, with 
a whitish line through the eye; these markings are wanting 
in other specimens. One specimen from Mindoro resembles 
these. It is not improbable that they represent a distinct varia- 
tion. Numerous specimens in the collection. 

Lepidodactylus christian! sp. nov. Plate II, fig. 1. 

Type. — No. 900, E. H. T. collection. Mount Canlaon, December 
23, 1915; elevation about 700 meters. E. H. Taylor, collector. 

Description of type. — Head not distinct from neck (probably 
due to abnormal deposits of calcareous matter under the skin of 
the neck on both sides) ; snout rather long, almost twice diameter 
of eye; distance from nostril to eye equal or minutely longer 
than distance from eye to auricular opening. (Auricular open- 
ing on the left side abnormally wanting, due to calcareous de- 
posits.) Rostral more than twice as wide as long, its upper 
margin irregular; nostril bordered bv the first labial, a large 
postnasal, which is in contact with two labials and three supra- 
nasals (four on the right side), the supranasals completely se- 
parate the rostral from the nostril ; these scales form a rounded 



xii, d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 369 

prominence about the nostril ; anterior supranasal in contact with 
first labial; between the nasals, immediately behind rostral, are 
three rather enlarged, rounded scales, and a small, probably 
anomalous, scale; 13 or 14 upper labials, last two very small; 
angle of mouth without differentiated labial scales; two super- 
imposed, enlarged scales behind postnasal, followed by a row 
of irregularly enlarged scales bordering labials; 11 lower labials, 
a row of small rounded scales bordering lower labials, those 
touching mental smallest* two or three rows of smaller scales 
bordering these ; scales on forehead tubercular, much larger than 
those on body; ear opening small, its greatest diameter equal 
to one third or one fourth the diameter of eye, nearer the eye 
than the foreleg; eye large, pupil vertical; dorsal and lateral 
scales tubercular, minute; ventrally, scales rounded, somewhat 
imbricate, and larger. 

A long continuous line of 26 enlarged scales in preanal and 
femoral region, the 9 median largest, in a somewhat curved 
line, some of the scales apparently perforated with small pores. 
It is probable that the 9 enlarged scales (not improbably the 
entire 26) represent the number of pores in the male. A few 
rows of enlarged scales behind this row in front of anus. Tail 
much flattened, especially below, bordered on the sides by a 
broad denticulate fringe, the annulations, scarcely distinguish- 
able; scales below rounding and distinctly larger than those 
above. Tip of tail regenerated; this has the fringed edge, but 
the serrations are smaller and scales above and below are not 
arranged regularly. Foreleg pressed forward reaches anterior 
border of eye ; no distal joint on inner digits, others with clawed 
distal joints rising from near the broadened extremity of digit ; 
lamella on the broadened portion of digits divided by a median 
groove ; strongly denticulate on outer edge ; these divided lamellse 
followed by undivided scalelike lamellse, decreasing in width; 
fourth toe with 8 or 9 lamellae, the first four divided; digits of 
both limbs with webs, a slight web behind the hind leg. 

Color. — Above ashy gray to blackish brown on back and sides 
of arms and tail ; snout darker, with a dark line passing through 
the lower part of eye to shoulder; below lighter, flecked with 
brown and with traces of yellow ; ventral side of tail more or less 
reddish. The specimen was taken alive just at twilight. Then 
it appeared to have a series of large well-defined markings above 
and appeared yellow or white below. As it was necessary to 
preserve the specimen at once, the colors of the living animal 
were not observed by daylight. 

150932 2 



370 The Philippine Journal of Science i»m 

Measurements of Lepidodactylus christiani sp. nov. 

mm. 

Length, tail partially regenerated 83 

Snout to vent 43 

Hind leg 15 

Fore leg 12 

Width of head 8.5 

Greatest body width 11 

Greatest tail width 8 

Remarks. — I take pleasure in dedicating this species to Lieut. 
Ralph L. Christian, U. S. Army, who accompanied an expedition 
to Canlaon and assisted in making collections. The unique 
specimen of this species was found in a large mass of fern and 
other roots cut from its resting place in a tree about 8 meters 
from the ground. This mass was being searched for arboreal 
Typhlopidse common in such habitats in Mindanao. Although 
no species of Typhlops was found, this species and a new species 
of Siaphos were discovered. Four species of this genus have 
been described from the Philippines. They are characterized and 
differentiated by the following key: 

Key to the Philippine species of Lepidodactylus. 

a\ Rostral enters nostril. 

b 1 . Fourteen upper, 15 lower labials; no femoral pores, 9 preanal pores on 
each side forming a doubly arched series, angular medially. 

I. labialis Peters. 
6'. Thirteen to 14 upper labials, 12 to 13 lower; an unbroken angular 

series of 12 preanal pores, 6 on each side L. brevipes Boettger. 

6*. Twelve upper, 11 lower labials (Description of type does not mention 

pores) _ L. planicaudus Stejneger. 

6*. Eleven upper, 10 lower labials; preanal and femoral pores arranged 
in a continuous series angular medially, 19 on each side. 

L. aurilineatus Taylor. 
a 1 . Rostral, separated from nostril. Tail flattened with broad denticulate 
fringe; scales surrounding nostril forming a raised prominence. 

L. christiani sp. nov. 

Cosymbotus platyurus Schneider. 

Very common in the houses. It is probably seen more fre- 
quently than the five other house lizards. I have never found 
this species in the forest away from human habitation. 

Draco ornatus Gray. 

Reported from Negros by Boulenger. I have examined no 
specimen from this island. 



xn, d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 371 

Draco spilopterus Weigmann. 

Reported from Negros by Boulenger. No specimen has been 
taken by me. 

Hydrosaurus pustulosus Eschscholtz. ■ 

Many of these lizards have been observed, but only two speci- 
mens are present in the collection, both captured by Mr. Mc- 
Namara at La Gran j a. They agree very well with specimens 
from Mindoro, but the dorsal scales seem larger than those from 
Polillo, and there are several more femoral pores on each side. 

Calotes marmoratus Gray. 

A single specimen of what appears to be this species was 
collected in Negros by Mr. W. Schultze, who presented it to me. 
It had been preserved in formalin and is brown with black spots 
and lines. The specimen is halfgrown, with a small dorsal crest. 

Gonyocephalus sophiae Gray. 

There is a single specimen in the collection of the Bureau of 
Science, which was collected by Mr. C. S. Banks. It is an 
adult male, with the nuchal and dorsal crests well developed and 
continuous. A specimen of what appeared to be this species was 
observed near Isabela, but it escaped before capture was possible. 

Varanus nuchalis Gunther. 

There are four specimens in the collection. Three were taken 
by myself at Hinigaran, and the fourth by Mr. McNamara at 
La Gran j a. One specimen from the eastern coast of the island 
was uniformly dark, having no yellow spots. This species is 
very common about the cane fields and ascends some distance into 
the mountains. 

Mabuya multicarinata Gray. 

This species is abundant in Negros. It ascends more than 
halfway to the summit of Canlaon. There are several specimens 
in the collection. 

Mabuya multifasciata Kuhl. 

Common in Negros, where it grows to a more robust size than 
was found in Mindanao. The males and the females are dis- 
tinctly different in coloration. The male is uniform bluish 
green, with an orange lateral spot during the breeding season; 
above the female is brown, with each scale black-edged, form- 
ing indistinct longitudinal lines; laterally, dark with numerous 
black-edged, greenish white ocelli. 



372 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1917 



Sphenomorphus 6 jagori Peters. 

Two specimens were taken on Canlaon : one young, one adult. 
The latter is much larger than specimens of S. jagori found 
elsewhere in the Islands. Laterally there is a series of 12 irreg- 
ular black spots, which mark the termination of the indistinct 
dorsal reticulations. The broad elongate black stripe is present 
above the hind leg. There are 44 scale rows around the body, 
which is 5 or 6 rows more than in specimens from Mindanao. 
This may have to be considered a distinct subspecies. The mark- 
ings on the young specimen are but little more distinct than in the 
adult. Total length of largest specimen, 270 millimeters ; snout 
to vent, 106 ; foreleg, 31 ; hind leg, 44 ; axilla to groin, 55 ; head to 
insertion of foreleg, 42 ; snout to ear opening, 20 ; width of head, 
18; width of body, 20. In the adult specimen the first supra- 
ocular is divided, making 5 large supra-oculars, 3 touching the 
frontal. 



Sphenomorphus steerei Stejneger. 

I have referred to this species the small Sphenomorphus found 
commonly in the mountains of Negros. In scalation it appears 
identical, but the proportions of the body are different. I have 
at hand specimens from the small island of Guimaras, the type 
locality. These likewise differ greatly in proportions, but agree 
in the scalation of the head. It seems hardly probable that two 
closely related species occur on Guimaras. It is probable that 
the type is an immature specimen. I append a table, giving 
the measurements of three specimens of this species. 

Table V. — Measurements of Sphenomorphus steerei Stejneger. 



Length 

Tip of snout to vent 

Vent to end of tail 

Snout to foreleg 

Axilla to groin 

Foreleg _. 

Hind leg 

Width of head 

Eye nearer foreleg than snout 



Type. Gui- 
maras, 

32658, U. S. 
National 
Museum. 



47 
24 
23 
12 
IK?) 

6 
10 

4.5 
yes 



No. 969, 
Guimaras, 
E. H. Tay- 
lor collec- 
tion. 



65 
28 
37 
11 
17 
5.5 



No. 908. 

Negros, 
E. H. Tay- 
lor collec- 
tion. 



74 
33 
41 
18 
20 

6.5 
10 

5 
yes 



'Sphenomorphus fasciatus (Gray). — Reported by Casto de Elera from 
Negros. I believe this to be a doubtful record. 



xn,D,6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 373 

The color above is dark brown with markings similar to 
those of S. steerei. Soecimens from Canlaon have canary- 
yeilow bellies, and the males have a large rose pink spot on 
the neck, which disappears in alcohol. The species is very 
common. 7 

Dasia smaragdinium Lesson. 

Represented by a single immature specimen. It is grayish 
olive above with small white spots and a few darker spots mixed 
with the white spots on the neck. This species does not appear 
to be rare, as many specimens were seen iri the tall forest trees. 

Sphenomorphus arborens sp. nov. Plate I. 

Type. — No. 413, E. H. T. collection. Mount Canlaon, Occiden- 
tal Negros, P. I., December 20, 1915. E. H. Taylor, collector. 

Adult male. — Head short and blunt, rostral bent backward 
over snout, forming a curved suture with frontonasal; latter 
much wider than deep, in contact with first f renal; no supra- 
nasals; prefrontals very large, broadly in contact; frontal tri- 
angular, its broadest part anterior to first supra-ocular; in 
contact with three supra-oculars ; frontoparietals distinct, 
broadly in contact, elongate, touching three supra-oculars; pa- 
rietals large, forming a suture behind interparietal, which is 
narrow and elongate; nasal large, pierced by a rather large 
nostril; two frenals, the first higher and narrower than the 
second, which is larger than first; two preocular scales superim- 
posed, the lower much the larger; two or three rows of scales 
between labials and orbit; ten superciliaries, the first especially 
large, in contact with the frontal; five supra-oculars, last very 
small (can scarcely be considered a supra-ocular) ; lower eyelid 
covered by two rows of scales, the upper small, the second row 
elongate, enlarged, eleven or twelve in number; small postocu- 
lars; five temporals, that bordering the parietal very large; ear 
large, about half the diameter of eye; six upper labials, fourth 
and fifth below eye; fifth largest; lower labials four or five, 
very narrow and elongate; mental moderate, first postmental 
more than twice as deep; four pairs of chin shields, first pair 
in contact, second pair separated by one scale, third pair by 
three scales; fourth pair broken in two; 40 to 42 scale rows 

T It is obvious that a more detailed study of these small skinks is needed. 
I have before me specimens from Palawan, Mindoro, and Mindanao, which 
apparently are different from described species. Yet they vary considerably 
among themselves. A study of these small forms has been begun. 



374 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

about the body, laterally they are arranged in vertical rows; 
two enlarged preanals, with enlarged scales in front of them; 
21 rounding lamella under fourth toe. The adpressed hind leg 
fails to reach the axilla, but reaches to near elbow of adpressed 
foreleg. The ear is slightly nearer the foreleg than end of snout. 
Color in life. — Above brown, variegated with lighter and 
darker scales, and a median row of irregular dim dark spots; 
a lateral stripe, beginning on the point of the nose, widening 
behind ear, continues as a wide broken line of dark irregular 
spots to some distance on the tail ; labials and chin muddy white 
with a bluish tinge; belly with a wash of canary; tail spotted 
below ; spots on the preanal scales. 

Measurements of the type of Sphenomorphus arborens sp. nov. 

mm. 

Length 168 

Snout to vent 65 

Vent to end of tail 103 

Snout to foreleg 25 

Axilla to groin 32 

Width of head 9 

Width of body 10 

Foreleg 20 

Hind leg 28 

Variation. — The collection contains six adult specimens and 
seven young, all taken on Mount Canlaon. There is a slight 
amount of variation in the width of the frontal and in its relation 
with the first superciliary. Several of the specimens have the 
neck and the throat a dark muddy color, with a bluish tinge; 
young colored like the adult. 

Remarks. — This species superficially resembles Sphenomor- 
phus variegatum Peters, but differs in a number of essential 
points. There are fewer supra-oculars, the scales on the foot 
and especially the heel, are larger; the first f renal is high and 
is not superimposed above another. The hind leg is much 
shorter, and does not reach the axilla. In S. variegatum the 
hind leg reaches halfway between the foreleg and ear. It is 
common on Canlaon at an elevation of 800 to 1,200 meters; it 
is strictly arboreal and is seldom seen on the ground. 

Leiolepisma pulchellum grande subsp. nov. 

Type. — No. 899, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Negros, 
P. I. ; December 22, 1915 ; elevation 900 meters. E. H. Taylor, 
collector. 



XII. D, 6 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 



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376 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Desci'iption. — Head less pointed than L. pulchellum and not 
narrowed and flattened so abruptly in front of eyes; distance 
between nasals proportionally less ; rostral broadly visible above, 
length above much greater than height of snout; frontonasal 
large, not rectangular, but distinctly rounding in front; pre- 
frontals almost as large as frontonasal, forming a median suture 
about one third of their greatest length; frontal twice as long 
as wide, narrowed to a long point behind; frontoparietals dis- 
tinct, their suture much larger than in L. pulchellum. Parietals 
moderate, inclosing an elongate interparietal ; nasal large, pierced 
by the nostril ; no supranasals, first f renal distinctly higher than 
nasal, higher but much smaller than second f renal; two preocu- 
lars, the lower largest; nine superciliaries, none in contact with 
frontal; six supra-oculars, the last as wide as the first; third 
widest; four in contact with frontal; seven upper labials, the 
first three elongate, of nearly equal size and shape; last four 
higher ; a scale partly inserted between fourth and fifth and fifth 
and sixth labials; five or six enlarged temporals. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk; auricular opening two 
thirds as large as eye; six lower labials, all narrow and elon- 
gate; two undivided postmentals, the first small (the small one 
absent in the cotype) ; two very much enlarged preanals, which 
are preceded by three or four enlarged body scales; 25 lamellae 
under fourth toe; 22 scale rows about the body; three or four 
pair of nuchals present. 

Color in life. — Dark, mottled brown above with a greenish 
bronze dorsal streak; dark spots on the parietal region; supra- 
oculars each with an indistinct lighter line; labials with dark 
spots, laterally flecked with bronze-greenish light spots; chin, 
throat, belly, and underside of tail immaculate, iridescent green- 
ish with a wash of bright canary. Legs spotted with minute 
lighter areas. Tail above spotted with brownish, with a trace 
of a median lighter streak. 

Measurements of the type of Leiolepisma pulchellum grande subsp. nov. 

mm. 

Length, end of tail lost 67 

Snout to vent 42 

Snout to ear 10 

Snout to insertion of arm 18 

Axilla to groin 22 

Foreleg 15 

Hind leg 19 

Width of head 0.65 



xii, d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 377 

The foreleg reaches forward to the nostril; the hind leg fails 
to reach the axilla by a considerable distance. 

Variation. — The cotype varies in not having the frontal nar- 
rowed so quickly as the type and the interparietal shorter. 

Remarks. — This form differs from L. pulchellum in the larger 
number of supra-oculars ; the shape of the head; the shorter 
hind leg, which does not reach the axilla; the frontal touches 
four instead of three supra-oculars; the interparietal is very 
much smaller and narrower than the frontal; two scale rows 
less around the body. It obviously grows to a larger size. I 
have ten typical specimens of L. pulchellum for comparison. 
They are invariably shorter, the heads narrower, the median 
streak brillant golden yellow, and the tail brownish yellow with 
the markings almost totally disappearing. 

Only two specimens of the present subspecies were taken, 
these in the same immediate locality on Mount Canlaon. 

Siaphos auriculatum sp. nov. Plate II, fig. 2. 

Type. — No. 894, E. H. T. collection. Canlaon Volcano, Ne- 
gros, P. I. ; December 23, 1915 ; elevation 900 meters. E. H. Tay- 
lor, collector 

Description. — Rostral large, covering the end of the conical 
snout, forming a broad suture with the frontonasal, about equal 
to that with the nasals; frontonasal very large, convex ante- 
riorly and concave behind, forming its largest suture with 
frontal; latter rather triangular in shape, longer than broad, 
anterior part rounding, not as wide as supra-ocular region; 
frontoparietals fused into a single large scale, which is dis- 
tinctly wider than supra-ocular region, in contact with three 
supra-oculars; interparietal as wide as frontal, but shorter; 
parietals elongate, diagonal, more than twice as long as wide, 
joined behind the interparietal, in contact anteriorly with two 
very small postoculars ; three or four pairs of enlarged nuchals ; 
nostril pierced in the middle of the single nasal, which is fol- 
lowed by two f renals subequal in size, as high as the nasal ; two 
superimposed preoculars; eight superciliaries, anterior largest; 
four supra-oculars, two touching the frontal, second widest ; two 
pairs of slightly enlarged postoculars and a row of scales above 
the upper labials; a rather enlarged scale between fourth and 
fifth upper labials; eight upper labials, fifth and sixth largest, 
below the eye ; two greatly enlarged temporals with three or four 
others not so large; auricular opening comparatively large, a 
little more than half the diameter of eye ; tympanum distinct, not 



378 The Philippi?ie Journal of Science 1m 

covered with scales, not deeply sunk ; six or seven lower labials ; 
mental rather large, followed by a large undivided postmental, 
which is followed by three pairs of chin shields; the first in 
contact, the second separated by a single scale, the third pair sepa- 
rated by three scales and followed by one enlarged scale ; scales 
in 24 rows around body, the two median greatly enlarged; two 
enlarged anals ; the fourth toe slightly longer than third ; adpres- 
sed limbs fail to meet; 20 lamellae under fourth toe; lower eye- 
lid with an undivided transparent disk. 

Color in life. — Above grayish brown with a median stripe of 
dark brown, covering part of the two median scale rows, con- 
tinuing as a dotted stripe on the tail, dim on the neck; a dark 
brown stripe begins behind the eye and continues laterally to 
near end of tail, this does not involve the ear and is about three 
scales wide on the sides ; it grows dimmer on the tail ; head gray- 
ish brown with irregular darker markings, laterally quite dark 
with a lighter area on each labial; below rather dirty whitish; 
fingers and toes barred with blackish brown. 

Measurements of the type of Siaphos auriculatum sp. nov. 

mm. 

Length 97 

Snout to vent 43 

Axilla to groin 24 

S^iout to foreleg 17 

Foreleg 8.5 

Hind leg 14 

Width of head 6 

Width of body 7 

Variation. — Two other specimens were obtained in the same 
locality. Each has 22 rows of scales around the body. In No. 
893 the interparietal is partially fused with the parietal. The 
median stripe is very dim and the color is iridescent olive-brown 
with suggestions of a narrow greenish line just above the lateral 
brown stripe. In No. 895 the stripe appears as a double row 
of dots. It is the largest specimen, and measures 47 millimeters 
from snout to vent. 

Remarks. — This species has no close affinities. The absence 
of prefrontals, the size of the auricular opening and the tym- 
panum free from scales are characteristics that clearly differen- 
tiate it from other members of the genus. Three specimens 
were taken in the type locality. It is an arboreal species. 

Brachymeles gracilis Fischer. 

Specimens were obtained both from Canlaon and Isabela. 
They agree fairly well with specimens from Mindoro, save that 



xii. d, 6 Taylor: Snakes and Lizards of Negros 379 

the fourth labial enters the orbit, while most of those from 
Mindoro have the fifth entering the orbit. The character 
is not constant. Scale rows vary between 24 and 30. The sole 
specimen having 24 rows is from Isabela. Most of those from 
Canlaon have 28 scale rows. A single specimen taken on Can- 
laon, No. 397, varies markedly, and were the characters constant 
would represent a new species. The auricular opening is larger, 
the foreleg reaches the ear, while in other specimens it fails to 
reach the ear by nearly half its length ; the fourth and fifth labials 
are below the eye, the hind leg is longer and thicker and is 
contained in the distance from axilla to groin 2.7 times. In all 
other specimens the hind leg is always contained more than three 
times in this distance. There are two well-defined light lines 
running from above the eye to some distance on the tail; from 
the ear to the hind leg the stripe is at least two scales wide. 
There are 30 rows of scales around the body. 

Tropidophorus grayi Giinther. 

Common along the small mountain brooks near Isabela. Al- 
ways found in the vicinity of water, usually under partly sub- 
merged stones or logs. A number of specimens in the collection. 

Dibamus argenteus Taylor. 9 

Two specimens of what appear to be this species have been 
taken : one was found on Mount Canlaon ; the other, near Isabela. 
Both, differ from the type in having the color dark purple with 
silver blotches and in having seven instead of five scales border- 
ing the interparietal. The eye is scarcely distinguishable ; there 
are two instead of one postocular. 

'In the original drawing of this species, This Journal, Sec. D (1915), 
10, 89, Plate I, fig. 11, the interparietal is shown bordered by three scales. 
This is an error; five is the correct number. In the description, page 
107, it is stated: "2 enlarged labials on each side extending farther back 
than the rostral;" this should read "2 enlarged lower labials, one on either 
side of the jaw extending farther back than the rostral." 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Drawings by P. Moskaira.] 
PLATE I 

Sphenomorphua arborens sp. nov.; a., head, lateral view; 6, head, dorsal 
view. 

Plate II 

Fig. 1. Lepidodactylus christiani sp. nov.; a, head, lateral view; hind 
foot, ventral view. 
2. Siaphos auriculatum sp. nov.; a, head, dorsal view. 

TEXT FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Natrix dendrophiops negrensiz subsp. nov., head; a, dorsal view; 6, 
lateral view; c, ventral view. 
2. Pseudorhabdium mcnamarse sp. nov., head; a, dorsal view; b, lateral 
view; c, ventral view. 

38fl 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. 6. 




PLATE I. SPHENOMORPHUS ARBORENS SP. NOV. 



Taylor: Snakes and Lizards.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., XII, D, No. G. 






Wi¥ 



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Fig. 1. Lepidodactylus christiani sp. nov. 2. Siaphos auriculatum sp. nov. 
PLATE II. 



ICHNEUMONOID PARASITES OF THE PHILIPPINES, II 

RHOGADINiE (bRACONIDjE) , II : THE GENUS RHOGAS 

By C. F. Baker 
(Los Banos, P. I.) 

Genus RHOGAS Nees 

The Philippine species of this genus fall easily into three sub- 
generic groups. None of these corresponds exactly to any of 
the recognized European subgenera. The spurs of the hind 
tibia always fall considerably short of one third the length of 
the hind tibia, being short, straight, and pubescent in all of the 
species studied. In a single species, Rhogas brownii sp. nov., 
they are, in the female, a little longer than usual and slightly 
curved at the tips. In the Philippine material I have not 
encountered intermediates between the groups of eye forms, as 
described below, these being clearly marked and easily distin- 
guished and characterized by other clearly correlated diagnostic 
features. In the lighter colored species the interocellar area 
is always piceous or black. 

Synopsis of subgenera (Philippine species only). 

a 1 . Eyes large, very broadly elliptical, distinctly emarginate; malar space 

and cheeks relatively small; ocelli large. 

b\ Radial cell of posterior wings not or very little broadened apically 

though often narrowed at middle; radial vein weak and decolored 

or subobsolete; second cubital cell usually long; fourth hind tarsal 

joint slender; antennas unicolorous or slightly darker apically. 

Aleiodes (Wesmael) Thomson. 
6*. Radial cell of posterior wings strongly broadened apically, not nar- 
rowed at middle; radial vein distinct; second cubital cell usually 
short; legs stout, the fourth hind tarsal joint short and broad; 
antenna? piceous to black, banded with yellowish.. Rhogas Thomson. 
a 2 . Eyes small, oval, subelliptical or round, little or not emarginate, re- 
latively very large; ocelli small; legs with fourth hind tarsal joint 
slender; second cubital cell short Aleirhogas subg. nov. 

Subgenus Aleiodes (Wesmael) Thomson 

Synopsis of the species. 

a\ Five tergites and, usually, part of the sixth abdominal tergite similarly 
sculptured; metanotum with a percurrent, median, sharp-rimmed, 
lanceolate furrow; second cubital cell twice or nearly twice as long 
as wide, the first transverse cubital vein very oblique ; posteromedian 
mesonotal area with a longitudinal groove. 

383 



384 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

b 1 . Ocelli large, distance from eyes about equal to the long diameter of 
an ocellus. 
c\ Disk of metanotum and part or all of the abdominal tergites black. 

cameroni sp. nov. 

c s . Uhicolorous and stramineous cameroni var. fiavus var. nov. 

6 2 . Ocelli very large, distance from eyes about one half the long diameter 

of an ocellus '. palavanicus sp. nov. 

a 3 . Three, rarely four, abdominal tergites similarly sculptured; metanotum 

with a single median carina, distinct at least at base; second cubital 

cell usually less than twice as long as wide; posteromedian subde- 

pressed area of mesonotum plane, regularly or irregularly rugose. 

d 1 . Four abdominal tergites similarly sculptured throughout; mesopleura 

strongly and very broadly depressed on posterior half. 

benguetensis sp. nov. 
d*. Three abdominal tergites only, similarly sculptured, the third fre- 
quently sculptured only at base. 
e 1 . First abscissa of radius less than one half the length of second; 
recurrent vein inserted a distance from second cubital cell equal to 
first abscissa of radius ; thorax and abdomen laterally black-striped. 

lateralis sp. nov. 

e ! . First abscissa of radius less than one half the length of second; 

recurrent vein inserted a distance from second cubital cell usually 

less than length of first abscissa of radius. 

f 1 . First abdominal tergite very short, little narrowed to base; length 

two thirds of apical width, the basal width subequal to length; 

no distinct median carina on third tergite; clypeus transverse, 

length not more than half the width; body ferruginous, first 

two tergites stramineous, no piceous markings. 

subquadratus sp. nov. 

P. First tergite distinctly longer than broad at apex, more strongly 

narrowed to base. 

g 1 . Clypeus transverse, distinctly broader than long; second cubital 

cell very short, not narrowed apically; face transversely 

wrinkled; cheek very broad, nearly half diameter of eye; 

color stramineous, with piceous lateral stripes on body. 

simillinvus sp. nov. 

g 2 . Clypeus as long as broad or longer; second cubital cell always 

much longer than wide and always more or less narrowed 

apically. 

h 1 . Median carina of third tergite becoming obsolete apically; 

metanotal carina complete. 

i 1 . Face shagreened; cheek narrow, about one fourth diameter 

of eye, outer margin parallel to eye margin, metapleural 

spiracle large, ovate; stramineous, the side of thorax and 

first tergite black-striped mimicus sp. nov. 

■P. Face more or less transversely wrinkled; metapleural spir- 
acle small, circular. 
f. Face transversely wrinkled only on upper half; antennae 
dark-colored, tergites piceous, remainder ferruginous. 
&\ Metanotum piceous; fore and middle legs unicolorous; 
cheek nearly one half diameter of eye, its outer 
margin parallel to eye margin bicolor sp. nov. 



xii. d, e Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 385 

k". Metanotum concolorous, "a spot at apex of middle and 
hind femora, more or less of the base and apex of 
hind tibiae, and the hind tarsi black." 

melanosoma Ashm.* 

f. Face nearly all transversely wrinkled; antenna? pale; 

abdomen stramineous, excepting borders of first ter- 

gite; cheek distinctly narrower above than below where 

it is one third diameter of eye modestus sp. nov. 

h*. Median carina of third tergite sharply distinct throughout; 
cheek with outer margin parallel to eye margin. 
I 1 . Metanotal carina complete; face shagreened below, trans- 
versely wrinkled above; metapleural spiracle circular; 
vertex back of eyes long and very strongly narrowed. 

separatus sp. nov. 
P. Metanotal carina incomplete; face all shagreened; meta- 
pleural spiracle ovate; vertex back of eyes short and very 
broad _ _ banksi sp. nov. 

* The position of this species is very uncertain. 

Ehogas (Aleiodes) cameroni sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antennas piceous, paler apically; vertex piceous, 
side margins paler; face faintly and irregularly clouded with 
piceous ; dorsum of thorax, except sutures and median metanotal 
groove, piceous; upper and lower borders of propleura and a 
mark on mesopleura below wings piceous; dorsum of abdomen, 
except first and third to sixth sutures and lateral margins, 
piceous to black. Legs with femora apically, tibiae, tarsi, and 
hind coxae more or less stained with piceous. Lower half of 
hypopygium piceous. Wings faintly smoky, stigma and veins 
pale brown. 

Female, length, 6.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above thick transverse, with eyes large and 
bulging, distance between them subequal to distance from oc- 
cipital carina to front margin of anterior ocellus; vertex some- 
what depressed about ocellar area, surface smooth and shining; 
vertex strongly narrowed back of eyes, occipital carina long and 
gently incurved ; length of vertex back of ocelli subequal to length 
of exposed cheek margin and to length of ocellar area; ocelli 
large, distance from ocelli to eyes slightly less than twice inter- 
ocellar distance and subequal to the long diameter of an ocellus, 
anterior ocellus slightly farther removed. 

Face to mouth longer than wide, slightly wider above due to 
emargination of eyes, shallow and irregularly rugose-punctate, 
clypeus smooth ; a subobsolete median carina just below antennae ; 
mouth opening large and transversely long-elliptical; clypeus 
large and broad, twice as broad as long, basal margin somewhat 



386 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

more curved than apical, surface laterally concave; clypeal pits 
distant from eyes two and one-half times their diameter. Head 
viewed from side with prominent, evenly curved face margin, 
clypeus not projecting; cheeks narrow, about one third the width 
of eyes, outer margin parallel with eye margin; malar space 
small, its length subequal to width of cheek; eyes very large, 
very broadly and bluntly elliptical. Maxillary palpi reaching 
tegulae, third joint longest, somewhat widened at middle, fourth 
shorter and somewhat widened on basal half, fifth and sixth 
progressively shorter, slender and terete. 

Antennas about as long as entire body; scape subcylindrical, 
slightly narrowed to base, one and one-half times as long as wide 
apically; funicle large, more than half length of scape, sub- 
cylindrical, slightly narrowed apically; middle flagellar joints 
about twice as long as wide. 

Mesonotum very long, trilobed, the notauli sharply impressed 
and regularly crenulate as far back as posterior median plane 
area, the latter with a lanceolate median groove; entire surface 
of mesonotum smooth and shining. Scutellum anteriorly 
quadrifoveate, separating carinas low and equally strong; disk 
of scutellum smooth. Postscutellum very broadly quadrifoveate. 
Metanotum very coarsely and openly reticulate-rugose, with a 
narrow, median, lanceolate groove, which is crossed by several 
rugae; metapleura and mesopleura smooth, the latter broadly 
depressed and irregularly wrinkled below wing, disk with a 
broad, oblique, curved, deeply impressed, crenulate furrow; 
spiracle large and subcircular. 

Abdomen half again as long as head and thorax together, 
broadly sessile, six tergites fully exposed, third tergite broad- 
est, all strongly sculptured; first tergite with length nearly one 
and one-half times the apical width ; second tergite about as long 
as first, little widening apically, sides straight, length subequal to 
apical width; remaining tergites subequal in length, together 
somewhat more than half length of second and progressively 
narrower, sixth with a concave apical margin; a very narrow 
point of seventh segment projecting beyond sixth; first and 
second tergites very coarsely and longitudinally striate, striae 
on second segment somewhat oblique; striation on remaining 
tergites finer, thicker, more irregular, and strongly oblique; 
second suture impressed, but completely connate, the striae 
continuous across it; remaining sutures normal, but followed 
by deeply impressed, crenulated borders ; first and second tergites 
with a strong median carina. Hypopygium large, as long as 



xii. d. 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 387 

fifth and sixth segments together, and deeper than these seg- 
ments, projecting nearly one third of its length beyond apex 
of abdomen; ovipositor very short and curved. 

Stigma long, its length about five times its width, radius 
inserted at two fifths from base; first abscissa of radius less 
than half length of second; second cubital cell very long, not 
narrowed apicaliy, the length nearly three times the width ; the 
first transverse cubitus strongly oblique, the second perpendicular 
and decolored; recurrent vein entering extreme apex of first 
cubital cell; parallel vein straight and inserted at lower third; 
submedian cell but little longer than median ; radial vein in hind 
wings distinct but pale ; nervellus oblique and strongly curved. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

A second female specimen, from Mount Maquiling, is referred 
to this species, although it differs considerably in color and 
even in certain minor structural characters. The antennas and 
the head are entirely pale; the mesonotum is pale and black- 
bordered ; there is more dark color on the pleura?, and the median 
metanotal groove is broader and more irregular. 

A third female specimen, from Mount Maquiling, has the an- 
tennas dark and the stigma and the veins even darker, but it en- 
tirely lacks all piceous and black markings on the body; the 
metanotal groove is still broader and is crossed by three con- 
spicuously strong rugae ; the recurrent vein enters first cubital cell 
a little farther from its apex. Apart from these differences it 
agrees in structural characters with the species described above ; 
it may be called Rhogas cameroni var. flavus. 

The male of this species is smaller (5.5 millimeters), with 
much less black on dorsum of abdomen, this often reduced to 
median spots on first, fifth, and sixth tergites. The striae on 
fourth to sixth tergites are straight, not oblique, and not quite 
complete. 

The species is named for the late P. Cameron, a very prolific 
writer on Oriental Hymenoptera. 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) palavanicus sp. nov. 

Antennae and thorax ochraceous ; head, abdomen, and legs pale 
stramineous ; first, fourth, fifth, and sixth tergites slightly dark- 
ened at base, second and third darkened along median lungitudi- 
nal line. Wings iridescent, very faintly smoky, and with three 
large, indistinct, whitish areas — one in marginal cell, one in 
anal cell, and one covering part of first cubital and first dis- 
coidal cells. Veins, with stigma, stramineous or slightly smoky 
in part, first abscissa of radius much darker, in sharp contrast 



388 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

to remainder, the costal margin ochraceous. 

Male, length, 3.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with very large, but not bulging 
eyes, which deeply enter vertex, distance between them equal 
to distance from occipital margin to front margin of anterior 
ocellus; vertex back' of ocelli rather short, due to the very 
strongly incurving occipital margin; length from ocelli to oc- 
cipital margin about equal to length of exposed cheek margin; 
occipital carina subangularly curved at middle; surface of ver- 
tex smooth and shining; ocelli large, distance between ocelli 
slightly less than distance from ocelli to eyes, the latter distance 
much less than the long diameter of an ocellus, distance to 
Occipital carina less than twice the long diameter of an ocellus. 
Face subquadrate, eye margins slightly incurved at sides and 
not strongly emarginate opposite antennas ; surface very minutely 
roughened, and not strongly medially raised, median carina sub- 
obsolete ; mouth opening narrow and subelliptical. Head, viewed 
from side, with face margin evenly curved and not strongly 
projecting; cheeks harrow, less than one third width of eye, 
slightly narrower above than below; malar space small, length 
little more than width of cheeks below; eye large, its outline 
long and very broadly elliptical. Maxillary palpi longer than 
anterior femora, third joint longest and somewhat thinly and 
slightly broadened on apical two thirds, remaining three joints 
slender, terete, and subequal. 

Mesonotum smooth, shining, deeply impressed anteriorly along 
line of notauli, which are shallow posteriorly, coarsely crenulate, 
obsolete on middle of posterior depressed area in the center of 
which is a short, sharply cut, median furrow. Scutellum ante- 
riorly with two somewhat oblique and rather narrow foveas, the 
median separating carina fine and little raised, each fovea having 
two sharp rudiments of carina at posterior border. Metano- 
tum obscurely reticulate-rugose, the lanceolate median area with 
sharply raised margins, which are angulately broken where sev- 
eral transverse ruga? pass entirely through the median area; 
just below the oval metapleural spiracle passes a sharp, complete, 
longitudinal, sutural carina; meta- and mesopleura smooth and 
shining, the latter, on posterior half, with a median, oblique, 
deeply impressed furrow, which has a shallower, curved con- 
tinuation anteriorly, and below wing a broad, sharply depressed 
area, which extends downward and forward and is strongly 
cross striate. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, longer than head and thorax to- 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 389 

gether, and gradually widening to third and fourth segments; 
first segment very broad at base, basal width equal to three 
fourths of apical, the length one and one-half times the width 
at apex; second tergite slightly shorter than first, much wider 
at apex than at base, length and apical width subequal; third 
tergite much shorter than second and twice as wide as long; 
fourth, fifth, and sixth tergites subequal in length, together 
slightly shorter than third and successively narrower, seventh 
tergite very short, its hind margin slightly incurved, subangulate 
point of eighth a little exposed; all tergites coarsely, longitu- 
dinally striate, apically punctate-striate, the first two with a deli- 
cate median carina, the sculpturing on sixth obsolete apically; 
the second to fifth sutures strongly depressed and very coarsely 
crenulate. 

Stigma large, about five times as long as broad, broadest and 
subangulate at two fifths of length from base, at insertion of 
radius; first abscissa of radius less than half length of second; 
second cubital cell about twice as long as wide, first transverse 
cubital very oblique, second slightly so and decolored; recurrent 
vein joining cubitus a little before first transverse cubitus, the 
intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein inserted at lower third ; 
submedian cell considerably longer than median. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) benguetensis sp. nov. 

Head (except cheeks), thorax, and legs stramineous; abdo- 
men, cheeks, and antennae sordid ferruginous, the last paler 
basally, excepting scape; upper border of propleura narrowly 
brownish; hind tibiae brownish at extreme base. Wings very 
faintly smoky, basal vein and apical half of stigma darker. 

Male, length, 4.5 millimeters 

Head viewed from above transverse, with large, strongly 
rounded eyes, the distance between them equal to the distance 
from occipital carina to antennal sockets; vertex with a short 
outer border to each ocellus sharply depressed; its surface 
entirely, minutely roughened; vertex strongly narrowed back 
of eyes, the occipital carina rather short and strongly incurved ; 
length of vertex back of ocelli less than length of exposed cheek 
margin and about half length of ocellar area; ocelli very large 
and well separated, distance from ocelli to eyes subequal to 
interocellar distance and two thirds the long diameter of an 
ocellus, anterior ocellus slightly farther removed. 

Face to mouth longer than wide, considerably wider above, 



390 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

due to the emargination of the eyes, entirely, transversely rugose, 
less distinctly so along the median prominence, clypeus nearly 
smooth; mouth opening small, narrow, subcircular; clypeus 
small and narrow, basal suture high and narrowly arched; cly- 
peal pits large, distant from eyes about three times their dia- 
meter. Head viewed from side with face margin outcurved 
just below antennae, then straight to depressed clypeus; cheek 
narrow, one third width of eye, outer margin parallel with eye 
margin; malar space large, its length twice the width of cheek; 
eyes large, subelliptical. Maxillary palpi barely reaching tegulae, 
slender, terete; third and fourth joints longest, subequal, and 
each equaling fifth and sixth together ; labial palpi short, rather 
stout, last three joints subequal in length. 

Antennae subequal to entire body in length; scape very short 
and thick, scarcely longer than width at widest part and little 
narrowed proximad; funicle stout, more than half length of 
scape; middle flagellar joints about twice as long as wide. 

Mesonotum not distinctly trilobed, though long at middle, 
notauli superficial and fine, straight and rather widely separated 
posteriorly; surface of mesonotum rugulose-shagreened, poste- 
rior median area plane and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly bifo- 
veate, foveae separated by a high, sharp, median carina, each 
fovea crossed by several low longitudinal carinas; disk of 
scutellum shagreened. Metanotum coarsely, irregularly rugose 
and shagreened between the rugae, with a strong, entire, straight, 
median carina; metapleura shagreened on disk, strongly rugose 
toward borders ; spiracle small and circular and with a fine, sinu- 
ous, longitudinal, sutural carina passing beneath it; mesopleura 
shallowly rugose and shagreened, near anterior border with a 
broad, shallow, vertical depression, entire posterior half sud- 
denly, strongly depressed, this depressed area medially with a 
series of about five very strong oblique rugae, which are an- 
gulated at middle. 

Abdomen little longer than head and thorax together, sessile, 
subelliptical in outline, slightly broader apically, with four ter- 
gites and a part of fifth exposed, first four strongly sculptured, 
fifth more finely and differently sculptured; first tergite rapidly 
broadening caudad, its length subequal to apical width, its basal 
width little greater than half apical width; second tergite very 
broad, a little shorter than first, length little more than half 
apical width; third tergite broadest, three fourths length of 
second, its length much less than half apical width; fourth 
longer, but narrower than third ; first to third tergites coarsely, 
longitudinally striate and completely, medially carinate, the striae 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 391 

finer on third tergite ; fourth tergite, excepting posterior border, 
finely rugose; a narrowly rounded point only of fifth tergite 
visible from above; second suture subconnate and shallow but 
sharp, remaining sutures normal. 

Stigma small, its length about four times its width, radius 
inserted about two fifths from base; first abscissa of radius 
about half length of second; second cubital cell about twice as 
long as wide, slightly narrowed apically; both transverse cubiti 
a little oblique, the first more so, the second decolored ; recurrent 
vein entering first cubital cell a distance from apex little less 
than length of first abscissa of radius, intervening vein de- 
colored ; parallel vein inserted at lower fifth and suddenly, 
strongly curved before insertion ; submedian cell far longer than 
median; radial vein in hind wing obsolete; nervellus straight 
and slightly oblique. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker) . 

This well-marked species is unique in the structure of its 
mesopleura. 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) lateralis sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antennae pale piceous, a narrow piceo-ferru- 
ginous stripe extending from anterior portion of pronotum 
across propleura, beneath wings, to hind border of metanotum, 
continued along lateral border of first tergite and forming 
spots on lateral borders of second and third tergites; ovipositor 
sheath piceous and but slightly exceeding abdomen. Wings very 
faintly smoky, the veins darker, basal third of stigma decolored. 

Female, length, 3.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above thick and short-transverse with large 
prominent eyes, distance between eyes equal to distance from 
occipital carina to anterior ocellus; of vertex opaque and sha- 
greened, strongly narrowed back of eyes, occipital carina medially 
angulate ; length of vertex back of ocelli half again greater than 
length of exposed cheek margin and as long as entire ocellar area ; 
ocelli of medium size and separated rather more widely than 
usual, distance from ocelli to eyes less than interocellar distance 
and less than long diameter of an ocellus ; distance between hind 
ocelli equal to long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus 
slightly farther removed. 

Face to mouth longer than wide, as wide below as above, eye 
margins not strongly incurved below, with a short sharp carina 
just below antennse, the entire surface shagreened ; mouth open- 
ing very small, narrow, and subcircular; clypeus very narrow, 
basal suture very highly arched, making the length subequal 



392 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

to width; clypeal pits small, distant from eyes about five times 
their diameter. Mandibles very short, swollen at Jbase, outwardly 
roughened. Head viewed from side with face margin slightly 
elevated below antenna?, then straight to the nearly plane clypeus ; 
cheek very narrow, one fourth width of eye, outer margin parallel 
with eye margin ; malar space large, its length one and one-half 
times the width of cheek; eye very large, broadly elliptical, 
slightly narrower on lower fourth. Maxillary palpi reaching 
tegulse, slender and terete. 

Antennas subequal in length to entire body; scape short and 
thick, length somewhat greater than width at widest part, and 
slightly narrowed proximad ; f unicle little more than half length 
and width of scape; middle flagellar joints about twice as long 
as wide. 

Mesonotum obscurely trilobed, though long at middle, notauli 
very superficial, broad, and obscurely crenulate, rather widely 
separated posteriorly; surface of mesonotum shagreened, pos- 
terior median area plane and rugulose. Scutellar foveas ap- 
parently three, the median carina nearly obsolete, but with two 
distinct lateral carinas, thus forming one small median and two 
larger lateral foveas ; disk of scutellum shagreened. Metanotum 
coarsely, but shallowly, rugose and with a complete, but rather 
weak, median carina ; disk of metapleura anteriorly shagreened, 
posteriorly rugose ; mesopleura radiately rugose from above, and 
anteriorly with spiracle subcircular and with a continuous, sinu- 
ous, longitudinal, sutural carina passing beneath it; an irreg- 
ular sternopleural carina, a small area on disk below and 
posteriorly shagreened, but disk entirely without distinct groove 
or depression. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, broadened to third segment, remaining three visible seg- 
ments very rapidly shorter and narrower and smooth and shin- 
ing; first tergite rapidly broadened apically, length and apical 
width subequal, basal width more than half the apical width; 
second tergite slightly longer than first, its length little less 
than apical width; third tergite about three fourths as long as 
second, its length about half apical width; first and second ter- 
gites strongly, longitudinally striate, third less strongly so and 
apically with the striae strongly curved toward lateral margin, 
median apical border smooth ; a median carina on first and second 
tergites and on basal two thirds of third tergite ; second suture 
shallow, curved, and completely carinate, the striae continuous 
across it; remaining sutures normal. 

Stigma large and triangular, its length about three times 



xn, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 393 

its width, radius inserted at about the middle; first abscissa of 
radius less than half the length of second; second cubital cell 
about twice as long as wide, rather strongly narrowed apically 
and rather suddenly so just before apex ; first transverse cubitus 
oblique, second perpendicular and decolored ; recurrent vein enter- 
ing first cubital cell a distance from apex equal to first abscissa of 
radius, intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein inserted at lower 
fifth and broadly curved before insertion; submedian cell far 
longer than median ; radial vein in hind wing obsolete ; nervellus 
curved and oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) subquadratus sp. nov. 

Ferruginous; basal half of abdomen, legs, and palpi stramin- 
eous; antennas piceous at tips. Wings faintly smoky, stigma 
and veins darker, basal vein still darker. 

Male, length, 4 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above transverse, eyes large and prominent, 
distance between them equal to the distance from occipital carina 
to antennal sockets ; vertex opaque and shagreened, not strongly 
narrowed back of eyes, occipital carina evenly incurved; length 
of vertex back of ocelli less than length of the strongly rounded, 
exposed cheek margin and about half length of entire ocellar 
area ; ocelli large and well separated, distance from ocelli to eyes 
less than interocellar distance and less than long diameter of an 
ocellus; distance between hind ocelli equal to long diameter of 
an ocellus, anterior ocellus slightly farther removed. 

Face to mouth short, about as long as wide, eye margins 
below not strongly incurved, with a short, sharp carina just 
below antenna?, the entire surface shagreened; mouth opening 
narrow and subcircular; clypeus broad, basal suture broadly 
arched, making the length about half the width; clypeal pits 
small, distant from eyes about five times their diameter. Head 
viewed from side with face margin prominent below antennae, 
then straight to mouth ; cheek narrow, broader above than below, 
where it is one fourth the width of the eye; malar space of 
medium size, about as long as upper cheek width ; eye very large, 
broadly elliptical, somewhat narrowed on lower fourth. Maxil- 
lary palpi slender, terete, not reaching tegulse ; third and fourth 
joints subequal, fifth and sixth subequal and a little shorter than 
fourth. 

Antennas subequal to entire body in length; scape rather 
slender, strongly narrowed apically, the length one and one- 
half times the width at widest part; funicle slender, half the 



394 The Philippine Journal of Science wn 

length of scape, its length one and one-half times its width; 
middle flagellar joints a little less than twice as long as wide. 

Mesonotum obscurely trilobed, middle lobe rather short, notauli 
superficial, but more strongly impressed anteriorly and not 
widely separated posteriorly; surface of mesonotum rugulose- 
shagreened, posterior median area plane and strongly rugose. 
Scutellum anteriorly with six fovea?, separated by low, but equally 
distinct carinas; posterior disk of scutellum shagreened. Meta- 
notum very coarsely and heavily rugose and with a straight, 
entire, median carina; disk of metapleura entirely, coarsely 
rugose ; spiracle circular and with an irregularly sinuous, longitu- 
dinal, sutural carina passing beneath it ; disk of mesopleura and 
the lower border shagreened, broad anterior margin and 
median area rugose and passing posteriorly into a longitudinal 
depression. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, very 
broadly sessile, broadened to third segment, remaining segments, 
extended, as long as second and third segments together, smooth 
and shining and a little obscurely shagreened; first tergite very 
short, length two thirds of apical width, basal width subequal to 
length; second tergite slightly shorter than first, nearly rect- 
angular, length half apical width; third tergite nearly as long 
as second, its length a little less than half apical width; first 
and second tergites coarsely and very straight striate, some of 
the median striae on first tergite converging apically; third 
tergite more weakly striate on basal two thirds, apical third 
shagreened and shining; a strong, complete median carina on 
first and second tergites; second suture but slightly impressed, 
straight, broad, and completely connate, the stria? continuous 
across it; remaining sutures normal. 

Stigma very large, short, broad, and subtriangular, its width 
about half its length, radius inserted at middle; first abscissa 
of radius a little more than half length of second ; second cubital 
cell one and two-thirds times as long as broad, very slightly 
narrowed apically; first transverse cubitus oblique, second per- 
pendicular and decolored; recurrent vein entering first cubital 
cell a distance from apex a little less than length of first abscissa 
of radius, intervening vein decolored; parallel vein inserted at 
lower fifth and suddenly curved just below insertion ; submedian 
cell far longer than median; radial vein in hind wings subob- 
solete, rudiment at middle slightly curved toward costa ; nervellus 
straight and slightly oblique. 

Palawan, Puerto Princesa {Baker). 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine I chneumonoid Parasites, II 395 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) bicolor sp. nov. 

Ferruginous, hind tibise and tarsi darker; antennae, metano- 
tum, and a large part of first three tergites (excepting a median 
spot on second) piceous. Wings rather strongly suffused with 
a smoky tinge, veins dark-colored, basal third of stigma pale. 

Male, length, 5.75 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above transverse, broad behind the eyes; 
eyes of medium size, distance between them about equal to the 
distance from occipital carina to anterior ocellus ; vertex opaque 
and shagreened; occipital carina rather suddenly incurved at 
middle; length of vertex back of ocelli distinctly greater than 
length of the oblique exposed cheek margin and slightly greater 
than the length of entire ocellar area; ocelli large, rather close, 
distance from ocelli to eyes slightly more than interocellar dis- 
tance, but less than long diameter of an ocellus ; distance between 
hind ocelli much less than long diameter of an ocellus ; anterior 
ocellus slightly farther removed. 

Face to. mouth about as long as wide, eye margins below not 
strongly incurved, very shortly, medially, umbo-carinate just 
below antenna?, surface shagreened and shallowly, transversely 
wrinkled above; mouth opening subelliptical and small; clypeus 
large, strongly swollen, basal suture highly arched, length and 
width subequal; clypeal pits small, distant from eyes about 
five times their diameter. Head viewed from side with face 
sharply prominent below antennse, and clypeus very prominent; 
cheek broad, a little less than half the diameter of eye, through- 
out most of its length with outer margin parallel to eye margin ; 
malar space rather small, about as long as width of cheek; eye 
large, broadly subelliptical, slightly broader on lower half. Max- 
illary palpi slender, terete, not reaching tegulse ; third and fourth 
joints subequal; fifth and sixth subequal and shorter than 
fourth. 

Antennse subequal to entire body in length; scape broad, 
not at all narrowed apically, its length about one and one-half 
times the width at apex ; f unicle very short and broad, less than 
half length of scape; length of middle flagellar joints about 
one and one-half times the width. 

Mesonotum obscurely trilobed, middle lobe short, notauli 
shallow anteriorly, but deep, broad, and strongly converging 
posteriorly; surface shagreened, lateral lobes posteriorly, ob- 
scurely, transversely rugulose, posterior median area plane 
and strongly rugose. Scutellum anteriorly with six small equal 
fovese, the low separating carina? not complete anteriorly; 



396 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

posterior disk of scutellum shagreened. Metanotum very 
coarsely and heavily rugose and with a strong and continuous, 
but irregular median carina; disk of metapleura shagreened; 
spiracle circular and with a fine, nearly straight, longitudinal 
sutural carina passing beneath it ; disk of mesopleura posteriorly 
shagreened, anteriorly rugose, and medially a little depressed, 
this depression is continued posteriorly in two widely diverging 
impressed lines. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, broadened to third segment; remaining segments, ex- 
tended, as long as second and third together, smooth, obscurely 
shagreened, and shining; first tergite longer than its apical 
width, basal width a little greater than one half of apical width ; 
second tergite about as long as first, slightly broadened apically, 
length subequal to apical width; third tergite about two thirds 
the length of second and subequal to one half the apical width; 
first and second tergites coarsely and very straight striate, some 
cf the median striae on first tergite converging apically; third 
tergite more weakly striate on basal two thirds, apical third 
shagreened and shining; a strong, complete median carina on 
first and second tergites and on basal two thirds of third tergite ; 
second suture broadly and strongly impressed, curved, and com- 
pletely connate, the striae continuous across it ; remaining sutures 
normal. 

Stigma of medium size, its length about five times its width, 
radius inserted at two fifths of the length from base; first 
abscissa of radius two thirds length of second; second cubital 
cell one and two-thirds times as long as broad, gradually nar- 
rowed apically; first transverse cubitus slightly oblique, second 
perpendicular, both decolored ; recurrent vein entering first cubit- 
al cell a distance from apex a little less than length of first 
abscissa of radius, but equaling second transverse cubitus, in- 
tervening vein decolored; parallel vein inserted at lower fifth 
and broadly curved before insertion; submedian cell far longer 
than median ; radial vein in hind wings subobsolete and straight, 
nervellus nearly vertical and curved. 

Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (Baker). 
Rhogas melanosoma Ashmead. 

Rhogas melaiwsoma Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 970. 

Male. — Length 4.5 mm. Head and thorax brownish yellow, the ocelli 
pale and placed on a black spot, the eyes black; the antennas, except the 
first two joints, a spot at apex of the middle and hind femora, more or less 
of the base and apex of the hind tibia?, the hind tarsi, and the whole dorsum 
of the abdomen, are black. The abdomen is rugulose, the first, second, 



xii. d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 397 

and third segments with a median longitudinal carina, that on the third 
subobsolete. Wings hyaline, the stigma and veins brown. 

Type.— Cat. No. 8321, U.S.N.M. 

Manila. (Father Brown.) 

This species will remain unrecognizable until it has been 
properly described. Its present position among the known 
species is purely conjectural. Coloration alone does not furnish 
safe diagnostic characters in this genus, especially in the sub- 
genus Aleiodes, to which this species may pertain. 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) mimicus sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antennae ferruginous, darker apically; upper 
borders of pro- and mesopleurse piceous; abdomen ferruginous, 
with broad lateral borders of basal half of first segment piceous. 

Male, length, 3.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above transverse, strongly narrowed be- 
hind eyes; eyes large and prominent, distance between them 
about equal to distance from occipital carina to antennal sockets ; 
vertex opaque and shagreened; occipital carina angulate at 
middle ; length of vertex back of ocelli greater than length of the 
oblique, exposed cheek margin and subequal to length of entire 
ocellar area; ocelli of medium size, distance from ocelli to eyes 
somewhat greater than interocellar distance and subequal to the 
long diameter of an ocellus; distance between posterior ocelli 
much less than the long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus 
distinctly farther removed. 

Face to mouth a little longer than wide, eye margins below 
more strongly retreating than above, surface shagreened and 
slightly elevated medially; mouth opening small, subcircular; 
clypeus narrow, a little swollen, basal suture highly arched, its 
length slightly greater than its width; clypeal pits distant from 
eyes about four times their diameter. Head viewed from side 
with face above and clypeus very slightly prominent; cheek 
narrow, about one fourth diameter of eye, its outer margin 
parallel to eye margin; malar space rather small, its length 
greater than width of cheek; eye large, broadly subelliptical, 
slightly broader on lower half. Maxillary palpi slender, terete, 
not reaching tegulse ; third and fourth joints subequal, fifth and 
sixth subequal and shorter than fourth. 

Antennae distinctly longer than body, scape short and very 
broad apically, length but slightly greater than apical width; 
funicle more than half length of scape and strongly narrowed 
apically; length of middle flagellar joints three times the width. 

Mesonotum scarcely trilobate, middle lobe narrowly, but not 



398 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

greatly, extended cephalad, notauli very shallow and not strongly 
converging posteriorly; surface shagreened, posterior median 
area plane and ruguiose. Scutellum anteriorly with six small 
foveas, median carina much stronger than the others; posterior 
disk of scutellum shagreened. Metanotum shallowly rugose and 
and with a strong complete median carina; disk of metapleura 
rugose; spiracle ovate and with an unusually straight, longitu- 
dinal, sutural carina passing beneath it; disk of mesopleura ir- 
regularly rugose and with a broad, oblique, rugose depression 
below. 

Abdomen slightly shorter than head and thorax together, 
sessile, broadest on second and third segments, remaining seg- 
ments, extended, as long as third segment and one half of second 
segment together, smooth, shagreened, and shining ; first tergite 
longer than its apical width, basal width slightly greater than 
half the apical; second tergite slightly shorter than first, little 
broadened apically, length three fourths of apical width; third 
tergite about three fourths the length of second, its length sub- 
equal to half its apical width; first, second, and third tergites 
coarsely, but shallowly and completely, longitudinally striate; 
second suture broadly curved, strongly and broadly impressed, 
and not connate; remaining sutures normal; a strong median 
carina on first and second tergites and on basal three fourths 
of third. 

Stigma of medium size, its length about five times its width, 
radius inserted slightly before the middle; first abscissa of 
radius two thirds length of second; second cubital cell one and 
one-half times as long as broad, gradually narrowed apically; 
first transverse cubitus oblique, second perpendicular and de- 
colored ; recurrent vein entering first cubital cell a distance from 
apex a little less than length of first abscissa of radius, but equal- 
ing second transverse cubitus, intervening vein decolored ; parallel 
vein inserted at lower fourth and broadly curved before inser- 
tion; submedian cell much longer than median; radial vein in 
hind wings entirely obsolete; nervellus straight, oblique, and 
slightly swollen at middle. 
Mindanao, Agusan, Butuan {Baker). 

Ehogas (Aleiodes) simillimus sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antennas slightly darker apically; on each side 
of body a straight, narrow, piceous stripe, running from apex 
of pronotum to end of lateral margin of first tergite, passing 
beneath wings and along lateral margins of metanotum. Wings 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine rchneumonoid Parasites, II 399 

with very slight smoky suffusion, stigma and veins very pale. 

Male, length, 3.25 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above rather narrow, thick transverse, 
strongly narrowed behind eyes; eyes large, but not prominent, 
distance between them equal to distance from occipital carina to 
front margin of ocellar area ; vertex opaque, shagreened ; occipital 
carina shallowly angulate at middle; length of vertex back of 
ocelli greater than length of the oblique, exposed cheek margin 
and slightly longer than entire ocellar area ; ocelli small, distance 
from ocelli to eyes greater than interocellar distance and greater 
than long diameter of an ocellus; distance between hind ocelli 
slightly less than long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus 
scarcely farther removed. 

Face to mouth about as long as wide, eye margins evenly 
incurved, with a short raised carina just below antennaa, surface 
obscurely, transversely wrinkled; mouth opening rather broad 
and subelliptical ; clypeus transverse and swollen, basal suture 
broadly arched, length less than width ; clypeal pits distant from 
eyes about five times their diameter. Head viewed from side 
with face, above, flatly prominent and clypeus very prominent; 
cheek broad, nearly half width of eye, outer margin in large 
part parallel to eye margin ; malar space rather large, its length 
greater than width of cheek; eye of medium size, broad, sub- 
elliptical, a little narrowed on lower fourth. Maxillary palpi 
slender, terete, reaching tegulse; third and fourth joints, subequal, 
fifth and sixth subequal and shorter than fourth. 

Antennae a little longer than entire body; scape short and 
very broad apically, length subequal to apical width; funicle 
large, more than half length of scape, narrowed apically ; length 
of middle flagellar joints three times the width. 

Mesonotum scarcely trilobate, middle lobe but little extended 
cephalad, notauli broad, rather strongly impressed and cren- 
ulate ; surface rugulose-shagreened, posterior median area plane 
and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly with two large fovea? separated 
by a strong carina, each fovea being divided by two very 
rudimentary carinas; posterior disk of scutellum shagreened. 
Metanotum very coarsely and strongly rugose, basally with a 
distinct median carina, which apically becomes lost among the 
heavy rugae; disk of metapleura rugulose; spiracle circular, a 
very irregular and incomplete, longitudinal, sutural carina pas- 
sing beneath it ; mesopleura rugulose, with an oblique depression 
on lower half and an irregular median carina on posterior half. 

Abdomen slightly shorter than head and thorax together, 



400 The Philippine Journal of Science mm 

sessile, broadest on third segment, remaining segments entirely- 
retracted; first tergite longer than its apical width, basal width 
slightly greater than half apical; second tergite subequal to 
first in length, distinctly broadened apically, length subequal to 
apical width ; third tergite but little shorter than second, its 
length greater than half apical width; first, second, and third 
tergites coarsely, but shallowly and completely, longitudinally 
striate ; second suture broad, curved, deeply impressed, and sub- 
connate; a strong median carina on first and second tergites 
and on basal half of third. 

Stigma large, its length about four times its width, radius 
inserted at two fifths of the length from base; first abscissa 
of radius two thirds the length of the second; second cubital 
cell very short, subquadrate, about one fourth longer than broad, 
not narrowed apically; first transverse cubitus slightly oblique, 
second nearly perpendicular and decolored ; recurrent vein enter- 
ing first cubital cell a distance from apex equaling first abscissa 
of radius, intervening vein decolored; parallel vein inserted at 
lower fourth and broadly curved before insertion; submedian 
cell far longer than median; radial vein in hind wings nearly 
obsolete; nervellus curved and nearly vertical. 

Mindanao, Misamis, Iligan {Baker). 

This species presents a remarkable resemblance, superficially, 
to Rhogas mimicus sp. nov., but is distinct in structural 
characters. 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) modestns sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous; legs stramineous, all tarsi and apical half 
of hind femora pale ferruginous; spots on upper border of 
propleura, beneath wings, sides of postscutellum, and sides of 
first tergite at base piceous. 

Female, length, 5.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above broadly transverse, strongly nar- 
rowed behind eyes, which are large and very prominent, distance 
between them equaling distance from occipital carina to an- 
tennal sockets ; vertex roughly and thickly shagreened ; occipital 
carina angulate at middle ; length of vertex back of ocelli much 
greater than the very oblique, exposed cheek margins and dis- 
tinctly longer than entire ocellar area ; ocelli small, distance from 
ocelli to eyes . greater than interocellar distance, but little less 
than long diameter of an ocellus; distance between hind ocelli 
much less than long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus not 
farther removed. 

Face to mouth as wide as long, eye margins evenly incurved, 



xii, d. 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 401 

very shortly, medially, umbo-carinate below antennae, surface 
transversely wrinkled; mouth opening small, subcircular; cly- 
peus narrow, as long as wide, basal suture highly arched; 
clypeal pits distant from eyes five times their diameter. Head 
viewed from side broadly curved from antennas to mouth, clypeus 
little swollen; cheek narrower above than below where it is 
about one third the diameter of eye; malar space large, its 
length nearly twice lower width of cheek; eye very large, very 
broadly, bluntly elliptical, a little narrower on lower half. 
Maxillary palpi slender, terete, reaching tegulse; fourth joint 
distinctly longer than third, fifth and sixth subequal and slightly 
shorter than third. 

Antennas a little longer than entire body ; scape broad apically, 
length greater than apical width; funicle very short and broad, 
about one half length of scape ; length of middle flagellar joints 
one and one-half times width. 

Mesonotum scarcely trilobate, middle lobe but little extended, 
notauli superficial, but little impressed, and quite widely separ- 
ated posteriorly, surface roughly and thickly shagreened, pos- 
terior median area plane and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly with 
six small equal foveas; posterior disk shagreened. Metanotum 
very coarsely and strongly rugose, and with a strong, straight, 
complete, median carina ; metapleura shagreened on disk, rugose 
posteriorly; spiracle large and circular, with an evenly curved, 
longitudinal, sutural carina passing beneath it; mesopleura 
shagreened above and there with a vertical sharply impressed 
line, anteriorly and below coarsely rugose along a broad longi- 
tudinal impression. 

Abdomen- as long as head and thorax together, sessile, broadest 
on third segment, remaining segments progressively shorter 
and together about as long as third segment ; first tergite slightly 
longer than its apical width; basal width a little greater than 
half apical ; second tergite shorter than first, but little broadened 
apically, length slightly less than apical width; third tergite 
three fourths length of second, its length subequal to half apical 
width; first and second tergites coarsely, straight striate, third 
completely, but more finely so, striae on latter apically, strongly 
curving toward lateral borders ;" remaining segments obscurely 
shagreened and smooth and shining; second suture straight, 
narrowly impressed, and connate; a strong median carina on 
first and second tergites and less strongly extending to two 
thirds of third tergite. 

Stigma large, four times as long as wide, radius inserted 

150932 i 



402 The Philippine Journal of Science wn 

at middle; first abscissa of radius a little more than half length 
of second; second cubital cell nearly twice as long as wide, a 
little narrowed apically; first transverse cubitus oblique, second 
perpendicular and decolored ; recurrent vein entering first cubital 
cell a distance from apex equal to three fourths the length of the 
first abscissa of radius; parallel vein inserted at lower fifth 
and curved just before insertion; submedian cell much longer 
than median ; radial vein in hind wings almost obsolete, the rudi- 
ment straight; nervellus straight and oblique. 
Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos, (Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) separatus sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antenna?, a narrow lateral stripe passing from 
pronotum to lateral borders of metanotum, lateral borders of 
first and second tergites, a spot on lateral borders of third tergite, 
and entire fourth tergite ferruginous. Wings faintly smoky, 
veins dark smoky, first abscissa of radius and basal vein darker ; 
basal half of stigma paler. 

Male, length, 4.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above narrow and thick transverse, very 
strongly narrowed behind eyes, which are of medium size and 
prominent, distance between them a little greater than distance 
from occipital carina to fore margin of ocellar area ; vertex 
opaque and thickly shagreened ; occipital carina short and nearly 
straight; length of vertex back of ocelli subequal in length to 
the very long and very oblique exposed cheek margin and 'sub- 
equal in length to entire ocellar area; ocelli of medium size, 
distance from ocelli to eyes a little greater than interocellar 
distance and subequal to the long diameter of an ocellus ; distance 
between hind ocelli less than long diameter of an ocellus, anterior 
ocellus a little farther removed. 

Face to mouth longer than wide, eye margins rather strongly 
incurved below, a little medially elevated below antenna?, mid- 
lateral area? depressed, surface shagreened ; mouth opening small, 
subcircular; clypeus rather broad, nearly as long as wide, basal 
suture highly arched ; clypeal pits distant from eyes three times 
their diameter. Head viewed from side with face margin 
nearly evenly curved from antenna? to mouth, clypeus but 
slightly prominent; cheek one third diameter of eye, outer mar- 
gin parallel to eye margin; malar space large, its length one 
and one-half times the width of cheek; eye of medium size, 
broadly subelliptical ; maxillary palpi slender, terete, not reach- 
ing tegula?, third joint stout, fourth a little longer, third, fifth, 
and sixth subequal. 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneiimonoid Parasites, II 403 

Antennae a little longer than body; scape broad apically, its 
length but little greater than apical width; funicle very broad 
at base, narrowed apically, about half length of scape; length 
of middle flagellar joints about three times the width. 

Mesonotum obscurely trilobed, middle lobe rather broadly ex- 
tended, notauli broad and strongly impressed anteriorly, widely 
separated posteriorly, surface roughly and thickly shagreened, 
posterior median area plane and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly 
with six small foveae, separating caringe equally strong; poste- 
rior disk of scutellum shagreened. Metanotum shallowly, but 
thickly, rugose with a well-defined median carina on basal half; 
metapleura rugose ; spiracle circular with a nearly straight, longi- 
tudinal, sutural carina passing beneath it; mesopleura rugose, 
below on posterior two thirds with an oblique depression in which 
the rugae are stronger. 

Abdomen a little longer than head and thorax together, sessile, 
broadest on third segment, remaining segments fully exserted, 
rapidly narrowing, together as long as third and one half of 
second; first tergite longer than its apical width, basal width 
two thirds of apical; second tergite about as long as first, but 
little broadened apically, length greater than apical width ; third 
tergite about three fourths length of second, its length about 
two thirds apical width; first, second, and third tergites com- 
pletely, coarsely, irregularly striate and with a complete median 
carina, striae on third segment slightly diverging apically; sec- 
ond suture broad, straight, deeply impressed, and subconnate. 

Stigma of medium size, five times as long as wide, radius 
inserted at middle; first abscissa of radius three fourths length 
of second ; second cubital cell one and two-thirds times as long as 
wide, a little narrowed apically ; first transverse cubitus oblique, 
second perpendicular and decolored ; recurrent vein entering first 
cubital cell a distance from apex equal to three fourths length 
of first abscissa of radius and greater than length of second 
transverse cubitus; parallel vein inserted at lower fourth and 
very broadly curved before insertion ; submedian cell much longer 
than median; radial vein in hind wings obsolete; nervellus 
straight and oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (Baker), 

Rhogas (Aleiodes) banksi sp. nov. 

Stramineous; antennae ferruginous; on either side of body 
a narrow piceous stripe, passing from pronotum beneath wings, 
along lateral margins of metanotum and first tergite, and end- 
ing at middle of lateral borders of second tergite. 



404 The Philippine Journal of Science m7 

Male, length, 4.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above transverse, broad behind the eyes, 
which are of medium size and prominent, distance between them 
equaling distance from occipital carina to fore margin of ocellar 
area; vertex opaque and roughly, thickly shagreened; occipital 
carina long, strongly incurved at middle; length of vertex back 
of ocelli nearly twice the length of the very short, oblique, 
exposed cheek margin and as long as entire ocellar area ; ocelli of 
medium size, distance from ocelli to eyes subequal to interocellar 
distance and less than long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus 
not farther removed. 

Face to mouth a little longer than wide, eye margins not 
strongly incurved below, with a rather strong median carina 
extending halfway to clypeus, the surface shagreened, trans- 
versely wrinkled on upper half; mouth opening small, sub- 
elliptical; clypeus large, nearly as long as broad, basal suture 
subobsolete; clypeal pits large, distant from eyes about four 
times their diameter. Head viewed from side with face margin 
flatly prominent below antennse, then straight to mouth, clypeus 
not swollen; cheek narrow, about one fourth diameter of eye, 
outer margin subparallel to eye margin; malar space large, its 
length twice the width of cheek ; eye large, broadly, bluntly sub- 
elliptical. Maxillary palpi slender, terete, reaching tegulse ; third 
joint stout, fourth a little longer, fifth and sixth joints subequal 
and slightly shorter than third. 

Antennse as long as body; scape broadened apically, length 
one and one half times the apical width; funicle longer than 
broad and very little narrowed apically; more than one half 
length of scape; length of middle flagellar joints three times 
the width. 

Mesonotum rather strongly trilobed, middle lobe broadly ex- 
tended, notauli broad, deeply impressed and crenulate, but 
stronger posteriorly than anteriorly and posteriorly widely 
separated ; surface finely shagreened, posterior median area plane 
and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly with two large fovese, each 
subdivided by two low, incomplete carinae; posterior disk of 
scutellum shagreened. Metanotum rather finely, shallowly ru- 
gose, with a complete median carina; disk of metapleura sha- 
greened; spiracle ovate, with a strong, sinuous, longitudinal, 
sutural carina passing beneath it; disk of mesopleura shallowly 
rugose and with a very broad, shallow depression, extending 
from beneath forewings to lower posterior angle. 

Abdomen as long as head and thorax together, broadest on 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 405 

third segment, remaining segments exserted and together as 
long as second segment ; first tergite longer than its apical width, 
basal width two thirds of apical; second tergite a little shorter 
than first, a little broadened apically, length subequal to apical 
width; third tergite nearly three fourths length of second, its 
length two thirds of apical width; first, second, and third ter- 
gites completely, coarsely, straight striate and with a complete 
median carina, striae on second and third tergites slightly diverg- 
ing caudad; second suture curved, gradually impressed, and 
subconnate. 

Stigma of medium size, five times as long as wide, radius 
inserted at two fifths of the length from base; first abscissa of 
radius three fourths length of second ; second cubital cell nearly 
twice as long as wide, narrowed apically ; first transverse cubitus 
oblique, second nearly perpendicular and decolored; recurrent 
vein entering first cubital cell a distance from apex equal to three 
fourths length of first abscissa of radius and subequal to second 
transverse cubitus; parallel vein inserted at lower fifth and 
curved just before insertion; submedian cell far longer than 
median; radius in hind wings obsolete; nervellus straight and 
nearly vertical. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Bake?-). 

Named for Charles S. Banks, associate professor of entomol- 
ogy in the College of Agriculture, Los Banos, P. L, formerly 
entomologist in the Bureau of Science, in Manila. 

Subgenus Rhogas Nees 

Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . Median lobe of mesonotum with "an evident, though weak, median carina; 

submedian cell exceeding median by the length of the transverse median 

vein. 

b l . Median lobe of mesonotum shagreened and sparsely punctate; third 

abdominal tergite striate only at base and with a very short median 

carina; hind tibial spurs unusually long in the female. 

brownil sp. nov. 
b 3 . Median lobe of mesonotum thickly punctate; third tergite striate 
throughout and without a discernible median carina. 

sanchezi sp. nov. 

a". Median lobe of mesonotum without median carina and finely, thickly, 

irregularly, roughly wrinkled; third tergite sculptured and carinate 

to three fourths of its length; submedian cell exceeding median by 

much more than the length of the transverse median vein. 

luzonensis sp. nov. 
Rhogas (Rhogas) brownii sp. nov. 

Black; first tergite, broad basal portion of second tergite, 



406 The Philippine Journal of Science m? 

fore and mid coxae, fore and mid femora except tips, hind coxae, 
and basal half of hind femora bright ferruginous; fore and 
mid tibia? and tarsi piceous ; basal third of hind tibiae and hind 
tarsi, excepting last joint, whitish; antennae black with a narrow 
whitish band following middle; wings faintly smoky, veins 
brown, a yellowish mark at costal end of basal vein ; ovipositor 
very short, little exceeding apex of abdomen ; hypopygium small 
and shallow. 

Female, length, 8 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above broadly transverse, strongly nar- 
rowed back of eyes, which large and prominent, distance between 
eyes subequal to distance from occipital carina to antennal sock- 
ets ; entire surface closely, coarsely rugose ; ocellar area laterally 
bordered by a very short crenulate groove ; occipital carina very 
strongly incurved at middle ; length of vertex back of ocelli less 
than length of the strongly oblique, exposed cheek margin and 
subequal to length of entire ocellar area; ocelli small, distance 
from ocelli to eyes greater than interocellar distance and one 
and one-half times the long diameter of an ocellus, anterior 
ocellus farther removed. 

Face to mouth broader than long, strongly, coarsely, trans- 
versely wrinkled throughout (excepting clypeus), with a strong, 
elevated median carina on basal half; mouth opening large and 
subcircular; clypeus large, coarsely punctate, broader than long, 
basal suture broadly curved and strongly impressed; clypeal 
pits distant from eyes about four times their diameter. Head 
viewed from side with face margin strongly prominent below 
antennae for half its length, clypeus suddenly and strongly prom- 
inent; cheek coarsely, transversely wrinkled, very broad, much 
broader below than above, width at middle about half width of 
eye; malar space of large size, its length greater than lower 
width of cheek; eye of medium size, elliptical. Maxillary palpi 
slender, terete, nearly reaching tegulae; fourth joint longest, 
basal joint piceous, remainder stramineous. 

Antennae about as long as entire body; scape broad through- 
out, suddenly narrowed at base, length one and one-half times 
apical width; funicle about half length of scape and narrowed 
to apex; middle flagellar joints about one and one-half times 
as long as wide. 

Mesonotum trilobed, middle lobe broadly extended with a low, 
but clearly defined, median carina; surface shagreened and 
sparsely punctate, notauli very strong and deep, crenulate, 
strongly converging posteriorly, where they are outwardly mar- 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine I chneumonoid Parasites, II 407 

gined by a crenulated furrow, which continues laterally along 
hind margin of mesonotum; posterior median area with a few 
low, irregular, longitudinal rugse, which leave two lateral, irreg- 
ular, elongate, shallow f ovese. Metanotum very strongly, coarse- 
ly, and irregularly reticulate-rugose and with a complete, but 
wavy, median carina ; metapleura punctate-rugose ; spiracle large, 
circular, and with a very sinuous, longitudinal, sutural carina 
passing below it; mesopleura rugose, with a large median area 
smooth, shining, very sparsely punctate, and crossed obliquely 
from behind forward and downward by a shallow depression. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, slightly longer than head and thorax 
together, widest at apex of second segment, fourth and following 
segments but little exerted, together shorter than third segment ; 
first tergite with length greater than apical width, basal width 
two thirds of apical ; second tergite as long as first, little widen- 
ing apically, sides straight, length subequal to apical width, 
without depressions along basal border; third tergite about 
three fourths length of second and slightly narrowed ; remaining 
tergites rapidly narrower and smooth and shining; first and 
second tergites very coarsely, strongly, irregularly, longitudinally 
rugose, basal half of third tergite more finely so, apical half 
of third shining, sparsely punctate, and obsoletely shagreened; 
first and second tergites with a very strong median carina, a 
weaker carina on basal third of third tergite; second suture 
straight, broadly depressed", crenulate, and subconnate. 

Stigma large, about five times as long as wide, radius inserted 
near the middle; first abscissa of radius about half length of 
second; second cubital cell about one and one-half times as 
long as wide, slightly narrowed apically ; first transverse cubitus 
a little oblique, second perpendicular ; recurrent vein inserted in 
first cubital cell a distance from apex about equaling first abscissa 
of radius, intervening vein somewhat swollen; parallel vein 
inserted at lower sixth, broadly curved before insertion; sub- 
median cell exceeding median by the length of the oblique, 
transverse median vein; radius in hind wings weak, straight; 
nervellus curved and a little oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao (Baker) . 

The male of this species is slightly smaller than the female; 
the second tergite is all black, and there is a black spot at the 
center of the first tergite. The hind tibial spurs are shorter 
than in the female. 

This species is named for Rev. Robert Brown, S. J., formerly 



408 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

connected with the Weather Bureau in Manila, and who did pioner 
work on the hymenopterous parasites of the Philippines. 

Rhogas (Rhogas) sanchezi sp. nov. 

Black ; first tergite, narrow basal portion of. second tergite, 
fore and middle legs, hind coxae, and basal half of hind femora 
ferruginous ; hind tibiae piceous, pale at base ; hind tarsi whitish, 
except last joint. Antennae black, a narrow white band at 
middle. Wings faintly smoky, veins brownish. 

Male, length, 5.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above thick transverse, narrowed back of 
eyes, which are large and prominent, distance between eyes sub- 
equal to distance from occipital carina to antennal sockets ; entire 
surface punctate-rugose, the rugae carried forward between eyes 
and ocelli; ocellar area bordered by a narrow, complete, im- 
pressed groove, which is broader and crenulate at the sides; 
occipital carina broadly incurved ; length of vertex back of ocelli 
slightly less than length of entire ocellar area; ocelli small, 
distance from ocelli to eyes much greater than interocellar dis- 
tance and little greater than long diameter of an ocellus, anterior 
ocellus farther removed. 

Face to mouth broader than long, strongly, coarsely, trans- 
versely wrinkled throughout (excepting clypeus), with a strong, 
elevated, median carina on basal half; mouth opening large, 
subcircular; clypeus large, coarsely punctate, broader than long, 
basal suture broadly curved and strongly impressed ; clypeal pits 
distant from eyes four times their diameter. Head viewed from 
side with face margin broadly curved above, clypeus slightly 
prominent ; cheek closely, finely wrinkled above, punctate below, 
very broad, much broader below than above, width at middle 
about half width of eye; malar space large, its length greater 
than lower width of cheek ; eye of medium size, elliptical. Max- 
illary palpi with third and fourth joints stouter and piceous, 
the latter being the longest. 

Antennae about as long as entire body; scape broad through- 
out, length one and one-half times apical width; funicle abcut 
half length of scape, narrowed apically ; length of middle flagellar 
joints one and one-half times the width. 

Mesonotum trilobed, middle lobe very broadly extended and 
with a very weak median carina, surface thickly, roughly punc- 
tate, lateral lobes more sparsely punctate and shagreened, notauli 
very strong and deep, crenulate, strongly converging posteriorly, 
where they are outwardly margined by a crenulated furrow, 
which continues laterally along hind margin of mesonotum ; pos- 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 409 

terior median area plane and coarsely rugose. Scutellum ante- 
riorly with two large fovese, separated by a sharp carina, each 
fovea within having several low irregular rugae; posterior disk 
of scutellum punctate. Metanotum very strongly, coarsely, irreg- 
ularly rugose, and with a nearly straight, complete, median 
carina; disk of metapleura coarsely punctate, behind coarsely 
rugose; spiracle subcircular and with a sinuous, longitudinal, 
sutural carina passing beneath it; mesopleura very coarsely, 
irregularly rugose anteriorly, posteriorly shining, sparsely punc- 
tate, and with an oblique, shallow depression, passing downward 
and forward. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, slightly longer than head and thorax 
together, widest at apex of second segment, fourth and following 
segments but very little exserted, together shorter than third 
segment; length of first tergite greater than its apical width, 
basal width two thirds of apical ; second tergite as long as first, 
little widening apically, sides straight, length subequal to apical 
width, without depressions along basal border; third tergite 
about three fourths length of second and slightly narrower; re- 
maining tergites very rapidly narrower and smooth and shining ; 
first and second tergites very coarsely, strongly, irregularly, 
longitudinally striate, third tergite finely, thickly, and completely 
striate ; first and second tergites with a strong, straight, median 
carina, but no carina discernible on third ; second suture narrow, 
sharply impressed, minutely crenulate, and subconnate. 

Stigma large, about five times as long as wide, radius inserted 
at two fifths of length from base; first abscissa of radius about 
one third length of second ; second cubital cell about o.ne and 
one-half times as long as wide, slightly narrowed apically; first 
transverse cubitus a little oblique, second very slightly oblique; 
recurrent vein inserted in first cubital cell a distance from apex 
a little less than length of first abscissa of radius and about half 
the length of second transverse cubital, intervening vein not 
swollen; parallel vein inserted at lower third, broadly curved 
before insertion ; submedian cell exceeding median by the length 
of the oblique transverse median vein ; radius in hind wings very 
weak and straight; nervellus curved and a little oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

This species is very close to Rhogas brownii sp. nov. in general 
appearance, but is distinct in various important structural 
characters. 

Named for Rev. Francisco de P. Sanchez, S. J., of the Ateneo 
de Manila, who came to the Philippine Islands fifty years ago 
and is still an enthusiastic naturalist. 



410 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

Rhogas (Rhogas) luzonensis sp. nov. 

Black ; head below eyes, narrow complete orbits, apex of meta- 
thorax, first two segments of abdomen, and legs (paler apically) 
ferruginous; basal third of antennae piceous, remainder much 
paler. Wings quite distinctly suffused with a smoky tinge, veins 
brownish, darker on basal half of wing, the basal third of stigma 
paler. Hypopygium small and shallow; ovipositor but little ex- 
ceeding apex of abdomen. 

Female, length, 7 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above thick transverse, narrowed back of 
eyes, eyes large and prominent, distance between them equal 
to the distance from occipital carina to anterior ocellus; 
surface anteriorly shagreened, posteriorly becoming transversely, 
rough wrinkled ; ocellar area bordered laterally by a short, 
narrow, impressed groove; occipital carina a little incurved at 
middle; length of vertex back of ocelli greater than length of 
entire ocellar area; ocelli small, distance from ocelli to eye3 
subequal to interocellar distance and less than the long diameter 
of an ocellus, anterior ocellus not farther removed. 

Face to mouth broader than long, transversely, reticulately 
wrinkled (clypeus smoother), with a strong, elevated, median 
carina, extending three fourths of length; mouth opening small, 
subcircular ; clypeus large, much broader than long, basal suture 
broadly curved and sharply impressed ; clypeal pits distant from 
eyes five times their diameter. Head viewed from side with face 
margin broadly curved above, clypeus a little prominent; cheek 
roughly shagreened, very broad, at middle half the diameter of 
eye ; malar space very large, its length greater than lower width 
of cheek; eye of medium size, broadly elliptical. Maxillary 
palpi stramineous, with third joint stouter and slightly longer 
than fourth, fifth joint distinctly longer than sixth. 

Antennae about as long as entire body, the scape broad at 
apex, its length about one and one-half times the width at apex ; 
funicle about half as long as the scape, little narrowed apically; 
length of middle flagellar joints about one and one-half times 
the width. 

Mesonotum trilobed, middle lobe broadly extended, without 
median carina, surface finely, thickly, irregularly, roughly 
wrinkled throughout; notauli broad, strongly impressed, and 
strongly converging posteriorly; posterior median area plane 
and rugose. Scutellum anteriorly with four f oveae, the two outer 
larger, separated by high and equally strong carinae; posterior 
disk of scutellum shagreened. Metanotum coarsely, shallowly, 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 411 

irregularly rugose and with a strong and complete, but very 
wavy, median carina; disk of metapleura anteriorly, roughly 
shagreened, posteriorly rugose; spiracle subcircular, the sinuous 
longitudinal,- sutural carina passing beneath it; mesopleura 
rugose throughout and with a sharply and deeply impressed line 
extending downward from middle of hind margin. 

Abdomen broadly sessile, slightly longer than head and thorax 
together, widest at apex of second segment, fourth and following 
segments but little exserted, together about as long as third 
segment ; first tergite with length greater than apical width, basal 
width two thirds of apical ; second tergite as long as first, nearly 
rectangular, sides straight, length greater than apical width, 
without depressions along basal border ; third tergite about three 
fourths length of second and nearly as broad ; remaining tergites 
very rapidly narrower, smooth and shining; first and second 
tergites coarsely, strongly, longitudinally, straight striate, third 
tergite more finely and thickly striate, the striae, running out at 
three fourths of length and succeeded by a rough shagreening; 
first and second tergites with a strong median carina, weaker 
on third tergite, and extending to three fourths of its length; 
second suture slightly curved, broadly, deeply impressed at 
middle, narrow and little impressed at side, subconnate. 

Stigma large, four times as long as wide, radius inserted at 
middle; first abscissa of radius about three fourths length of 
second; second cubital cell about one and two-thirds times as 
long as wide, slightly narrowed apically ; first transverse cubitus 
slightly oblique, second perpendicular ; recurrent vein inserted in 
first cubital cell a distance from apex slightly shorter than first 
abscissa of. radius, but as long as first transverse cubitus, inter- 
vening vein not swollen; parallel vein inserted at lower fifth 
and broadly curved before insertion; submedian cell exceeding 
median by much more than the length of the oblique, transverse 
median vein; radius in hind wings straight and very weak; 
nervellus curved and a little oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

A male from Baguio, Benguet, is slightly smaller than the 
female, but otherwise agrees very closely throughout. 

Subgenus Aleirhogas novum 

Synopsis of the species. 

a 1 . Vertex, caudad of ocelli, finely roughened, but never coarsely trans- 
versely striate; first transverse cubital vein slightly oblique or per- 
pendicular; small, pale species. 



412 The Philippine Journal of Science 19" 

b\ Notauli anteriorly very shallow and indistinct; first abdominal tergite 
as broad as long and little narrowed to base; submedian cell but 

little longer than median; ferruginous ferruginosus sp. nov. 

6 a . Notauli anteriorly deep and strong; first abdominal tergite longer 
than broad and more strongly narrowed to the base; submedian cell 
far longer than median; ferruginous, dorsum of abdomen piceous, 
except disk of second tergite and parts of disk of first and third 

tergites _ _ ~ xnontanus sp. nov. 

a*. Vertex, caudad of ocelli, coarsely transversely striate; first transverse 

cubital strongly oblique; larger, more deeply colored species. 

c\ Antennas much longer than entire body, flagellar joints about three 

times as long as wide; width between eyes less than length of head as 

seen from above; second abdominal suture completely connate, striae 

continuous across it; body largely ferruginous, legs concolorous; 

palpi stramineous. 

<f. Distance from ocelli to eyes nearly four times interocellar distance; 

notauli obsolete posteriorly, metanotal carina nearly complete; 

median carina on abdomen extending on to base of third tergite; 

abdomen concolorous exceptus sp. nov. 

d*. Distance from ocelli to eyes about twice interocellar distance; notauli 
distinct throughout; metanotal carina distinct only near base; 
median carina of abdomen extending on to base of fourth tergite; 

abdominal dorsum medially black _ oculatus sp. nov. 

c 2 . Antennas shorter than entire body; width between eyes greater than 
length of head as seen from above; second abdominal suture im- 
pressed and not completely connate, striaa not continuous across it; 
body more deeply ferruginous, abdomen partly or wholly black or 
piceous; legs dark; palpi piceous; metanotum sometimes black. 

schultzei sp. nov. 
Ehogas (Aleirhogas) ferruginosus sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous, the legs paler, antennae darker apically; 
costa basally ochraceous, stigma stramineous, its lower border 
and the veins dark smoky ; interocellar area piceous. 

Male, length, 4 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above with eyes small and little bulging, 
distance between them subequal to' length of head ; vertex strongly 
convex, its entire surface minutely, irregularly wrinkled and 
shagreened; length of vertex back of ocelli subequal to length 
of exposed cheek margin and to length of entire ocellar area; 
distance of ocelli from eyes one and a half times interocellar 
distance and nearly twice the short diameter of an ocellus ; pos- 
terior ocelli separated by a distance equaling long diameter of 
an ocellus, anterior ocellus slightly farther removed; occipital 
margin gently incurved. Face subquadrate, broader than long, 
finely transversely wrinkled, with a slight median elevation be- 
low antennas; mouth opening very small, subcircular; clypeus 
very narrow, basal suture arched and impressed; clypeal pits 
distant from eyes five times their diameter. Head viewed from 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 413 

side with face margin strongly projecting, especially at anten- 
na?, flat at middle ; disk of clypeus prominent ; cheeks very broad, 
upper width about one half upper eye diameter; malar space 
very large, its length two thirds length of eye and greater than 
lower width of cheek; eye rather small, subelliptical, narrower 
below. Maxillary palpi short, not reaching tegulse, third joint 
shorter than fourth, the latter not as long as fifth and sixth 
together; labial palpi very short, the joints thick. 

Antennas about as long as entire body, the scape very short 
and thick, narrowed to base, apical width nearly equaling length, 
funicle narrower than scape and two thirds its length, strongly 
narrowed apically; flagellar joints about as long as wide. 

Mesonotum with a mere indication of trilobing, surface quite 
evenly convex; notauli superficial and weak, converging to sepa- 
rated points on hind margin; surface minutely wrinkled and 
shagreened, median basal area slightly depressed and rugose. 
Scutellum bifoveate anteriorly, fovea? short and broad and sepa- 
rated by a high, sharp carina, each fovea within having several 
weak longitudinal rugae; posterior disk of scutellum with con- 
cave sides and very blunt apex, its surface shagreened. Metano- 
tum closely irregularly reticulate-rugose and with a strong and 
complete median carina; metapleura finely rugose throughout; 
spiracle small, circular, and with a straight, complete, longitu- 
dinal carina passing beneath it; mesopleura finely rugose or 
wrinkled, a large shining area below hind wings, and near lower 
margin of disk a broadly impressed, shallow, slightly oblique 
groove. 

Abdomen as long as head and thorax together, broadly sessile, 
with four fully exposed segments, second and third being broad 
and parallel-sided; first segment broad and thick at base and 
near insertion abruptly elevated in two short, oblique discal 
ridges, length a little less than apical width, entire basal width 
more than half of apical ; second tergite as long as first, subquad- 
rate, its length three fourths the apical width, narrowly depressed 
along basal border; third tergite as wide and three fourths 
length of second; fourth narrower and shorter than third, a 
narrow margin of fifth tergite visible; first three tergites and 
basal half of fourth finely, longitudinally, but irregularly striate, 
the stria? somewhat oblique on sides of second tergite, caudad; 
second suture narrowly impressed and crenulate, third normal; 
first and second tergites with a continuous median carina. 

Stigma short and thick, its length four times width, radius 
inserted at about the middle; first abscissa of radius two thirds 
length of second ; second cubital cell one and a third times as long 



414 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

as high, a little narrowed apically; first transverse cubitus very 
slightly oblique, second perpendicular, slightly decolored, cubitus 
becoming obsolete beyond second cubital cell ; recurrent vein join- 
ing cubitus a distance before second cubital cell equal to first 
abscissa of radius, intervening vein decolored; parallel vein in- 
serted at lower third ; submedian cell little longer than median ; 
radial vein in hind wings entirely decolored and subobsolete, 
but its rudiment somewhat curved toward costa at middle; ner- 
vellus oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleirhogas) montanus sp. no v. 

Pale ferruginous, metanotum darker ; antennas apically, in- 
terocellar area, and dorsum of abdomen (stronger laterally) 
piceous; palpi stramineous; legs ochraceous. Wings faintly 
smoky, veins and stigma pale piceous, the latter discally paler. 

Female: Length, 4 millimeters; ovipositor very short. 

Head viewed from above with eyes small and little bulging, 
distance between them subequal to length of head; vertex 
strongly convex, its entire surface minutely, irregularly, and 
transversely wrinkled and shagreened; length of vertex back 
of ocelli subequal to length of exposed cheek margin and more 
than length of entire ocellar area; distance of ocelli from eyes 
one and a half times interocellar distance and nearly twice the 
short diameter of an ocellus; posterior ocelli separated by a 
distance about equaling the long diameter of an ocellus, anterior 
ocellus farther removed ; occipital margin gently incurved. Face 
subquadrate, broader than long, very finely transversely wrin- 
kled, with a short, slightly elevated median carina just below 
antennas; mouth opening very small and narrow; clypeus short, 
transverse, apical and basal margins broadly incurved, subparal- 
lel; clypeal pits distant from eyes about five times their dia- 
meter. Head viewed from side with face prominent at antennae, 
broadly rounded below to the prominent clypeus; cheeks very 
broad, much broader below than above, upper width about one 
half upper eye width; malar space very large, its length two 
thirds length of eye and greater than lower width of cheek; 
eye rather small, subelliptical, slightly narrower below. Maxil- 
lary palpi scarcely reaching tegulee, third joint shorter than 
fourth, the latter not as long as fifth and sixth together; labial 
palpi very short, joints thick. 

Antennas longer than entire body, scape short and thick, but 
little narrowed to base, apical width three fourths of length, 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 415 

funicle narrower than scape and about half its length, little 
narrowed apically ; flagellar joints about twice as long as wide. 

Mesonotum with a mere indication of trilobing, notauli large 
and strongly impressed as far as posterior median area, converg- 
ing to separated points on hind margin, bounding a rather nar- 
row depressed basal area, this area rugose and with an unusually 
long, slender, crenulated median furrow ; remainder of metanotal 
surface and scutellar disk very minutely wrinkled and sha- 
greened. Scutellum bifoveate anteriorly, foveas short and broad 
and separated by a sharp carina, each fovea within having 
several weak longitudinal rugae. Metanotum closely and ir- 
regularly reticulate-rugose and with a strong and nearly com- 
plete median carina ; metapleura rugose throughout, more coarse- 
ly so in posterior half; spiracle small, circular, and with a com- 
plete, sinuate, longitudinal carina, passing beneath it; meso- 
pleura in large part finely, thickly rugose, more coarsely so 
below wings; on lower half with a very broad, irregular, shal- 
lowly impressed, rugose depression, and at middle of posterior 
submargin a short, sharply impressed, vertical crease. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, with four fully exposed segments, second and third 
broader and becoming very gradually broader caudad; first 
segment broad and thick at base and near insertion abruptly 
elevated in two short, sharp, oblique, dorsal ridges, length a 
little greater than apical width, entire basal width more than 
half of apical ; second tergite slightly shorter than first, subquad- 
rate, its length three fourths the apical width, not depressed 
along basal border ; third tergite three fourths as long as second 
and becoming slightly wider; fourth narrower and shorter than 
third; a narrow, strongly rounded margin of fifth tergite 
visible from above ; first two tergites and basal two thirds of 
third, finely, longitudinally, but irregularly, striate, the strise 
somewhat oblique on sides of second tergite caudad ; apical third 
of third tergite and all of fourth shagreened; second suture 
narrowly impressed and crenulate, third normal ; first and second 
tergites and basal two thirds of third tergite with a median 
carina. 

Stigma long, its length five times the width; radius inserted 
at two fifths of the length from base; first abscissa of radius 
one half length of second; second cubital cell one and one-third 
times as long as wide, a little narrower apically ; first and second 
transverse cubiti nearly perpendicular and decolored ; cubitus 
paler beyond second cubital cell, recurrent vein joining cubitus a 



416 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

distance before second cubital cell equal to first abscissa of radius, 
intervening vein decolored; parallel vein strongly curved and 
inserted at lower third ; submedian cell far longer than median ; 
radial vein in hind wing obsolete ; nervellus but little oblique. 
Luzon, Benguet, Baguio (coll. Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleirhogas) exceptus sp. nov. 

Pale ferruginous throughout, legs a little paler, antennae darker 
apically; interocellar area black; palpi stramineous. Wings 
very faintly smoky, stigma and veins stramineous. 

Female: Length, 5 millimeters; ovipositor very short, but 
slightly exceeding apex of abdomen. 

Head viewed from above rather narrow and long, with eyes 
small and strongly bulging, the distance between them a little 
less than length of head; vertex strongly convex, its entire 
surface strongly sculptured, back of ocelli very strongly trans- 
versely striate, at ocelli the striae curving forward between 
ocelli and eyes; vertex very strongly narrowed back of eyes, 
length back of ocelli greater than exposed cheek margin 
and twice the length of entire ocellar area; ocelli small, ocellar 
area greatly contracted ; distance from ocelli to eyes nearly four 
times interocellar distance and about three times the long 
diameter of an ocellus ; posterior ocelli separated by a distance 
less than the long diameter of an ocellus, anterior ocellus not 
farther removed; occipital margin short and straight. Face 
subsexangular, appearing strongly produced below, owing to the 
very short eyes, longer than broad between eyes, subtransversely 
rugose above, smooth below, and on clypeus, with a distinct 
median carina in basal half; mouth opening very small and 
narrow; clypeus small, narrow arid long, basal suture highly 
arched, apical margin strongly incurved; clypeal pits distant 
from eyes about five times their diameter. Eyes not at all 
emarginate opposite antennae. Mandibles outwardly strongly 
sculptured. Head viewed from side with face a little prominent, 
its margin scarcely curved, clypeus very prominent ; cheeks very 
broad, far broader below than above, upper width about one 
half eye width; malar space of great size, its length greater 
than entire eye length and far greater than lower width of 
cheek ; eye small, very short and regularly subelliptical. Maxil- 
lary palpi reaching tegulae, third joint slightly the longest, 
third and fifth subequal, sixth a little shorter; labial palpi very 
short, the joints thickened. 

Antennae considerably longer than entire body, scape short 
and thick, strongly narrowed to base, apical width three fourths 



xn.D,6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 417 

of length, funicle narrower than scape and a little more than 
half its length, strongly narrowed apically; flagellar joints about 
three times as long as wide. 

Pronotum strongly extended, as long as head to anterior 
ocellus, and strongly sculptured. Mesonotum with a mere in- 
dication of trilobing, notauli very superficial and almost obsolete, 
completely so on posterior half; entire surface thickly and 
coarsely, but shallowly, reticulate-rugose, more strongly so on 
the broadly flattened posterior median area. Scutellum sex- 
foveate anteriorly, separating caringe low and in part irregular 
and outer f ovese strongly oblique ; disk of scutellum very broadly 
bifoveate. Metanotum closely, irregularly reticulate-rugose and 
with a strong and nearly complete median carina; metapleura 
rugose throughout, more coarsely so on posterior half; spiracle 
small, circular, and with a complete longitudinal carina passing 
beneath it; mesopleura in large part thickly rugose, more 
coarsely so below wings and along a median longitudinal line 
that scarcely represents a discal furrow, and at middle of pos- 
terior submargin a short, sharply impressed, vertical crease. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, with four fully exposed segments, the third broadest, 
first segment with basal ridges not high, its length subequal 
to basal width, entire basal width more than half of apical; 
second tergite slightly longer than first, widening apically, sides 
straight, its length subequal to apical width, not depressed 
along basal border; third tergite about three fourths as long as 
second, subrectangular, length somewhat greater than half width ; 
fourth narrower and shorter than third, and with a subtrun- 
cate apical border; a very narrow, strongly rounded margin of 
fifth tergite visible from above; first to fourth tergites, except 
narrow hind borders of two latter, entirely, coarsely, irregularly, 
longitudinally striate, the strise somewhat laterally oblique on 
apical half of second tergite and on all of third tergite; strise 
on fourth tergite shallower ; second suture very little impressed, 
not crenulate but with strise continuous across it; third suture 
normal: first, second, and basal half of third tergite with a 
median carina. 

Stigma broad, its length about four times the width, radius 
inserted near the middle; first abscissa of radius four fifths 
length of second, second cubital cell small, one and a half times 
as long as wide, slightly narrowed apically ; first transverse cubi- 
tus oblique, second perpendicular and decolored; cubitus paler 
beyond second cubital cell; recurrent vein joining cubital vein 
a distance before second cubital cell nearly equal to first abscissa 

150932 6 



418 The Philippine Journal of Science 1917 

of radius, intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein not strongly 
curved and inserted at lower fourth; submedian cell far longer 
than median, transverse median a little oblique; radial vein 
in hind wings decolored, nervellus oblique. 
Mindanao, Butuan (Baker). 

Rhogas (Aleirhogas) oculatus sp. nov. 

Ochraceous, entire flagellum darker, palpi stramineous, inter- 
ocellar area black and with a broad, irregular, longitudinal, me- 
dian black stripe on dorsum of abdomen. Wings faintly smoky 
toward base, stigma sordid stramineous, veins pale brownish. 

Male, length, 4.5 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above rather narrow and long, eyes small 
and strongly bulging, the distance between them distinctly less 
than length of head; vertex convex, its entire surface strongly 
sculptured, back of ocelli very strongly transversely striate, at 
ocelli the striae curve forward between ocelli and eyes; vertex 
very strongly narrowed back of eyes, length back of ocelli 
greater than exposed cheek margin and twice length of entire 
ocellar area; ocelli very small and ocellar area contracted; dis- 
tance from ocelli to eyes about twice interocellar distance and 
about two and one-half times long diameter of an ocellus ; pos- 
terior ocelli separated by a distance subequal to long diameter 
of an ocellus, anterior ocellus scarcely farther removed ; occipital 
margin somewhat longer than in R. exceptus and distinctly 
incurved. 

Face to mouth about as long as broad between eyes, rugose, 
smoother above and including clypeus, with a distinct median 
carina on basal half; mouth opening very small and narrow; 
clypeus small, narrow, and long,, as long as broad; basal suture 
highly arched, apical margin strongly incurved; clypeal pits 
distant from eyes about five times their diameter. Eyes not at 
all emarginate opposite antennae. Mandible outwardly smooth. 
Head viewed from side with face little prominent, its mar-' 
gin scarcely curved, clypeus very prominent; cheeks very 
broad, far broader below than above, upper width about one- 
half eye width; malar space of great size, its length subequal 
to eye length and much greater than lower width of cheek; 
eye small, very short and regularly subelliptical, almost subcir- 
cular, maxillary palpi reaching tegulae, third and fourth joints 
subequal, fifth and sixth successively shorter ; labial palpi slender. 

Antennae considerably longer than entire body; scape short 
and thick, strongly narrowed to base, apical width three fourths 
of length, funicle narrower than scape and a little more than 



xii. d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 419 

half its length, strongly narrowed apically; flagellar joints about 
three times as long as wide. 

Pronotum strongly extended, as long as head to anterior ocellus, 
and strongly sculptured. Mesonotum rather distinctly trilobed, 
notauli distinct throughout but superficial and not crenulate, 
converging posteriorly to separated points on hind margin ; sur- 
face thickly and coarsely reticulate-rugose, posterior median 
area but slightly depressed and with sculpturing slightly coarser. 
Scutellum sexfoveate anteriorly, separating carina? low and in 
part irregular, and outer f ovese strongly oblique ; disk of scutel- 
lum coarsely shagreened. Postscutellum very broadly bifoveate. 
Metanotum coarsely, closely, and irregularly reticulate-rugose 
and with a median carina only on basal third ; metapleura rugose 
throughout, more coarsely so posteriorly ; spiracle small, circular ; 
mesopleura coarsely rugose, more coarsely so anteriorly and 
beneath wing, and on a short oblique discal area, which is 
slightly impressed. 

Abdomen about as long as head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, with four fully exposed and sculptured tergites, fifth 
partly exposed, third broadest; first segment with basal ridges 
not high, its length greater than apical width, entire basal 
width slightly more than two thirds of apical; second tergite 
slightly shorter than first, little widening apically, sides sinuate 
behind, its length subequal to apical width, not depressed along 
basal border; third tergite about three fourths as long as 
second, subrectangular, length about two thirds of width ; fourth 
narrower and little shorter than third, and with a truncate 
apical border; fifth considerably exposed, about half width of 
third and half as long ; first to fourth tergites, except narrow hind 
borders of two last entirely, coarsely, irregularly, longitudinally 
striate, striae on fourth tergite shallower; second suture very 
little impressed, not crenulate but with striae continuous across 
it; third suture normal; first, second, and third tergites and 
base of fourth tergite with a median carina. 

Stigma broad, its length about four times its width, radius 
inserted near middle; first abscissa of radius two thirds length 
of second; second cubital cell small, nearly twice as long as 
wide, rather strongly narrowed apically ; first transverse cubitus 
oblique, second perpendicular and decolored ; cubitus a little pale 
beyond second cubital cell; recurrent vein joining cubitus a 
distance before second cubital cell nearly equal to length of 
first transverse cubitus and of first abscissa of radius, interven- 
ing vein decolored ; parallel vein rather strongly curved before in- 
sertion, at lower fourth ; submedian cell far longer than median, 



420 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

transverse median a little oblique; radial vein in hind wings 
decolored, nervellus oblique. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Banahao (Baker). 

This species closely resembles R. exceptus in many respects, 
and might be supposed to be the male of that species, were 
it not for the numerous differences that are clearly specific. 

Ehogas (Aleirhogas) schultzei sp. no v. 

Bright ferruginous ; legs, except at base, and antennae piceous ; 
interocellar area and palpi piceous; abdominal dorsum piceous 
to black beyond second segment. Wings slightly smoky, stigma 
and veins pale brown. 

Male, length, 6 millimeters. 

Head viewed from above broadly transverse, with eyes small 
and bulging, distance between them greater than length of head ; 
vertex convex, its entire surface strongly sculptured, back of 
ocelli shallowly, but coarsely, transversely striate, the striae not 
curving forward between ocelli to eyes; vertex strongly nar- 
rowed back of eyes, but occipital carina long and gently in- 
curved; length of vertex back of ocelli a little less than length 
of exposed cheek margin and subequal to length of entire 
ocellar area; ocelli of medium size, ocellar area large; distance 
from ocelli to eyes about twice interocellar distance and about 
three times long diameter of an ocellus ; posterior ocelli separated 
by a distance greater than the long diameter of an ocellus, 
anterior ocellus not farther removed. 

Face to mouth wider than long, subquadrate, evenly rugose 
throughout, clypeus minutely roughened; a short median carina 
just below antennas; mouth opening small and narrow; clypeus 
small and narrow, but broader than long, basal and apical 
margins strongly curved and subparallel; clypeal pits distant 
from eyes about eight times their diameter. Eyes very slightly 
emarginate opposite antennae. Mandibles outwardly strongly 
sculptured. Head viewed from side with rather prominent upper 
carinated portion and clypeus ; cheeks very broad, broader below 
than above, upper width about equaling eye width; malar 
space of great size, its length subequal to eye length and greater 
than lower width of cheek; eye small, elliptical. Maxillary 
palpi short, stout, not reaching teguke, fourth joint equaling 
fifth and sixth together, third shorter. Labial palpi very short, 
basal joints stout. 

Antennas shorter than entire body, scape short, evenly nar- 
rowed to base, length nearly twice the apical width, funicle 
much narrower and one half length of scape, strongly narrowed 



xii, d, 6 Baker: Philippine Ichneumonoid Parasites, II 421 

apically; length of flagellar joints about one and a half times 
the width. 

Pronotum broad and as long as head to fore margin of pos- 
terior ocelli, minutely roughened. Mesonotum not distinctly 
trilobed, notauli distinct throughout, but superficial, and cren- 
ulate only anteriorly, converging posteriorly to separated points 
on hind margin ; surface finely rugose and shagreened, posterior 
median area slightly depressed and coarsely rugose. Scutellum 
sexf oveate anteriorly, separating carinas low, outer foveas oblique, 
but not strongly so; disk of scutellum subobsoletely rugose and 
shagreened. Postscutellum very broadly bifoveate. Metanotum 
very coarsely, thickly, irregularly rugose and with a complete 
median carina; metapleura rugose throughout; spiracle sub- 
circular ; mesopleura very irregularly and coarsely rugose, with a 
small smoothish shagreened area near center and a short vertical 
crease near middle of hind margin. 

Abdomen a little longer than head and thorax together, broadly 
sessile, with seven fully exposed tergites, first four sculptured 
wholly or in part ; third tergite broadest ; length of first tergite 
subequal to apical width, entire basal width about two thirds 
of apical; second tergite slightly shorter than first, slightly 
widening apically, sides straight, its length somewhat less than 
apical width, not depressed along basal border; third tergite 
about three fourths as long as second, subrectangular, length 
little more than half width ; remaining tergites rapidly narrower 
and shorter to sixth, which is very short, seventh as long as 
fifth, subtriangular in outline, point bluntly rounded, surface 
smooth and shining; first and second tergites coarsely, irreg- 
ularly, longitudinally striate, third and fourth minutely rugose 
and shagreened basally to nearly smooth apically, fifth and sixth 
finely shagreened; second suture narrowly, deeply, sharply im- 
pressed, subcrenulate, and slightly curved caudad; remaining 
sutures normal ; first and second tergites and basal half of third 
tergite with a strongly raised median carina. 

Stigma broad, its length about four times its width, radius 
inserted near the middle; first abscissa of radius three fourths 
length of second; second cubital cell small, length one and one- 
third times width, scarcely narrowed apically; first transverse 
cubitus very slightly oblique, second perpendicular, curved, and 
decolored ; cubitus a little pale beyond second cubital cell ; recur- 
rent vein joining cubitus a distance before second cubital cell 
nearly equal to length of first transverse cubitus and of first ab- 
scissa of radius, intervening vein decolored ; parallel vein rather 
strongly curved before insertion, at lower fourth; submedian 



422 The Philippine Journal of Science 

cell far longer than median, transverse median a little oblique; 
radial vein in hind wing subobsolete, nervellus but little oblique 
and somewhat curved. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

The female of this species agrees with the male in nonsexual 
structural characters, but is differently colored, the stigma and 
veins being dark brown, and the entire abdominal dorsum black. 
Four tergites are fully exposed as viewed from above and a 
narrow portion of fifth is also visible. The median carina on 
third tergite extends somewhat farther caudad. The hypopy- 
gium is piceous, shallow, rather short, and acute. The ovi- 
positor but slightly surpasses apex of abdomen. 

Length, 6.5 millimeters. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Another female specimen from Baguio, Benguet, has all of 
the coloring deeper, and the metanotum is entirely black, but 
there is no specific difference in structural characters. 

Named for Mr. W. Schultze, formerly assistant entomologist 
in the Philippine Bureau of Science, now an active, independent 
entomologist, residing in Manila. 



REVIEW 

The Pre-Spanish Philippines | A suggestive scrap-book | for students | Manila : 

MCM . XIV | [By Austin Craig]. 16 pp., 8vo. 
Particulars of the Philippines' | Pre-Spanish Past | (Austin Craig) | [etc: 16 

lines] | Manila, MCM . XVI | (2), 29 pp., one plate, 8vo. (Press of E. 

C. McCullough & Co. Inc., Manila, P. I.) 
The Malays | A study into the origin of | the foremost factor in the | 

peopling of the Philippines | [etc.: 19 lines] | Manila, MCM . XVI j 

16 pp., 8vo. (Press of E. C. McCullough & Co., Inc., Manila, P. I.) 

These interesting source pamphlets, complied by the ingenious 
professor of history in the University of the Philippines, who 
is also a member of the Philippine Academy, form part of an 
attempt to penetrate the mystery that shrouds the origin of the 
present inhabitants of the Philippines and their cultural sources. 
Together with the contributions of Dr. N. M. Saleeby, also of 
the same Academy, on the history and culture of the Moros of 
the southern Philippines, they afford a valuable nucleus of 
material with which to enter upon the survey of this inviting, 
but hitherto neglected, field. 

Professor Craig's pamphlet on Malays is largely extracted 
from General Forlong's Short Studies in the Science of Com- 
parative Religions, which deals with the origin of the Malay 
race and its primitive religious ideas. Like Saleeby, Forlong 
believes that the Malays originated on the Asiatic mainland, 
entering the East Indies from the north and long remaining 
under the influence of Indian civilization. This theory finds 
philological evidence in its favor, and in addition to that men- 
tioned by Forlong, another item might be cited from Philippine 
languages. Thus in the Tagalog there are not a few Sanscrit 
words, 1 and the term Malay itself, instead of being derived, as 
Forlong seems to think, from the Indian mala (hill) , may be more 
probably connected with the Tagalog malayo (far) with its 
allusion to the long wandering of the race which Forlong 
emphasizes. 2 

They have thronged East Africa above 1000 years, and have even a 
colony at the Cape of Good Hope. They traded everywhere throughout 
Madagascar — their Malagasa,* and the Mala-dvipas or Maldives. They colo- 

1 See Pardo de Tavera, El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog. Paris (1887). 
' Malays, 2. 

* The similarity between Tagalog and Malagasay has been noted by 
Philippine writers. 

423 



424 The Philippine Journal of Science 19 w 

nized 500 miles of the West Coast of India, still known as Mala-bar; the 
great islands of Sumatra and adjoining mainland known as the Malaka 
Peninsula, extending over some 700 miles; all the large island kingdoms 
of Java, Celebes and their dependencies and the extensive eponymous 
Molucca group. 

The less familiar, but in its results more important, migration 
of the Malays northward is developed by Professor Craig in his 
two other pamphlets, especially the first. 4 The strong Malay 
influence in Formosa is noted, and what' is more interesting, the 
extension of the Malayan wave to Japan. To quote one of the 
sources: 5 

The Japanese people are a mixture of several distinct stocks. Negrito, 
Mongolian, Palasiatic and Caucasian features more or less blended, some- 
times nearly isolated, are met with everywhere. The Negrito is. the least 
prevalent. Prof. Baelz, who has drawn attention to this type along with 
the Malayan physiognomy, found it comparatively more pronounced in 
Kyushu (island of which Nagasaki is the port), where a Malayan immi- 
gration is believed to have taken place. 

Apparently this author confuses Negrito with Malay, but 
any one familiar with certain racial types in southern Japan 
and their resemblance to Filipinos may well believe that a "Ma- 
layan immigration" reached there. But it seems not to have 
stopped even in Japan. To quote further: 

Oppert was the first to note that in Korea are two types of faces, the 
cne distinctly Mongolian, and the other lacking many of the Mongolian 
features and tending rather to the Malay type. 6 

Following the Malay migration the same author